Week 1: The MRS professions and professional practice

| September 27, 2015

Week 1: The MRS professions and professional practice

The code of ethics focuses on the health professionals` morality towards themselves and patients based on the hospital protocolsas the code of ethics is set by hospitals to their professions (Ethics, 2010). Furthermore, the code of ethics displays responsibilities/rights of patients and justifies the morality/action of health professionals when ethical dilemmas arise (Ethics, 2010). However, Beauchamp and Childress in 1979 establish the universal four principles of medical ethics, which are autonomy, justice, beneficence and non-maleficence, and practitioners must consider them for medical procedures to be ethical (Lawson, 2011). These principles enhance the professionalisation process when practitioners respect patients` autonomy on the decision based on adequate information; act in justice of the beneficence and non-maleficence of patients (Lawson, 2011).
Therefore, to respect patients` autonomy, professionals have responsibility to ensure patients are able to inform consent based on disclosure of relevant information including both benefits and risks of either undergoing the procedure or not (Gunderman& Beckman, 2012). Additionally, informed consent protects professionals of the equation when unpleasant outcomes occur (Brink et al., 2012). To enhance the professionalisation process, professionals are required to carry procedures with high quality to benefit and create non-maleficence towards patients considering the individual circumstances of patients (Lawson, 2011). This is done by developing and updating professional knowledge and skills (Markides, 2011). Moreover, considering the different circumstances of patients; professionals should consider the principle of justice to treat patients in a similar manner. Therefore, applying the four principles of ethics can enhance the professionalisation process.
Select one “document”, include it in the appendix and justify how it showcases your ability to be a “professional” student practitioner

(For this Part I want you do the same paragraph but in new paraphrase as I will use same document for that one so write about the same Idea here)

At the start of the first block of the clinical placement, I struggled communicating with patients, as I was very quiet because English was my second language. Obviously, from the patients` facial expressions, this had a bad impact that made patients feel uncomfortable/anxious. Effective communication between patients and health professionals is important as it bring ease to patients and helps them understand the procedure that provides better outcomes (Markides, 2011). Moreover, different patients have different needs, so effective communications helps professionals to understand their needs (Markides, 2011). For instance, imaging trauma patients needs modification of usual imaging protocols. Reflecting on an experience with an old patient with an injured elbow, I tried to explain to her to extend her elbow however she could not understand. I knew my limitation here and I asked the supervisor for help. This action reflects a strong sense of responsibility and patient care. Later, the supervisor explained how I can effectively communicate with patients by showing patients the position, which the examination needs, and explaining how this would help the radiologist for better diagnoses. From this situation I have improved, becoming more confident in verbal and non-verbal (body language) communication with patients and demonstrating empathy and awareness of patients` needs, which shows aspects of professionalism. These improvements are shown in the final clinical assessment document attached in the appendix.

Week 2: Radiation Accountability and the Australian Health Care System
For this Part I want you find a different article but with similar Idea and write the same way as this one

The article “Experiences of regional and rural people with cancer being treated with radiotherapy in a metropolitan center” discusses issues that rural patients with cancer face due to the limitation of specialist cancer practitioners in rural areas. The article explores travel and accommodation difficulties patients undergo when radiation treatment (RT) centres are located in the metropolitan. During the course of treatment, patients need emotional support from family/friends to be comfortable/confident, however, this is not the case for rural patients. By travelling to another area, they move to an unfamiliar environment resulting in stress. Additionally, side effects of radiotherapy become worse with travelling. Patients have responsibilities such as jobs/caring for children and traveling forces them to leave these responsibilities. Consequently, some patients prefer not to undergo the RT for these issues (Martin-McDonald et al., 2003).
According to the Cancer Voices NSW, rural and remote NSW patients with cancer, regardless of their financial circumstances, must have equal access to the best specialist treatment. Isolated Patients Transport & Accommodation Assistance Scheme (IPTAA) lessens the cost of travelling and accommodation during the treatment, establishing equity of access to facilities of treatment for rural patients (National health and Hospitals reform Commission, 2008).

