West Los Angeles College Late Medieval and Early Modern Spain Questions Please answer the two questions using the text that has been provided for each question. Please only use the sources provided and no other outside or online sources.
Please make sure that the response is at least 6 pages in total, double spaced. Make sure that you place your discussion of these topics within a historical context. Make references to your reading (mostly to the primary sources), but do not be afraid of being creative. What is expected is a serious critical evaluation of the material.
Discuss the role of Muslims, Mudejars, and Moriscos in Spanish Society until their expulsion in the early seventeenth century. Sources:(see chapters on violence in Ruiz’s Spanish Society). See if any other sources provided will assist.
What was the nature of Spanish culture in the period between 1300 and the reign of the Catholic Monarchs? How does the culture of Castile compare to that of Aragon? After discussing these topics in some detail, focus on Jorge Manrique’s Ode to the Death of My Father. What does that poem tell you about Castilian culture and values in the late fifteenth century and as to Manrique’s intent and values?
Sources: Manrique’s poem. Ruiz, Spain: Centuries of Crisis.
1. If you quote verbatim from a book or a primary source, the passage should be within quotation marks and properly acknowledge in a footnote or end note. You may use the Chicago Manual of Style or the MLA format (or parenthetical if you are referring to the same source. If so, a very short bibliography is welcome.
2. If you are paraphrasing information from either the texts or the lectures it should be also properly cited.
Once again the response needs to be 6 pages in total. Thank you! Spanish Society, 1348–1700
Beginning with the Black Death in 1348 and extending through to the
demise of Habsburg rule in 1700, this second edition of Spanish Society,
1348–1700 has been expanded to provide a wide and compelling exploration of Spain’s transition from the Middle Ages to modernity.
Each chapter builds on the first edition by offering new evidence of the
changes in Spain’s social structure between the fourteenth and seventeenth
centuries. Every part of society is examined, culminating in a final section
that is entirely new to the second edition and presents the changing social
practices of the period, particularly in response to the growing crises facing
Spain as it moved into the seventeenth century. Also new to this edition is
a consideration of the social meaning of culture, specifically the presence
of Hermetic themes and of magical elements in Golden Age literature and
Cervantes’s Don Quijote.
Through the extensive use of case studies, historical examples and literary
extracts, Spanish Society is an ideal way for students to gain direct access to
this captivating period.
Teofilo F. Ruiz is Professor of History at the University of California, Los
Angeles. His previous publications include A King Travels: Festive Traditions in Late Medieval and Early Modern Spain (2012), Spain, 1300–1469:
Centuries of Crises (2007), Medieval Europe and the World (2005) and From
Heaven to Earth: The Reordering of Castilian Society, 1150–1350 (2004).
Spanish Society, 1348–1700
Teofilo F. Ruiz
Second edition published 2017
2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 4RN
and by Routledge
711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017
Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business
© 2017 Teofilo F. Ruiz
The right of Teofilo F. Ruiz to be identified as author of this work has
been asserted by him in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the
Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or
reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical,
or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including
photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or
retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.
Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks
or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and
explanation without intent to infringe.
First edition published by Pearson Education Limited 2001
British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Ruiz, Teofilo F., 1943– author.
Title: Spanish society, 1348–1700 / Teofilo F. Ruiz.
Description: Second edition. | Abingdon, Oxon ; New York, NY :
Routledge, 2017. | Includes bibliographical references and index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2016055547 | ISBN 9781138957862 (pbk. :
alk. paper) | ISBN 9781138999053 (hbk : alk. paper) |
ISBN 9781315180960 (ebook : alk. paper)
Subjects: LCSH: Spain—Social conditions—to 1800. | Spain—Social
life and customs. | Spain—History—711–1516. | Spain—History—
House of Austria, 1516–1700. | Social classes—Spain.
Classification: LCC HN583 .R85 2017 | DDC 306.0946—dc23
LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016055547
ISBN: 978-1-138-99905-3 (hbk)
ISBN: 978-1-138-95786-2 (pbk)
ISBN: 978-1-315-18096-0 (ebk)
Typeset in Sabon
by Apex CoVantage, LLC
Sir John H. Elliott
¡Qué amigo de sus amigos!
