Women Studies Women Public Policy and The Law Question For this journal entry, answer the following question: What is one significant idea about women, pu

Women Studies Women Public Policy and The Law Question For this journal entry, answer the following question:

What is one significant idea about women, public policy, and the law that you will take from this course? Why?

You only have to answer this question in 100-200 words.

This should be a reflective short essay, not just a simple listing of points. You will be graded on the coherence and cohesiveness of your answer as well writing mechanics.

**No plagiarism

**use the power point provided WMNST 370 Women, Law and Policy

What is poverty?

Who are the working poor?

Why study poverty as a gendered/women’s
issue?

Poverty Line/Poverty Threshold

Working Poor

Minimum Wage/Living Wage

Feminization of Poverty

Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity
Reconciliation Act of 1996 (welfare reform)

Average Rent
(monthly)




Studio: $1,413
1 BR: $1,564
2 BR: $2,030
3 BR $2,923

Expenses (w/o rent)
◦ 4-person family:
$3,468.81
◦ Single Person:
$969.08
Sources: Smart Asset and Numbeo

4-person family = $76,702/year

Single Person = $30,397/year

According to the Economic Policy Institute, it
costs $97,547/year to support a family of
four (2 adults, 2 children) in 2017.
Sources: Smart Asset, Numbeo, and
Economic Policy Institute
Data Source: U.S. Dept. of
Health and Human Services


Three times the cost of
minimum food diet in
1963.
Adjusted each year for
inflation.







Official Poverty Measure
Expenditures for family
with two children on:
food
clothing
shelter
utilities
Geographical differences
and residence type taken
into consideration
Multiplied by 1.2
Supplemental Poverty
Measure
2018


11.8% of the U.S.
population lived at
or below the
poverty line.
2012

The poverty rate
was 15.9%.

48.8 million people
38.1 million people
Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Women are more likely to live in poverty than men .
Total Population
11.8%
Gender
Women
12.9%
Men
10.6%
Household Type
Female-headed Households
(no spouse)
24.9%
Male-headed Households
(no spouse)
12.7%
Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2018
African Americans and Latinx Americans have higher
percentages of people experiencing poverty than
their white counterparts.
Total Population
11.8%
Race
African Americans
20.8%
Latinx Americans
17.6%
Asian Americans
10.1%
White Americans
8.1%
Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2018

16.2% of children in the US lived in poverty
in 2018.
◦ This is 11.9 million children.

39.1% of poor children lived in families
headed by women.

The poverty rate for people with disabilities
is 25.7%
Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau

Working Poor

In 2018, 5.1 percent of workers aged 18 to
64 were in poverty.
◦ Are people who worked at least 27 weeks/year and
whose incomes fell below the poverty line.
◦ Full-time workers in poverty – 2.3%
◦ Part-time workers in poverty – 12.7%
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

Why study poverty as a gendered/women’s
issue?


Defined as the concentration of
women in poverty, especially femaleheaded households.
Women are more likely than men to
be poor.
Possible causes?

Economic restructuring:





reduction in manufacturing jobs
increase in part-time jobs with no benefits
outsourcing jobs
increase in jobs in service industry
Gender Issues:


unique employment experiences for women
(e.g. sex segregation in labor market,
childcare costs)
Medicare
Medicaid
Social Security
Head Start
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance
Program (SNAP)
Women, Infants and Children (WIC)
Temporary Assistance to Needy
Families (TANF)

1900-1920: Mothers’ Pensions

1935: The New Deal (Pres. F.D. Roosevelt) created
the welfare state as we know it, such as:
◦ Social Security Act (senior citizens, disabled, Aid to
Dependent Children (ADC))
◦ Fair Labor Standards Act 1938 (minimum wage/40-hour
week)
◦ National Labor Relations Act
◦ Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
◦ Works Progress Administration (WPA)
◦ Civil Works Administration (CWA)
◦ Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

1960s: War on Poverty (Pres. Lyndon B.
Johnson):
◦ Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC)
(was previously ADC)
◦ Medicaid (poor families)
◦ Medicare (elderly)
◦ Head Start
◦ Job Corps
There was a strong welfare rights movement during
the 1960s.

1996: Personal Responsibility and Work
Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996
(welfare reform):
◦ Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)
(replaced AFDC)
 included work requirements, family cap policy,
marriage promotion, abstinence-only programs,
among other things.

The Federal Government?

State Governments?

Charities, Churches and other Non-Profit
Groups?

Individuals should take care of themselves,
families, friends and neighbors?

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