However, this rule is ignored in some areas in NSW. In Gosford, only one private radiotherapy centre exists and most cancer patients have elected to not undertake radiotherapy because of costs. Another choice is to travel to Sydney for treatment. However, some patients cannot claim IPTAAS because the distance is less than 100km to Sydney. Thus, travelling cost will affect patients financially in addition to the issues discussed in the article (National health and Hospitals reform Commission, 2008).

In my opinion, the value of the health care is not only about assisting these patients finically. However, in addition to equal access to the treatment, patients have the right to get the appropriate outcomes after radiotherapy courses by having rest to minimise the side effects. This is not the case for rural patients as they suffer from travelling distance for the appropriate treatment (Martin-McDonald et al., 2003). They will face emotional stress of being away from family/friends and financial issues. To minimise these issues and create treatment benefits for cancer patients, providing accommodation for these patients is needed as travelling with side effect of radiotherapy is not safe (Martin-McDonald et al., 2003). An increase in availability of access to radiotherapy centers in rural areas is needed. This will create equity of access to standard levels of healthcare and treatment outcomes too.

Week 2: Radiation Control Act and Regulations
The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA), is a federal government organization, has the responsibility for protecting the public’s safety and health and the environment from the ionising and non-ionising radiation`s hazards throughout Australia. ARPANSA does that by providing information to the public on issues related to both nuclear and radiation safety. Also, ARPANSA commences researches to establish national safety guides and Codes of Practice in nuclear safety and radiation protection. Additionally, ARPANSA measures the radiation and weighs health impacts by maintain expertise. For instance, in order to prevent the unnecessary radiation dose, that does not enhance the medical image information, to patients, ARPANSA establishes the Dose Reference levels (DRL) for ionising radiation procedures and DRL`s code of practice (Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, 2012).
However, the Australian Institute of Radiography (AIR) is the Australian professional body that has responsibility only for health professionals: working in radiation therapy and medical imaging in Australia. AIR has duty to promote/identify the professional standards of conduct, skills, knowledge and attributes to guide AIR`s members for the expectation level for the Accredited Practitioner. Accordingly, the members are in charge to obey to these standards in their profession. Consequently, the AIR aims to maintain the highest principle of professionalism/development in the MRS filed. Additionally, AIR achieved that by providing regular education programs, conferences, researches and application of clinical practice to update the members` information in the area of profession. As a result of AIR`s service for health professionals, the radiation safety will improve in the MRS field (Australian Institute of Radiography, 2010).

Week 3: Reflective and Cultural Practice
Reflective practice in the MRS setting

Cultural sensitivity

Cultural sensitivity means being aware and accepting existing cultural similarities and differences and how these can influence others` behavior, values, and expectations (Galanti, 2012). A lack of understanding of this concept can cause inadequate medical care for patients of different cultures/ethnic groups (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee on Health Care for Underserved Women, 2011).

In Muslim culture, women have to wear headscarves and cover the whole body except their face and hands. This is similar to Christian culture where nuns wear the Habit. However in one case, Muslim nurses were asked by infection control staff to wear short sleeves to prevent infection hazard. To be culturally sensitive,it is fundamental to understand that Muslim women are mandated to wear long sleeves to follow the code of Islamic dress (Elgindy, 2013).

When female Muslim patients are asked to change into a gown, there are principles making this inconvenient. According to faith of the Muslim culture, women cannot walk with improperly covered bodies. This creates discomfort if the changing room is not close to the procedure room. Additionally, some patients are concerned about the practitioner gender and prefer female practitioners. Therefore, when practitioners ask these patients to get change into a gown, practitioners should understand the culture barriers and provide a private environment. Female practitioners should be used when possible. Respecting patients` culture improves commutation/care between practitioners and patients, thus practitioners should be sensitive to the unique needs of each culture.

Reflective practice is a process when an individual stops, thinks and consciously analyses the decision of an action. This is done by applying and reflecting on the experience, that is gained through own or other`s experience, and theory into an occupational practice in order to change/improve the outcome of this practice. Also, critical analysis can create new ideas to modify the action, treatment or skills (Chartered Society of Physiotherapy, 2013).

