Wk 2 Suppose you are trying to collect data for a research project by conducting an online survey. Based on the discussions presented in Chapter 5 of the Z

Wk 2 Suppose you are trying to collect data for a research project by conducting an online survey. Based on the discussions presented in Chapter 5 of the Zikmund textbook:

●      Assess what information you will provide to your target audience in order to address some of the ethical issues in data collection. BUSINESS
RESEARCH
METHODS

N I N T H E D I T I O N

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BUSINESS
RESEARCH
METHODS

Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States

William G. Zikmund

Barry J. Babin
Max P. Watson Professor of Business

Louisiana Tech University
Head, Department of Marketing & Analysis

Jon C. Carr
M.J. Neeley School of Business

Texas Christian University
Department of Management, Entrepreneurship, & Leadership

Mitch Griffin
Professor of Marketing

Bradley University

N I N T H E D I T I O N

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Business Research Methods, Ninth Edition
William G. Zikmund
Barry J. Babin
Jon C. Carr
Mitch Griffin

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W. Calhoun

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To our families.

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vi

Preface, xviii

PART ONE Introduction, 1
1 The Role of Business Research, 2
2 Information Systems and Knowledge Management, 17
3 Theory Building, 37
4 The Business Research Process: An Overview, 48
5 The Human Side of Business Research: Organizational and Ethical Issues, 73

PART TWO Beginning Stages of the Research Process, 105
6 Problem Definition: The Foundation of Business Research, 106
7 Qualitative Research Tools, 131
8 Secondary Data Research in a Digital Age, 159

PART THREE Research Methods for Collecting Primary Data, 183
9 Survey Research: An Overview, 184
10 Survey Research: Communicating with Respondents, 205
11 Observation Methods, 235
12 Experimental Research, 253

PART FOUR Measurement Concepts, 287
13 Measurement and Scaling Concepts, 288
14 Attitude Measurement, 310
15 Questionnaire Design, 333

PART FIVE Sampling and Fieldwork, 383
16 Sampling Designs and Sampling Procedures, 384
17 Determination of Sample Size: A Review of Statistical Theory, 409
18 Fieldwork, 441

PART SIX Data Analysis and Presentation, 457
19 Editing and Coding: Transforming Raw Data into Information, 458
20 Basic Data Analysis: Descriptive Statistics, 483
21 Univariate Statistical Analysis, 506
22 Bivariate Statistical Analysis: Differences Between Two Variables, 528
23 Bivariate Statistical Analysis: Measures of Association, 560
24 Multivariate Statistical Analysis, 582
25 Communicating Research Results: Report Generation, Oral Presentation,

and Follow-Up, 610

PART SEVEN Comprehensive Cases with Computerized
Databases, 635

Glossary of Frequently Used Symbols, 645
Glossary, 646
Endnotes, 659
Index, 666

BRIEF CONTENTS

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vii

CONTENTS

Preface, xviii

PART ONE
Introduction

CHAPTER 1
The Role of Business Research, 2
Introduction, 3

Survey This!, 4

The Nature of Business Research, 4
Business Research Defined, 5
Applied and Basic Business Research, 5
The Scientific Method, 6

Managerial Value of Business Research, 7
Identifying Problems or Opportunities, 8
Diagnosing and Assessing Problems or Opportunities, 8
Selecting and Implementing a Course of Action, 8
Evaluating the Course of Action, 9

Research Snapshot Harley-Davidson Goes Abroad, 10

When Is Business Research Needed?, 10
Time Constraints, 10
Availability of Data, 10

Research Snapshot Business Class Success?, 11
Nature of the Decision, 11
Benefits versus Costs, 11

Business Research in the Twenty-First Century, 12
Communication Technologies, 12

Research Snapshot “Jacques” Daniels, 13
Global Business Research, 13

Overview, 14

Summary, 15
Key Terms and Concepts, 16

Questions for Review and Critical Thinking, 16
Research Activities, 16

CHAPTER 2
Information Systems and
Knowledge Management, 17
Introduction, 18

Information, Data, and Intelligence, 18

The Characteristics of Valuable Information, 19
Relevance, 19

Survey This!, 20
Quality, 20
Timeliness, 20
Completeness, 20

Research Snapshot RFID Technology Gets
Cheaper—Business Knowledge Grows, 21

Knowledge Management, 21

Research Snapshot Are Businesses Clairvoyant?, 22

Global Information Systems, 22

Decision Support Systems, 23
Databases and Data Warehousing, 24
Input Management, 24

