UCLA The Inquisition in Spain History Questions (Great English is a must) (No grammar errors!) (6 Pages -NO MORE, APA Format) ————————–

UCLA The Inquisition in Spain History Questions (Great English is a must)

(No grammar errors!)

(6 Pages -NO MORE, APA Format)

——————————–

Subject of the paper: History Essay Answers

Requirement: For this history task, you will have to answer the following two questions. Each question needs to be answered in 3 full pages (that means the paper will have a total of 6 FULL pages excluding cover and reference page). NO additional references other than the two materials provided should be used. So actually you only have to look over the materials. and offer free of plagiarism,academic written answers. Here are the two questions:

1. Discuss the role of the Jews and of Conversos in Spanish history up to 1550. Be specific. Provide names and events. Discuss the issues leading to the creation of the Inquisition, the expulsion of the Jews in 1492, and its aftermath. (The answer will be found in the first chapter of Spanish Society, which I will attach)

2. What was the nature of Spanish culture in the period between 1300 and the reign of the Catholic Monarchs? How does the culture of Castile compare to that of Aragon? After discussing these topics in some detail, focus on Jorge Manrique’s Ode to the Death of My Father. What does that poem tell you about Castilian culture and values in the late fifteenth century and as to Manrique’s intent and values? (The answer to this should be found in Ruiz, Spain: Centuries of Crisis, which I will attach)

Other information: Please answer BOTH of the two questions using the text that has been provided for each question. Please only use the sources provided and no other outside or online sources.

Please make sure that the response is at least 6 pages in total, double spaced. Make sure that you place your discussion of these topics within a historical context. Make references to your reading (mostly to the primary sources), but do not be afraid of being creative. What is expected is a serious critical evaluation of the material.

I will attach the sources that I need you to use. Please site them in the essay and make a works cited page at the end. In your citation,also mention the page from where you took the information to prove that you read the paper.

Format:

APA Format
No plagiarism is accepted
The attached document represents the ONLY materials you will need to answer the 2 questions.

*** The work will be checked for plagiarism through Turnitin by the professor. It is essential for everything to be free of plagiarism otherwise sanctions will be imposed***

——–

Thank you for your support SPA_A01.qxd 4/6/07 9:56 AM Page i
Spain’s Centuries of Crisis
SPA_A01.qxd 4/6/07 9:56 AM Page ii
A HISTORY OF SPAIN
Published
Iberia in Prehistory*
María Cruz Fernández Castro
The Romans in Spain†
John S. Richardson
Visigothic Spain 409 –711
Roger Collins
The Arab Conquest of Spain, 710–797
Roger Collins
The Contest of Christian and Muslim Spain, 1031–1157†
Bernard F. Reilly
Spain’s Centuries of Crisis: 1300–1474
Teofilo F. Ruiz
The Spain of the Catholic Monarchs 1474 –1520
John Edwards
Spain 1516 –1598: From Nation State to World Empire*
John Lynch
The Hispanic World in Crisis and Change, 1598 –1700*
John Lynch
Bourbon Spain, 1700 –1808*
John Lynch
Spain in the Liberal Age: From Constitution to Civil War, 1808 – 1939
Charles J. Esdaile
Spain: From Dictatorship to Democracy, 1939 to the Present
Javier Tusell
Forthcoming
Caliphs and Kings 798 –1033
Roger Collins
Spain 1157–1300: A Partible Inheritance
Peter Linehan
* Out of print