In the MRS setting, reflective practice is carried out habitually. For the best outcome for patients, practitioners must know their strengths/weaknesses of experience/skills to reflect in clinical situations and turn this reflection into valuable outcomes (Hall & Davis, 1999). This process allows problem solving that may arise during MRS procedures. For instance, when applying a theory to a procedure which does not address the issue due to uncompleted /outdated theory to a particular issue, then the reflective practice is valuable (Hall & Davis, 1999). For example, when a radiographer cannot adjust the patient position to do c-spine swimmer x-ray for an unconscious patient, he reflected about what his collage did for a similar situation to acquire an optimal image.

Therefore, Reflective practice has a significant role in developing the professional skills of MRS practitioners because this encourages them to observe own/others’ practices and evaluate the accuracy of skills. Thus, reflective practice is a helpful tool to achieve any challenge that can be raised in the MRI setting (Chapman et al., 2009).

Week 4: Beginning your career

See appendix.

Week 5: Professional Associations and further education

The National Professional Development Program (NPDP) is introduced by the AIR is obligatory for graduates of MRS to complete to achieve recognition as an Accredited Practitioner. The NPDP has successful outcomes as it provides the graduates with high qualification skills to be applied to their professions. The NPDP provides opportunities to practice the outcomes of the graduates` experience/skills in real clinical situations under qualified practitioners` supervision. During the NPDP, students undergo professional peer assessment of their professionalism and must meet the professional standard, such us professional attributes, skills and knowledge, which is described in the AIR Competency Based Standards for the Accredited Practitioner. Therefore, besides on that assessment, the graduates improve their limitation skills among the professional practice areas to successfully complete the NPDP in order to eligible for the AIR Validated Statement of Accreditation (Australian Institute of Radiography, 2010).
However, clinical placements during the university course are inadequate for the graduates to be professional in all practice areas. Some clinical do not allow students to practice in some medical imaging modalities such us CT, thus, not all graduates had a chance to practice these modalities. However, under the NPDP requirements, MRS graduates must practice in CT.
Similarly, the physiotherapy graduates must do Board-approved internship, structured by The Australian Physiotherapy Association (APA). The main difference here is that the internship is either one-year following the five-years of study or two-years following the four-years of study (Lewis, 2013). Another similarity is that the APA also encourages physiotherapists to participate in professional activities through the CPD program to maintain physiotherapists updating with the skills and knowledge. APA and NPDP have the same aim of developing and maintain the professional standard of health practitioners (The Physiotherapy Board of Australia, 2013).

As a new practitioner, how can you demonstrate your LLL skills?

My life long learning skills are derived from education and clinical placement. I have gained self-directed learning skills through searching the journals, articles and books and analysing the strongest arguments based on logical explanation. This builds the concept of self-directed research that health practitioners need to update to improve their performance (Snaith& Hardy, 2007). Furthermore, clinical placements deliver real situations of practical LLL skills. LLL skills come from practicing with qualified professionals in different clinical cases to gain more experience, confidence and recognise own skills. Therefore, daily-work experiences and reflective practice delivers LLL skills as well.
Another main strategies of LLL skills is continuing professional development (CPD), which is essentially important to maintain the clinical skills accuracy (Chapman et al., 2009). CPD motivates new practitioners to continue learning and creating own skills to enhance the critical thinking and confidence in clinical practices (Sim&Radloff, 2009). The CPD includes attending conferences and listening to professionals` ideas/knowledge, developments of medical technologies and updated researches (Chapman et al., 2009). Conferences are important to updated new practitioners with new information and encourage them to expand/share their ideas/knowledge. Another formal CPD, register to online orgnisations/courses that inform new practitioners about recent researchs/information while running in practices (Aaronson, 2011). Also, new practitioners become connecting with other health professionals to update on the latest technology skills (Aaronson, 2011). However, the informal CPD depends on individuals’ self-education such us reading journal and writing workplace dairies that would used to improve practitioners’ education resulting in better professional performance (Chapman et al., 2009).

Conclusion

This professional document advances my knowledge/awareness to important concepts that I need to practice during graduate year. Some concepts are reflective practice and culture sensitivity, which are familiar to me.  I gained deeper understanding of how I can apply them to real practice. Also, this document allowed me to recognise the LLL skills and how I can develop/update my professional knowledge/skills by self-directed learning or CPD. This is essential for health professionals to maintain professional work for the best interest of patients.

