why ethics the study of ethics assists in making difficult decisions and guiding beh 2921115

Why Ethics the study of ethics assists in making difficult decisions, and guiding behaviour in difficult situations What is Ethics ethics is the formal process for applying moral philosophy code of ethics set of ethical rules and/or expectations designed to guide ethical conduct utalitarinsism/consequentialism an action is judged as good or bad in relation to its outcome, consequence or end result. “greatest good for greatest number” deontology The rightness or wrongness of an act depends upon the nature of the act, rather then its consequence. categorical imperative act only according to the maxim that your actions can be based as a universal law. do unto others as you have would have done unto you. focal virtues (virtue ethics) compassion, discernment, trustworthiness & integrity ethical principles autonomy: patients right over body

beneficence: do good, active

non-maleficence: do no harm, passive

justice: fair, truthfulness prima facie a right which may be overridden by stronger moral claims e.g. autonomy, confidentiality, veracity. types of moral problems uncertainty, dilemma, distress, outrage & reckoning conscientious objection nurse refuses to participate in procedure/treatments because of strong personal moral values and beliefs. principle of double effect aims to provide specific guidelines when it is morally permissible to perform an action in pursuit of a good end, in full knowledge that the action will also bring about bad results. 4 conditions of the principle of double effect 1. the act must not be morally wrong.

2. good effect must not be a direct result of the bad effect.

3. good effect must be the effect sincerely intended by the agent.

4. bad effect must not outweigh the good effect. passive euthanasia discontinuing extraordinary efforts to sustain life, nor starting these efforts. active euthanasia action to end life

autonomy of pt voluntary euthanasia dying person request action

assisted suicide involuntary euthanasia dying persons consent not sought

allowing person to die ethical decision making model articulate, gather (identify), explore, implement & evaluate Autonomy self governing, one has the freedom to make decisions about issues that affect one’s life Beneficence requires one to act in a way that benefits others (do or promote good) Non-maleficence requires one to refrain from causing harm includes, includes deliberate harm, risk of harm. Justice relates to fair, equitable and appropriate treatment in light of what is due or owed to a person. includes veracity, fidelity and confidentiality veracity telling the truth fidelity faithfulness and promise keeping confidentiality non disclosure of private information about another person empowerment a helping process whereby groups of individuals are enabled to change a situation given skills resources, opportunities and authority to do so. 3 stages of moral reckoning ease, resolution and reflection Conscientious objection stages morally right, inform superior, ensure the patient is safe and document Kohlbergs model ethic of justice; suggests that choices are based on objective rules and principles (6 stages) Gilligans model ethic of care; progression of moral thinking, 3 phases & 2 transitions.

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