Research Snapshot Staying Home at Home Depot, 26
Computerized Data Archives, 27
Networks and Electronic Data Interchange, 29

The Internet and Research, 29
What Exactly Is the Internet?, 29
How Is the Internet Useful in Research?, 30
Navigating the Internet, 31
Interactive Media and Environmental Scanning, 31
Information Technology, 32

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Intranets, 33
Internet2, 33

Summary, 34
Key Terms and Concepts, 35
Questions for Review and Critical Thinking, 35
Research Activities, 35

CASE 2.1 Harvard Cooperative Society, 36

CHAPTER 3
Theory Building, 37
Introduction, 38

What Is a Theory?, 38
What Are the Goals of Theory?, 38

Survey This!, 39

Research Concepts, Constructs, Propositions,
Variables, and Hypotheses, 39

Research Concepts and Constructs, 39

Research Snapshot Social Network Theory, 40
Research Propositions and Hypotheses, 41

Understanding Theory, 42
Verifying Theory, 43
Theory Building, 43

The Scientific Method, 44

Practical Value of Theories, 46

Summary, 46
Key Terms and Concepts, 47
Questions for Review and Critical Thinking, 47
Research Activities, 47

CHAPTER 4
The Business Research
Process: An Overview, 48
Introduction, 49

Decision Making, 49
Certainty, 49

Survey This!, 50
Uncertainty, 50
Ambiguity, 50

Types of Business Research, 51

Research Snapshot Cute, Funny, or Sexy? What Makes
a Mascot Tick?, 52

Exploratory Research, 52
Descriptive Research, 53

Research Snapshot Taking a Swing at Business
Success, 54

Causal Research, 54
Uncertainty Influences the Type of Research, 58

Stages in the Research Process, 59
Alternatives in the Research Process, 60
Defining the Research Objectives, 60
Planning the Research Design, 64

Research Snapshot Rolling Rock, 66
Sampling, 66
Gathering Data, 67
Processing and Analyzing Data, 68
Drawing Conclusions and Preparing a Report, 68

The Research Program Strategy, 68

Summary, 69
Key Terms and Concepts, 70
Questions for Review and Critical Thinking, 70
Research Activities, 71

CASE 4.1 A New “Joe” on the Block, 71

CHAPTER 5
The Human Side of Business
Research: Organizational
and Ethical Issues, 73
Introduction, 74

Survey This!, 76

Organizational Structure of Business Research, 76
Business Research Jobs, 77
The Director of Research as a Manager, 79
Sources of Conflict between Senior Management

and Research, 79

Research Snapshot The True Power of Research, 80

Research Snapshot When Your Brain “Trips Up,” 81
Reducing the Conflict between Management

and Researchers, 82
Cross-Functional Teams, 84

Research Suppliers and Contractors, 85
Syndicated Service, 85
Standardized Research Services, 85

Research Snapshot Finding Häagen-Dazs in China, 86
Limited Research Service Companies and

Custom Research, 86
Largest Research Organizations, 86

Ethical Issues in Business Research, 87
Ethical Questions Are Philosophical Questions, 88
General Rights and Obligations of Concerned Parties, 88
Rights and Obligations of the Research Participant, 89

Research Snapshot Crazy Good! Have Fun, Play Games
(and Buy Pop-Tarts)!, 92

Rights and Obligations of the Researcher, 93

Research Snapshot Is It Right, or Is It Wrong?, 95
Rights and Obligations of the Client Sponsor (User), 99
Privacy, 100
Privacy on the Internet, 100
A Final Note on Ethics, 100

Summary, 101
Key Terms and Concepts, 102
Questions for Review and Critical Thinking, 102
Research Activities, 103

CASE 5.1 Global Eating, 103
CASE 5.2 Big Brother Is Watching?, 104

viii Contents

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PART TWO
Beginning Stages of the Research
Process

CHAPTER 6
Problem Definition:
The Foundation of Business
Research, 106
Introduction, 107

Importance of Starting with a Good Problem
Definition, 107

Survey This!, 108
Problem Complexity, 108

Research Snapshot Good Answers, Bad Questions?, 109

The Problem-Definition Process, 111
Problems Mean Gaps, 111
The Problem-Definition Process Steps, 111

Research Snapshot Poor Questions Result in Poor
Research in Japan!, 112

Understand the Business Decision, 112

Research Snapshot Opportunity Is a “Fleeting”
Thing, 115

Identifying the Relevant Issues from the Symptoms, 116
Writing Managerial Decision Statements and

Corresponding Research Objectives, 116
Determine the Unit of Analysis, 118
Determine Relevant Variables, 118
Write Research Objectives and Questions, 120