Print on demand
SPA_A01.qxd 4/6/07 9:56 AM Page iii
Spain’s Centuries of Crisis
1300–1474
Teofilo F. Ruiz
SPA_A01.qxd 4/6/07 9:56 AM Page iv
© 2007 by Teofilo F. Ruiz
BLACKWELL PUBLISHING
350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148-5020, USA
9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK
550 Swanston Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia
The right of Teofilo F. Ruiz to be identified as the Author of this Work
has been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs, and
Patents Act 1988.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in
a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the
UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission
of the publisher.
First published 2007 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd
1
2007
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Ruiz, Teofilo F., 1943 –
Spain’s centuries of crisis : 1300 –1474 / Teofilo F. Ruiz.
p. cm. – (History of Spain)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN-13: 978-1-4051-2789-9 (hardcover : alk. paper) 1. Spain–
History–711-1516. I. Title.
DP99.R85 2007
946′.02– dc22
2007003775
A catalogue record for this title is available from the British Library.
Set in 10.5/12.5pt Minion
by Graphicraft Typesetters Limited, Hong Kong
Printed and bound in Singapore
by Utopia Printers Ltd
The publisher’s policy is to use permanent paper from mills that operate
a sustainable forestry policy, and which has been manufactured from pulp
processed using acid-free and elementary chlorine-free practices. Furthermore,
the publisher ensures that the text paper and cover board used have met
acceptable environmental accreditation standards.
For further information on
Blackwell Publishing, visit our website:
www.blackwellpublishing.com
SPA_A01.qxd 4/6/07 9:56 AM Page v
To Sofía Rose
SPA_A01.qxd 4/6/07 9:56 AM Page vi
SPA_A01.qxd 23/5/07 11:09 AM Page vii
Contents
Preface and Acknowledgments
Map 1: Spain in the Late Fifteenth Century
Map 2: The Crown of Aragon and the Western Mediterranean
in the Late Middle Ages
1 At the Dawn of a New Century: The Spains around 1300
viii
xi
xii
1
2 Medieval Spain in the Late Middle Ages: Society and
Economy
28
3 The Answers of Politics: Spain, 1300 –1350
51
4 Toward Trastámara Spain, 1350 –1412
72
5 Spain in the Fifteenth Century: Toward the Rule of
the Catholic Monarchs, 1412 –1469
86
6 The Sinews of Power: Administration, Politics, and Display
110
7 Muslims, Jews, and Christians in a Century of Crisis
139
8 Culture and Society in an Age of Crisis
164
9 Epilogue
196
Notes
Bibliographical Essay
Index
202
217
228
SPA_A01.qxd 23/5/07 11:09 AM Page viii
Preface and Acknowledgments
Writing the history of Spain in the late Middle Ages, as I will reiterate in
the first chapter, is not an easy task. The diversity of political players and
entities, the endless conflicts between noble factions, urban oligarchies, and
the Crown, the numerous and violent challenges to royal authority, and severe
social and economic crises stood in sharp contrast to vigorous and innovative cultural transformations, linguistic changes, and signal administrative
reforms. All of these components paved the way for Spain’s later primacy
of place among western European powers in the early modern period.
In attempting to reconstruct the history of the two most important
realms in the peninsula – the kingdom of Castile (Castile-León) and the
Crown of Aragon – from around 1300 to the marriage of Ferdinand and
Isabella in 1469 and Isabella’s ascent to the throne in 1474, I have placed
that troubled history and the general evolution of political, administrative,
and cultural life within the context of the long-term crises that plagued
most of the West from the late thirteenth century to the end of the Middle
Ages. By emphasizing crises and the demands they placed on Spanish women
and men, I have also sought to see administrative, political, religious, and
cultural innovations as responses to, as well as shaped by, the general late
medieval crises. These developments had also their counterparts in growing
antagonism against religious minorities and the end of religious pluralism
in the peninsula. They were also paralleled and influenced by vigorous and
novel cultural production.
Chapter 1 provides a general view of the Spanish realms in 1300 and seeks
to place the events of that year and the next century and a half within the
long sweep of Spanish medieval history. A brief foray into the geographical
features of the peninsula and the links between topography and political
life leads us to chapter 2. In that chapter I describe the different aspects
of Spain’s social, economic, political, and structural crises from the late
SPA_A01.qxd 23/5/07 11:09 AM Page ix
Preface and Acknowledgments ix
thirteenth century into the late fifteenth, with emphasis on the impact of
the crises on political institutions and practice.
Chapters 3 to 5 offer a chronological narrative of Spanish political life,