¡Qué señor para criados
¡Qué enemigo de enemigos!
¡Qué maestro de esforçados
¡Qué seso para discretos!
¡Qué gracia para donosos!
¡Qué benigno a los sujetos
y a los bravos y dañosos,
List of tablesix
Preface to the second editionx
Preface to the first editionxiv
Introduction: from medieval to early modern
The geographical and political setting9
1 The making of Spain
A society of orders43
2 Those who have not: peasants and town dwellers
3 Those who have: nobility and clergy
4 On the margins of society
The structures of everyday life131
5 Festivals and power: sites of inclusion and exclusion
6 From Carnival to Corpus Christi: festivals of affirmation
7 The burdens of violence: sites of conflict
8 Resisting violence: the wrath of the poor
9 The patterns of everyday life: eating and dressing
10 The patterns of everyday life: religion, honour,
sexuality and popular culture
Culture and society in an age of decline269
11 Spain under the late Habsburgs: society in an age
of crisis I
12 Spain under the late Habsburgs: society in an age
of crisis II
Appendix I: chronology of events, 1348–1700316
Appendix II: glossary of terms320
City population in early modern Spain63
The population of Seville, 1384–159465
A typology of urban social groups in Seville66
Changes in trades in Barcelona, 1516–171770
Summary of caloric intake of Spanish sailors in the early
Preface to the second edition
Preface to the second edition of Spanish society, 1348–1700
The first edition of Spanish Society, 1400–1600 appeared more than a decade
and a half ago in 2001. Since then, there have been many important works
on the social history of early modern Europe and of late medieval and early
modern Spain. My own work has changed dramatically over that period of
time and, although I still think that my book has held its own over the period
since its first publication, clearly, there are many things I would do quite differently today. Over the course of my long career, I have written many books
to the chagrin of trees and to the well-being of insomniacs. Of all the books
I have written, however, Spanish Society has always been, and remains, my
favourite. When I wrote it towards the end of the twentieth century, I was
able to work on both sides of the chronological divide (the dreaded 1492)
and to argue against the rigid distinctions between medieval and early modern. The book also allowed me to draw from literature and to use culture as
a means to understand social structures and the social meaning of cultural
artefacts. As such, though profoundly anchored in social history, the first
edition of Spanish Society, 1400–1600 sought to integrate culture into social
developments. Liking the original so much, I am a bit reluctant to admit that
a highly revised second edition is necessary. One’s own sense of possession of
one’s work and the illusory sense that the works one writes are truly enduring (which of course they are not) may lead me to attempt only a cosmetic
reassessment of my 2001 efforts. This is not the case here, and over the years
I have come to realise that a somewhat longer and different book, while not
discarding what was accomplished in the first edition, was necessary.
Chronology, geography, culture and religion: Spain in
a global society
I should begin with the most obvious change in the nature of this second
edition, that is, changes in the chronological span of the book. In the first
Preface to the second edition
edition, I was constrained by the dates dictated by the demands for a series
on social history for which my Spanish Society, 1400–1600 was just one
of the volumes commissioned by the general editor of the series. Although
I sought to provide some background for the period before 1400, as well
as to go well beyond 1600 and to illustrate some discreet aspects of social
change with historical vignettes drawn from before and after those chronological boundaries, the results were not always satisfactory. Clearly, the
sweeping impact of the Black Death in the mid-fourteenth century, the end
of Alfonso XI’s reign in 1350 (the only king to die from the plague in Western Europe and to maintain some semblance of order in Castile during the
turbulent fourteenth century), the rising tide of violence against religious
minorities and myriad of other developments had an important impact on
the social structures of peninsular kingdoms. These developments need to
be explicated in greater detail if one is to make sense of social change in the
The first edition chronological terminus, 1600, coincided roughly with an
important landmark, the death of Philip II in 1598, widespread epidemics
throughout Iberia and economic decline. Nonetheless, for the next hundred
years, the Habsburgs still ruled in the different Spanish kingdoms. Clearly,
the seventeenth century witnessed the almost break-up of the Spanish monarchy in 1640, military defeats in the Low Countries and elsewhere in Central Europe, the rise of France, the Dutch republic and, to a lesser extent,
England (all three enemies of Spain) as the hegemonic power(s) in Western
Europe. The seventeenth century also observed the final settlement of religious warfare but without any real gains after more than a century of war.