Research Snapshot Pricing Turbulence, 121

Clarity in Research Questions and Hypotheses, 121

How Much Time Should Be Spent on Problem
Definition?, 123

The Research Proposal, 123
The Proposal As a Planning Tool, 123
The Proposal as a Contract, 125
Anticipating Outcomes, 126

Summary, 128
Key Terms and Concepts, 128
Questions for Review and Critical Thinking, 129
Research Activities, 129

CASE 6.1 E-ZPass, 130
CASE 6.2 Cane’s Goes International, 130
CASE 6.3 Deland Trucking, 130

CHAPTER 7
Qualitative Research Tools, 131
Introduction, 132

What Is Qualitative Research?, 132
Uses of Qualitative Research, 132

Survey This!, 133

Qualitative “versus” Quantitative Research, 133

Research Snapshot Discoveries at P&G!, 134
Contrasting Qualitative and Quantitative Methods, 134
Contrasting Exploratory and Confirmatory Research, 135

Orientations to Qualitative Research, 136
Phenomenology, 136

Research Snapshot “When Will I Ever Learn?,” 137
Ethnography, 138
Grounded Theory, 139
Case Studies, 139

Research Snapshot A Sensory Safari Provides Play Time
(and Good Research) for Time Warner Cable, 140

Common Techniques Used in Qualitative
Research, 140

What Is a Focus Group Interview?, 141
Depth Interviews, 149
Conversations, 150
Free-Association/Sentence Completion Method, 151
Observation, 152
Collages, 152
Projective Research Techniques, 152

Exploratory Research in Science and in Practice, 153
Misuses of Exploratory and Qualitative Research, 153

Summary, 155
Key Terms and Concepts, 156
Questions for Review and Critical Thinking, 157
Research Activities, 157

CASE 7.1 Disaster and Consumer Value, 157
CASE 7.2 Edward Jones, 158

CHAPTER 8
Secondary Data Research
in a Digital Age, 159
Introduction, 160

Advantages of Secondary Data, 160
Disadvantages of Secondary Data, 160

Survey This!, 161

Typical Objectives for Secondary Data Research
Designs, 162

Fact-Finding, 162

Research Snapshot Does It Matter?, 165
Model Building, 165
Data Mining, 168

Research Snapshot Mining Data from Blogs, 169
Database Marketing and Customer Relationship

Management, 170

Sources of Secondary Data, 170
Sources of Internal and Proprietary Data, 171
External Data: The Distribution System, 171
Information As a Product and Its Distribution Channels, 171

Research Snapshot What’s That Buzzing Sound?, 175

Single-Source Data-Integrated Information, 177

Sources for Global Research, 177

Contents ix

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Research Snapshot Around the World of Data, 178

Summary, 180
Key Terms and Concepts, 180
Questions for Review and Critical Thinking, 181
Research Activities, 181

CASE 8.1 Demand for Gas Guzzlers, 182

PART THREE
Research Methods for Collecting
Primary Data

CHAPTER 9
Survey Research: An Overview, 184
Introduction, 185

Using Surveys, 185

Survey This!, 186
Advantages of Surveys, 186

Research Snapshot Intuit Gets Answers to Satisfy
Customers, 187

Errors in Survey Research, 187
Random Sampling Error, 188
Systematic Error, 188

Research Snapshot Overestimating Patient
Satisfaction, 189

Respondent Error, 189
Administrative Error, 193
Rule-of-Thumb Estimates for Systematic Error, 194
What Can Be Done to Reduce Survey Error?, 194

Classifying Survey Research Methods, 194
Structured/Unstructured and Disguised/Undisguised

Questionnaires, 194

Research Snapshot The “Mere-Measurement” Effect, 195
Temporal Classification, 195

Total Quality Management and Customer
Satisfaction Surveys, 197

What Is Quality?, 198
Internal and External Customers, 198
Implementing Total Quality Management, 198

Summary, 201
Key Terms and Concepts, 202
Questions for Review and Critical Thinking, 203
Research Activities, 203

CASE 9.1 SAT and ACT Writing Tests, 204
CASE 9.2 The Walker Information Group, 204

CHAPTER 10
Survey Research: Communicating
with Respondents, 205
Introduction, 206

Interviews as Interactive Communication, 206
Noninteractive Media, 206

Personal Interviews, 206

Survey This!, 207
Advantages of Personal Interviews, 207

Research Snapshot The Challenge of Assessing Adult
Literacy, 208

Disadvantages of Personal Interviews, 209
Door-to-Door Interviews and Shopping Mall Intercepts, 210