highlighting the ebb and flow of peninsular conflicts and territorial expansion and contrasting the different paths followed by Castile and Aragon.
In chapter 6 I turn to those administrative, fiscal, and institutional changes
that, while the crises raged, set the foundations for either stronger royal
authority in Castile or formal “constitutional” arrangements in the Crown
of Aragon. True “sinews” of power, these institutional innovations provided
the framework for new ways of articulating power. Chapter 7 focuses on
the intertwined histories of Muslims, Jews, and Christians. I would argue
that the clear deterioration of these relations in the period after 1300 reflected,
to a large extent, the shifting context in which different religious groups
interacted. The crises of late medieval society had, on the whole, nefarious
consequences for Jews and Muslims, and the Christians’ (or at least some
Christians) growing hostility towards them was also a complex and perverse
response to the general crises affecting the peninsular realms. Finally, the
last chapter examines cultural production – mostly literary culture, festivals,
and other cultural artifacts – as paralleling and emerging from the troubled
climate of the age.
***
Were I to list all those to whom I owe a debt of gratitude, the list would
be so extensive as to duplicate the length of this book. The sparse notes
and the more extensive bibliographical essay do not begin to reflect the
large number of scholars and students whose works and comments have
informed these pages. Angus Mackay, a historian of rare understanding
and insightfulness, and a generous friend, was to have written this volume
originally. The reader, I fear, will be short-changed. No matter how very hard
I have tried, this book would never match that which Angus Mackay would
have written. That this particular volume is preceded by Peter Linehan’s
book, Spain, 1157–1312, in Blackwell’s History of Spain series and is followed
by John Edwards’ The Spain of the Catholic Monarchs honors me greatly.
I could not think of more distinguished company, and their contributions to Blackwell’s History of Spain have been a very strong incentive to
attempt to make a contribution worthy of their distinction as scholars.
I have known Peter Linehan for many years and have greatly benefited
from his insightful comments and exceedingly generous friendship. John
Edwards’ work has also been an enduring source of inspiration and a model
for my own.
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x
Preface and Acknowledgments
At UCLA, Lynn Hunt, Margaret Jacob, Ron Mellor, David Myers, David
Sabean, Arch Getty, Patrick Geary, Muriel McClendon, Steve Aron, Kevin
Terraciano, and Geoffrey Symcox have provided the scholarly community
in which it has always been a pleasure to do research and writing. Graduate
and undergraduate students have provided me with vigorous critiques and
helpful comments. I have learned much from the work of Gregory Milton,
Claudia Mineo, Jenny Jordan, and Bryan Givens. In the United States Paul
Freedman, David Nirenberg, William C. Jordan, Olivia R. Constable, and
Daniel Smail have always given their unreserved support.
Abroad, as always, Jacques Le Goff, John H. Elliott, Jacques Revel, Adeline
Rucquoi, Manuel González Jiménez, Hilario Casado, Judith Herrin, Denis
Menjot, and others have encouraged my work and taught me by example.
At Blackwell, Tessa Harvey, Gillian Kane, Angela Cohen, Rebecca du Plessis,
and Janet Moth have been extremely generous with their help and understanding. John Lynch, the general editor of the series, has been equally
supportive and encouraging. To them I owe a great debt of gratitude. Scarlett
Freund, my friend and wife, is, as I have written many times before, the
enduring reason for which I live and write. But this book is dedicated to
my granddaughter Sofía Rose Ruiz. Born on December 11, 2005, she, my
first grandchild, has brought me joys and feelings I did not know existed.
And this book is dedicated to her in the hope that – not unlike those fifteenthcentury Castilian poets who wrote in search of remembrance – many
years from now, when she reads this, she knows that I was lovingly thinking of her.
Cádiz
Seville
Avlla
Córdoba
Gibraltar
Málaga
o
Ciudad Real
Granada
Jaén
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Monzón
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Calatayud
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MURCIA
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Barcelona
CATALONIA
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ANDALUCIA
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Toledo
Medina del
Campo
Salamanca
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BASQUE
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Bilbao
Map 1 Spain in the late Fifteenth Century
Source: based on Edwards, J. The Monarchies of Ferdinand and Isabella (Historical Association
pamphlet), p. 4
Lisbon
R. D u e r o
GALICIA
León
D
OL
Santiago
ASTURIAS
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SPA_A01.qxd 23/5/07 11:09 AM Page xi
LEON
Bordeaux
FR ANCE