Additionally, it has prepared me for after graduation, such as the requirements of CV and steps I must do to be a qualified radiographer. It helped me learn the government applications/forms, which I need and the achievements to acquire the international qualified license radiographer. Based on that, this document organised my thoughts and prepared me for job interviews as I can see my professional attributes. Overall, it motivated me to improve my professional limitations, develop the skills and be ready for the professional responsibility for the NPDP year.

References
Aaronson, A. (2011, April 28). Continuing Education for Psychologists to Enhance Professional     Practice. Article Factory. Retrieved from     http://www.articlesfactory.com/articles/psychology/continuing-education-for-    psychologists-to-enhance-professional-practice.html

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee on Health Care for     Underserved Women. (2011). ACOG committee opinion no. 493: Cultural    sensitivity and awareness in the delivery of health care. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 117(5), 1258.
Australian Institute of Radiography.(2010). National Professional Development Program.Retrieved     fromhttp://www.air.asn.au/cms_files/07_ClinicalTraining/01011_Guide_NPDP.pdf
Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency. (2012). What we do.Retrieved from         http://www.arpansa.gov.au/AboutUs/whatwedo.cfm
Chapman, N., Dempsey, S. E., & Warren-Forward, H. M. (2009). Workplace diaries promoting         reflective practice in radiation therapy. Radiography, 15(2), 166170.    doi:10.1016/j.radi.2008.04.008

Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. (2013). What is reflective practice and how do I do it?Retrieved    from http://www.csp.org.uk/faqs/cpd/what-reflective-practice-how-do-i-do-it
Elgindy, G. (2013). Treating Muslim with Cultural Sensitiviy in a Post-9/11 World.     Minority Nurse.    Retrieved from http://www.minoritynurse.com/article/treating-%20muslims-cultural-sensitivity-    post-911-world
Ethics. (2010). Journal of Hospital Medicine, 5(S2), 97-97.doi:10.1002/jhm.767
Gunderman, R. B., & Beckman, E. S. (2012). Confidentiality: An essential element of     professionalism. AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology, 199(6), W683-W685.    doi:10.2214/AJR.11.8344

Galanti, G. (2012). Cultural sensitivity: A pocket guide for health care professionals. Oakbrook     Terrace, IL: Joint Commission Resources.
Hall, M., & Davis, M. (1999).Reflections on radiography.Radiography, 5(3), 165-    172.            doi:10.1016/S1078-8174(99)90025-1
Lawson, A. D. (2011). What is medical ethics? Trends in Anaesthesia and Critical    Care, 1(1), 36.    doi:10.1016/j.cacc.2010.02.009
Lewis, S. (2013). MRT3101 Ethics, Law and Professional Practice, lecture 6, week 6:            Professional, Associations, Continuing Education [Lecture PowerPoint slides].Retrieved from    https://elearning.sydney.edu.au/bbcswebdav/pid-    2028089-dt-content-rid-    11144775_1/courses/2013_S2C_MRTY3101_ND/MRTY3101_Week_6_Lect    ure_CPD.pdf
Markides, M. (2011). The Importance of Good Communication Between Patient and Health     Professionals.Journal of Pediatric Hematology / Oncology, 33(1), 123-125.    doi:10.1097/MPH.0b013e318230e1e5
Martin-McDonald, K., Rogers-Clark, C., Hegney, D., McCarthy, A., & Pearce, S. (2003). Experiences     of regional and rural people with cancer being treated with radiotherapy in a metropolitan    centre. International Journal of Nursing Practice,9(3), 176-182. doi:10.1046/j.1440-    172X.2003.00421.x
National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission. (2008). Cancer Voices NSW     submission to     the    National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission.Retrieved from            http://www.health.gov.au/internet/nhhrc/publishing.nsf/Content/423/$FILE/423%20-    %20Submission%20-%20Cancer%20Voices%20NSW.pdf
The Physiotherapy Board of Australia. (2013, August 1). Communiqué. Retrieved    from            http://www.physiotherapyboard.gov.au/News/2013-08-02-Communique-from-the-Board.aspx

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