The troubled (almost tragic) end of the Habsburg dynasty in the Iberian
Peninsula in 1700 triggered new social issues. We cannot see the development of new attitudes towards social groups or the rise of religious sensibilities unless we understand the political and cultural context of the long
seventeenth century. It was, after all, a general European crisis that affected
Spain as much as it did the rest of the continent. The War of Spanish Succession, the coming of a Bourbon dynasty to rule Spain in the eighteenth
century and beyond signalled a new period in Spain’s (now truly Spain as a
centralised monarchy to the detriment of traditional autonomies and liberties) institutions, economy and social life. Two new concluding chapters
(Chapter 11 and 12) address mostly seventeenth century issues and what
I may call the social and cultural history of a society in crisis.
Although the first edition aimed at examining Spanish society in the wider
context of the expansive Spanish world, the reality is that the main thrust
of my arguments and of the historical issues examined focused mostly on
the Iberian Peninsula. Since 2001, world history and a global approach to
historical phenomena have transformed the manner in which we study the
xii Preface to the second edition
past. In the case of Spain, the first global empire, this is even more pertinent.
While writing a social history of the entire Iberian world would yield a book
very different from the original one, I hope to extend slightly the geographical boundaries of my inquiry in this second edition. Although, as I note,
writing a social history of the entire Spanish world is beyond the scope of
this work and beyond my abilities, then or now, I would like to draw more
information from other areas of the Spanish Empire (and then monarchy
after 1556). After all, natives in the New World were a significant part of the
Spanish social structure. Conversos in Mexico or Cuzco, as Nathan Wachtel
has shown, were also part of that world in ways that were similar, and yet
distinct from those of the peninsula.
Similarly, the Spanish enclaves in North Africa, Oran, Ceuta, Melilla and
elsewhere had different social histories than those in the metropolis. Conversos and Moriscos played important roles in North Africa as translators
and interlocutors that would have been inconceivable in sixteenth and seventeenth-century Spain. Jews were welcome in these North African enclaves
while barred from the peninsular kingdoms. And then, there are the issues
of Spaniards in Rome, Naples, Milan and elsewhere. Whether they were
part of the heavy footprint of Spanish administration and religious life in
Italy, or living on the margins as Conversos and Jews in the Roman (and
Venetian) ghettoes, they were also part of Spain’s outreach to the outside
world. And we find Spaniards in the Low Countries and in Germany either
as administrators, merchants or soldiers. They carried with them elements
of Spanish culture into different parts of the world, but they also borrowed
important cultural tools from the diverse contexts in which they lived and
worked, and then brought that back to Spain.
Culture and religion
Although the first edition of Spanish Society is filled with literary references
and deploys literary texts as a way to understand social relations and structures, I neglected to deploy other cultural forms that reflected specific social
issues. For example (a topic to be explored in greater detail in a new chapter), in seventeenth century Seville, as Amanda Wunder shows in a recent
book, in the midst of growing political, economic and social crises, the leading citizens of Seville invested in the building of churches, in the decoration of religious sculptures, religious painting and similar pious enterprises.