Kerkenma
Gharbi
A
F
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I
C
A
Moho
Neopatria
Satona
S
AN
LK
BA
Map 2 The Crown of Aragon and the Western Mediterranean in the late Middle Ages
Source: Bisson, T. The Medieval Crown of Aragon: A Short History (Oxford, 1986), p. 91
Montpellier (1204–1349)
Aquisitions (1229–1442)
The original nucleus
(1137–1204)
M OR OC C O
Bayonne
Milan
use CARLADES
Venice
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Sau Toulouse
Avignon
Genoa
NAVARRE BE
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AR Foix
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Florence
AG Zaragoza ON
Calvi
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CASTILE
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C
[1204–1349]
Toledo
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Tortosa
MINORCA
Sassari
VALENCIA
Joca
D A L U S I Valencia
Caeta
[1287] Alghero
Naples
N
A
A [1298]
Denia
Palma
Alarcos
SARDINIA
Murcia
Seville
MAJORCA
(1297, 1323)
Iglesias
IBIZA
Antequera
Cuzurla
(1229)
Arborea
Alicante (1235)
GRANADA
Cagliari
Algeciras
Gulf of
Palermo
Almeria
Ceuta
Palmas
Trapani
Delirs
Calabria
Tlerocen
Bougic
Bône
SICILY
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(1283)
MACHRIB
AL
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RT
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N
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CYPRUS
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E G Y P T
Conslantinople
SPA_A01.qxd 23/5/07 11:09 AM Page xii
SPA_C01.qxd 23/5/07 11:13 AM Page 1
Chapter 1
At the Dawn of a New Century
The Spains around 1300
The dawn of a new century in 1300 was marked in Rome, and elsewhere
throughout the medieval West, with lavish celebrations. The Great Jubilee
drew thousands of pilgrims to the capital of Western Christianity, and Dante,
writing the first lines of his Divine Comedy two years later, chose Good
Friday 1300 as the date for his fictional encounter with Virgil and the
date for the wrenching journey through Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise,
and to his final vision of the Godhead. On November 15, 1300, Ferdinand
(Fernando) IV, king of Castile, León, Asturias, Galicia, Toledo, and of the
wide collection of other kingdoms and territories that constituted the realm
of Castile in the Middle Ages, exempted Don Estebán and his wife, Doña
Inés, both citizens of Burgos, from all taxes, except for moneda forera (a tax
paid to the Crown for maintaining the stability of the coinage), as a reward
for Estebán’s efforts as a surgeon.1 That same year, under the authority of
the regents, Ferdinand’s mother, María de Molina, and his uncle, the Infante
Don Henry (Enrique) – for the king was still a minor – the young king
granted similar privileges and exemptions to men and women throughout
the realm, issued charters to municipalities, made donations to monasteries, and other such examples of royal largesse and power.
In 1300 other extant documents in Castile, the Crown of Aragon, Navarre,
and even the Muslim kingdom of Granada reveal mostly the normal and
mundane affairs of everyday life. Property transactions, donations, wills,
monastic protests against noble encroachment and abuses, and royal attempts
– more often than not failed attempts or ignored by a restless nobility –
to restore order are similar in many respects to those of preceding and
succeeding decades. In the Iberian peninsula, 1300 was not the dramatic
watershed that the arrival of the new century marked for other parts of
Europe. Yet, though not charged with the symbolic weight that it had in
other realms throughout the medieval West, many Castilians, Aragonese,
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2 At the Dawn of a New Century
Catalans, and other people living in Spain had a keen awareness of events
transpiring elsewhere. Spaniards, as did many other western Europeans,
flocked to Rome in search of indulgences or of the many pleasures (and
pains) of medieval tourism in 1300.
For those living in what we know today as Spain, the excitement about
the new century must have been a bit disconcerting and a further reminder,
despite the great strides made to integrate the peninsula into European affairs
from the late eleventh century onwards, of a disconnect with the rest of
the medieval West. Throughout medieval Spain the year was identified in
the documentation as era de (the era of) 1338. The Spanish 1300 had, in fact,
occurred in what, for most of the rest of Europe, was still 1262. The real
1300, if we can call calendrical conventions real, thus passed without too