Research Snapshot Being Good Neighbors Means
Learning about Them First, 211

Global Considerations, 212

Telephone Interviews, 212
Mobile Phone Interviews, 213
Phone Interview Characteristics, 213
Central Location Interviewing, 215

Research Snapshot Automated Phone Surveys
of Teens, 216

Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing, 216
Computerized Voice-Activated Telephone Interview, 216
Global Considerations, 217

Self-Administered Questionnaires, 217
Mail Questionnaires, 217
Response Rates, 219
Increasing Response Rates for Mail Surveys, 220
Global Considerations, 223

Self-Administered Questionnaires Using Other
Forms of Distribution, 223

Fax Surveys, 223
E-Mail Surveys, 224
Internet Surveys, 225

Research Snapshot Mixed Mode Data Collection:
The Case of Web and Telephone Surveys, 226

Kiosk Interactive Surveys, 228
Survey Research That Mixes Modes, 229
Text-Message Surveys, 229

Selecting the Appropriate Survey Research Design, 229

Pretesting, 231

Ethical Issues in Survey Research, 231

Summary, 231
Key Terms and Concepts, 232
Questions for Review and Critical Thinking, 232
Research Activities, 233

CASE 10.1 National Do Not Call Registry, 233
CASE 10.2 Royal Bee Electric Fishing Reel, 234

CHAPTER 11
Observation Methods, 235
Introduction, 236

Observation in Business Research, 236
What Can Be Observed?, 236

Survey This!, 237
The Nature of Observation Studies, 237

Research Snapshot This Trend Brought to You by DDB
SignBank, 238

x Contents

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Observation of Human Behavior, 238
Complementary Evidence, 239
Direct Observation, 240
Combining Direct Observation and Interviewing, 241
Ethical Issues in the Observation of Humans, 241

Observation of Physical Objects, 242

Content Analysis, 243

Mechanical Observation, 244
Television Monitoring, 244

Research Snapshot ATTI, Inc. Shadows the Fleet, 245
Monitoring Website Traffic, 246
Scanner-Based Research, 246
Measuring Physiological Reactions, 247

Research Snapshot Neuroco Peers into the Consumer’s
Brain, 248

Summary, 249
Key Terms and Concepts, 250
Questions for Review and Critical Thinking, 250
Research Activities, 251

CASE 11.1 Mazda and Syzygy, 251
CASE 11.2 Texas Instruments and E-Lab, 252

CHAPTER 12
Experimental Research, 253
Introduction, 254

Creating an Experiment, 254
An Illustration: Can a Self-Efficacy Intervention Enhance

Job Attitude?, 254

Survey This!, 255

Designing an Experiment to Minimize
Experimental Error, 257

Manipulation of the Independent Variable, 257

Research Snapshot Talking While Driving: Are Cell
Phone Conversations Different from Passenger
Conversations?, 259

Selection and Measurement of the Dependent Variable, 260
Selection and Assignment of Test Units, 260

Demand Characteristics, 263
What Are Demand Characteristics?, 263
Experimenter Bias and Demand Effects, 263
Hawthorne Effect, 264
Reducing Demand Characteristics, 265

Establishing Control, 266
Problems Controlling Extraneous Variables, 266

Ethical Issues in Experimentation, 267

Practical Experimental Design Issues, 267
Basic versus Factorial Experimental Designs, 267
Laboratory Experiments, 267
Field Experiments, 268

Research Snapshot The Hidden in Hidden
Valley Ranch, 269

Within-Subjects and Between-Subjects Designs, 270

Issues of Experimental Validity, 271
Internal Validity, 271
External Validity, 273
Trade-offs between Internal and External

Validity, 274

Classification of Experimental Designs, 274
Symbolism for Diagramming Experimental

Designs, 274
Three Examples of Quasiexperimental Designs, 274
Three Alternative Experimental Designs, 276
Time Series Designs, 278
Complex Experimental Designs, 278

Summary, 282
Key Terms and Concepts , 283
Questions for Review and Critical Thinking, 284
Research Activities, 284

CASE 12.1 Tooheys, 285

PART FOUR
Measurement Concepts

CHAPTER 13
Measurement and Scaling
Concepts, 288
Introduction, 289

What Do I Measure?, 289

Survey This!, 290

Research Snapshot Peer Pressure and Investing
Behavior, 292

Concepts, 292
Operational Definitions, 292

Levels of Scale Measurement, 293
Nominal Scale, 293
Ordinal Scale, 295
Interval Scale, 297
Ratio Scale, 297
Mathematical and Statistical Analysis

of Scales, 298

Index Measures, 299
Indexes and Composites, 299
Computing Scale Values, 300

Research Snapshot Recoding Made Easy, 301

Three Criteria for Good Measurement, 301
Reliability, 301
Validity, 303
Reliability versus Validity, 305
Sensitivity, 305