What did such activities mean in the context of Spanish society? What did
the emphasis on vivid representations of blood and suffering so intensely
depicted in Baroque Spain mean for the social and cultural history of early
Similarly, although I address the clergy as one of the orders in Spanish
society, I did not pay enough attention to religion as an institution that
helped shaped the contours of Spanish society. In Spain and the Iberian
world, religion played an important role, not just in the spiritual life of the
Preface to the second edition
Spanish population but also in the manner in which social relations were
constructed. Religion pervaded the very fabric of society and shaped the
manner in which the dominant religion – Catholic Christianity – related to
the world at large and to other religious groups in their midst – Protestants,
Jews, Muslims. Thus, religion played a fundamental role in the forging of
social differences, artistic production, while also influencing political decisions and foreign policy. Finally, Chapter 12, a new concluding chapter
focuses on two discreet topics. The first addresses the nature of culture in
seventeenth century Iberia as a context for the decline of Spain and the troubled rule of the late Habsburgs in the peninsula. By presenting a case study
of the role of magic, Hermeticism and other cultural tropes in the social life
of Spanish people, I attempt to see how these esoteric forms of knowledge
pervaded the life of Spaniards on both sides of the Atlantic, and modified
the growing austerity of seventeenth century Catholic doctrine. The second
is the unavoidable issue of decline and the growing awareness by statesmen
and the learned that “disillusionment” had become an important aspect of
Spain in a global society
As much as I am able to do so, I would like to place some of the developments in social history within a global context. Spain was the first truly
global empire, and peninsular social norms were replicated throughout
its vast possessions beyond the sea. Royal and princely entries, a topic we
explore with a great deal of detail in chapters below, were replicated by viceroys and episcopal entries in Mexico City, Cuzco and elsewhere throughout
the empire. The Inquisition in Mexico and in Peru also found Conversos
allegedly practising Judaism. In time, the Inquisition would come to monitor the beliefs of natives, found to have relapsed into their ancestral practices. While there were important differences and geographical contexts,
there was continuity in social practices (if one wishes, as I do, to think of
religion as a social practice) throughout the vast arc of Spanish lands around
Preface to the first edition
For far too long ‘social history’ was regularly, even routinely defined dismissively and negatively along the lines of ‘history with the high politics,
economics and diplomacy left out’. Over the latter decades of the twentieth
century, however, a virtual revolution in the sub-discipline of ‘social history’
gathered momentum, fuelled not only by historians but also by specialists
from such established academic disciplines as anthropology, economics, politics and especially sociology, and enriched by contributors from burgeoning cultural, demographic, media and women’s studies. At the cusp of the
twenty-first century, the prime rationale of the recently launched ‘Social History of Europe’ series is to reflect the cumulative achievement and reinforce
the ripening respectability of what may be positively yet succinctly defined
as nothing less than the ‘history of society’.
Initiated by the late Professor Harry Hearder of the University of Wales,
the ‘Social History of Europe’ series is conceived as an ambitious and openended collection of wide-ranging general surveys charting the history of
the peoples of the major European nations, states and regions through key
phases in their societal development from the late Middle Ages to the present. The series is not designed to become necessarily either chronologically
or geographically all-embracing, although certain pre-eminent areas and
periods will demand a systematic sequence of coverage. Typically, a volume
covers a period of about one century, but longer (and occasionally shorter)
time-spans are proving appropriate. A degree of modest chronological overlap between volumes covering a particular nation, state or region is acceptable where justified by the historical experience.
Each volume in the series is written by a commissioned European or
American expert and, while synthesising the latest scholarship in the field,
is invigorated by the findings and preoccupations of the author’s original
research. As works of authority and originality, all contributory volumes
are of genuine interest and value to the individual author’s academic peers.
Even so, the contributory volumes are not intended to be scholarly monographs addressed to the committed social historian but broader synoptic
overviews which serve a non-specialist general readership. All the volumes
are therefore intended to take the ‘textbook dimension’ with due seriousness,
Preface to the first edition
with authors recognising that the long-term success of the series will depend
on its usefulness to, and popularity with, an international undergraduate and
postgraduate student readership. In the interests of accessibility, the provision of notes and references to accompany the text is suitably restrained and
all volumes contain a select bibliography, a chronology of principal events,
a glossary of foreign and technical terms and a comprehensive index.
Inspired by the millennial watershed but building upon the phenomenal
specialist progress recorded over the last quarter-century, the eventually
multi-volume ‘Social History of Europe’ is dedicated to the advancement of
an intellectually authoritative and academically cosmopolitan perspective
on the multi-faceted historical development of the European continent.
Professor of Modern European History
University of Ulster
In the more than a decade and a half since the writing of the first edition, my
debt to those mentioned in my earlier acknowledgment has only increased.
Here I reproduce the language found in my acknowledgements in 2001.
Clearly, some of those mentioned below have made additional contributions
to my understanding of Spanish history. Other scholars have made significant contributions to my work since 2001, and their insights have played an
important role in how I perceive the period and how I write about it. Richard Kagan’s invaluable contributions to the questions of festivals and local
government deserve a place of honour, so have been the contributions of the
late and much missed Olivia Remie Constable. I have learned a great deal
from my colleagues at UCLA, Marga…
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