many momentous events or without many of those signal watersheds around
which traditional historiography has been built. Nonetheless, dramatic transformations were already in the making, and the diverse Spanish realms faced
harder and more troubling times in the decades ahead. For one, Castilians,
Aragonese, Catalans, and Valencians, though still dating their documents
by the old formula that placed the beginning of the Christian era 38 years
before Jesus’ birth, were increasingly aware of being chronologically out of
step with the rest of Europe. Some documents after 1300 noted both the
ancient traditional forms of dating and the dating norms in use in other
European kingdoms. By the late fourteenth century, all the Spanish realms
had abandoned the old style of dating and embraced the rest of Europe,
choosing Christ’s birth as the appropriate chronological marker.
Regardless of the confusing chronological situation and the absence of
dramatic events to mark the year, the Spanish realms, as they faced the dawning of a new century in 1300, did so with the accumulated experiences,
institutional developments, and social strife of centuries of political evolution. Before focusing on Spain’s historical development in the late Middle
Ages, it may be useful to probe the context in which the Spanish realms
evolved in the fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries.
A Plurality of Spains
Defining what Spain was in the Middle Ages, beyond a geographical concept, is as difficult as it may be today in the age of autonomous regions
and recent calls for regional secession or wider autonomy. In 1300 the Iberian
peninsula was fragmented into a diversity of realms and political entities.
They contrasted with each other in terms of political organization, language,
social and economic structures, topography, and history. The peninsula’s
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At the Dawn of a New Century
3
political fragmentation reflected the historical developments of an earlier
period and the slow emergence of distinct kingdoms after the Muslim invasion. What, then, were the different political entities comprising medieval
Spain in 1300?
Castile
The largest in terms of territory and population was the kingdom of
Castile. It extended over most of the central and northwestern areas of the
peninsula, with borders on the Bay of Biscay in the north, the Atlantic
and the Mediterranean in its southern frontier, Portugal in the west, and
Aragon, Navarre, and Granada in the east, north, and south respectively.
The kingdom of Castile was itself a composite of numerous other kingdoms and territories added either by conquests or familial alliances over
the course of the Reconquest, that is, over a period running effectively from
the early tenth century to the fourteenth. Its rulers were never described
simply as kings of Castile, but their long and often repeated titles articulated the sense of an amalgam of what had once been independent realms,
now brought together under the power of one king (or queen). Asturias,
León, Galicia, Castile, Toledo, Córdoba, Seville, Murcia, the lordship of
Molina, and the Basque homeland were among some of the most important holdings constituting the late medieval kingdom of Castile-León. And
the diversity of these realms was great indeed. From their geographical and
climatic differences to their peculiar historical developments, patterns of
cultivation and rural life, rights of the peasantry, and the role of regional
nobilities in the running of the realm, the kingdoms and territories that
formed Castile were, in many respects, as distinct from each other as Castile
was from other Iberian realms. And matters could become even more
complicated when we consider religious plurality and antagonisms that
flourished in Castile, as they did elsewhere in the peninsula, during the
late Middle Ages.
The Crown of Aragon
If Castile was a complicated polity, the Crown of Aragon was infinitely more
so. At least most of the Castilian realm enjoyed some linguistic unity – with
the exception of parts of the Basque country and Galicia, where significant
parts of the population remained faithful to their original regional languages. The Crown of Aragon was also a collection of realms, but unlike its
powerful Castilian neighbor, each of its main components or political units
– the kingdom of Aragon, Catalonia (in its many different incarnations
SPA_C01.qxd 23/5/07 11:13 AM Page 4
4 At the Dawn of a New Century
as the county of Barcelona or Principality, but never a kingdom), and the
k…
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