Summary, 306
Key Terms and Concepts, 306
Questions for Review and Critical Thinking, 307
Research Activities, 307

CASE 13.1 FlyAway Airways, 308

Contents xi

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CHAPTER 14
Attitude Measurement, 310
Introduction, 311

Attitudes as Hypothetical Constructs, 311

Survey This!, 312
Importance of Measuring Attitudes, 312

Techniques for Measuring Attitudes, 312

Research Snapshot Is It Positive Emotionality, or Is It
LOVE?, 313

Attitude Rating Scales, 313
Simple Attitude Scales, 313

Research Snapshot Students Ask—Are You Responsible?, 314
Category Scales, 314
Method of Summated Ratings: The Likert Scale, 315
Semantic Differential, 317

Research Snapshot Measuring Website Usability, 319
Numerical Scales, 319
Stapel Scale, 319
Constant-Sum Scale, 320
Graphic Rating Scales, 321

Research Snapshot How Much Is a Healthy Home
Worth?, 322

Thurstone Interval Scale, 322

Measuring Behavioral Intention, 323
Behavioral Differential, 324

Ranking, 324
Paired Comparisons, 324
Sorting, 325

Other Methods of Attitude Measurement, 325

Selecting a Measurement Scale: Some Practical
Decisions, 326

Ranking, Sorting, Rating, or Choice Technique?, 326
Monadic or Comparative Scale?, 326
What Type of Category Labels, If Any?, 327
How Many Scale Categories or Response Positions?, 327
Balanced or Unbalanced Rating Scale?, 327
Even or Odd Number of Scale Points?, 328
Use a Scale That Forces a Choice among Predetermined

Options?, 328
Single Measure or an Index Measure?, 329

Summary, 329
Key Terms and Concepts, 330
Questions for Review and Critical Thinking, 330
Research Activity, 331

CASE 14.1 Roeder-Johnson Corporation, 331
CASE 14.2 Attitudes toward Technology and Lifestyle, 331

CHAPTER 15
Questionnaire Design, 333
Introduction, 334

Questionnaire Quality and Design: Basic
Considerations, 334

What Should Be Asked?, 334

Survey This!, 335
Questionnaire Relevancy, 335
Questionnaire Accuracy, 335

Wording Questions, 336
Open-Ended Response versus Fixed-Alternative

Questions, 336

Research Snapshot Corporate Reputations: Consumers
Put Johnson & Johnson, Microsoft, and Google
on Top, 337

Types of Fixed-Alternative Questions, 338
Phrasing Questions for Self-Administered, Telephone, and

Personal Interview Surveys, 340

Guidelines for Constructing Questions, 341
Avoid Complexity: Use Simple, Conversational

Language, 341
Avoid Leading and Loaded Questions, 342
Avoid Ambiguity: Be as Specific as Possible, 343
Avoid Double-Barreled Items, 344
Avoid Making Assumptions, 345
Avoid Burdensome Questions That May Tax the

Respondent’s Memory, 345
Make Certain Questions Generate Variance, 346

What Is the Best Question Sequence?, 347

Research Snapshot What Citizens Think about Climate
Change, 348

What Is the Best Layout?, 350
Traditional Questionnaires, 350
Internet Questionnaires, 355

Research Snapshot Pretesting the CAHPS Hospital
Survey, 359

How Much Pretesting and Revising Are
Necessary?, 360

Designing Questionnaires for Global
Markets, 361

Summary, 362
Key Terms and Concepts, 363
Questions for Review and Critical Thinking, 363
Research Activity, 364

CASE 15.1 Agency for Healthcare Research
and Quality, 364
CASE 15.2 Canterbury Travels, 369
CASE 15.3 McDonald’s Spanish Language
Questionnaire, 371
CASE 15.4 Schönbrunn Palace in
Vienna, 372

APPENDIX 15A
Question Wording and
Measurement Scales for Commonly
Researched Topics, 373
Questions about Advertising, 373

Awareness, 373
Unaided Recall/ Top of the Mind Recall, 374
Aided Recall, 374
Recognition, 374

xii Contents

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Message Communication/Playback (Sales Point
Playback), 374

Attitude toward the Advertisement, 375
Attitude toward Advertised Brand (Persuasion), …

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