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Portsmouth Business School Organisation Studies & Human Resource Management Subject Group U21811 CROSS-CULTURAL AWARENESS for BUSINESS UNIT HANDBOOK 2015/16 Unit Co-ordinator: Dr Wenjin Dai. Page i C O N T E N T S 1. ESSENTIAL INFORMATION………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1 1.1 What is the unit about?………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1 1.2 Learning Outcomes ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1 1.3 Unit Delivery……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1 1.4 Student Effort and Independent Study …………………………………………………………………………… 2 1.5 Attendance…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2 1.6 Course Materials…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3 1.7 Reading and Other Source Material……………………………………………………………………………….. 3 1.8 Student feedback 2014/15……………………………………………………………………………………………. 5 1.9 Teaching Staff……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5 2. LECTURE PROGRAMME…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6 3. SEMINARS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 9 4. ASSESSMENT. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 34 4.1 Assessment details…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 34 4.2 Marks and Feedback ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 36 4.3 Deferral/Second Attempt Arrangements………………………………………………………………………. 37 4.4. Generic Assessment Criteria ………………………………………………………………………………………. 38 Page 1 1. ESSENTIAL INFORMATION 1.1 What is the unit about? Cross-Cultural Awareness for Business is a 20 credit Level 6 undergraduate unit which builds on, and further develops, students’ prior knowledge and understanding of national (macro-level) culture and its potential effects in business. This generic topic area was covered in several Level 4 and Level 5 units and we will now take a more specific, higher level and in-depth look at the impact and importance of culture in selected areas of business activity. The stated aims of the unit are as follows:  To assess the impact of increasing involvement of organizations in cross-cultural relations.  To examine theoretical and practical contributions to the area of cross-cultural management.  To provide students with the opportunity to research and reflect on the cultural dimensions of business practice in diverse countries. 1.2 Learning Outcomes On successful completion of the unit you will be expected, at threshold (pass) level to be able to:  Understand what is meant by culture and its influence on individuals’ behaviour.  Identify and analyse the nature of differences in workplace behaviour in a cross-cultural context.  Recognise the need to develop cross-cultural competence as a business attribute.  Consider the significance of the cultural dimension in an increasingly multicultural globalised working environment. 1.3 Unit Delivery Scheduled Activities (Hours) Lecture 24. Seminar 24. Class teaching comprises ONE one-hour weekly lecture and ONE weekly seminar, both taking place in Weeks 1-12 in both teaching periods (September-December and January-March.) Our aim is for all students have an equivalent learning experience so please stick to your allocated seminar group in the appropriate week in order to maintain a consistent group size. As ever you should be prepared to work extensively outside of these formally scheduled teaching hours … merely attending classes is Not likely to be sufficient to pass. Page 2 Please pay attention to the designated learning hours (see 1.4 below). These should include time set aside for reading, class preparation and assimilating notes made in class. New material will be presented in the weekly lectures, while the seminars will offer the opportunity to discuss issues and apply concepts via case studies, discussion of journal articles or current events and other ACTIVE learning methods – see also Section 1.4 below. As a final year unit, we hope to draw on any work placement and other more general work experience as appropriate, in order to bring things to life via enhanced discussion. It is almost certain that your seminar group will be made up of students from different cultural backgrounds, so we will be asking you to contribute your own experiences of visiting, working (and studying) in other cultures, which should involve some interesting comparisons. 1.4 Student Effort and Independent Study This is a 20 credit unit with an estimated total individual student workload of 200 hours. Lecture/seminar attendance comprises a total of 36 hours, with a further 2 hours for examination, and the remaining 162 hours is designated for the following activities (not an exclusive list):  Preparation for seminar activities  Review of lecture/seminar notes  Completion of set reading  Extensive further independent research and study  Research and preparation of assessed coursework  Revision This could break down as an estimated student workload of approximately 8 hours per week (including class attendance). It is, of course, up to you how you choose to manage your time, and this nominal weekly loading may not always apply; however you should note that we expect the product of your efforts to reflect the significant amount of time allocated overall , included the time required for assessed coursework and other types of independent study. We will place selected activities e.g. self-check tests on the unit’s Moodle site. Such activities may form part of your independent learning and offer the opportunity of formative feedback (early indications of how well you are learning.) If you have any questions regarding such online activities please ask your seminar tutor. 1.5 Attendance Attendance at both lectures and seminars is necessary and we trust that you will also feel able to make an active contribution to seminar discussions. Your seminar will be led by the same tutor throughout the year. Please ensure that you are aware of how best to contact your tutor. We can discuss this further in the first seminar in Week 1. Page 3 We aim to create a relaxed learning environment in classes so that you feel comfortable and able to contribute. This you can do in a number of ways; all of which are underpinned by the following assumptions: (a) That you are present … we will be compiling attendance lists; (b) You have completed the required preparation prior to the class. Please therefore pay close attention to your tutor’s guidance on what to prepare before the seminar. Seminar tutors will be told to forge ahead with the scheduled class activities so if for example you have not read a case study beforehand we won’t wait for you to catch up. (c) You are willing to contribute to class discussion. 1.6 Course Materials Lecture slides and any additional supplements will be posted on the unit’s Moodle site by the end of the week in which the lecture is delivered. Other supplementary resources, e.g. selfcheck tests and links to appropriate journals can also be found on the Moodle site. 1.7 Reading and Other Source Material The study of culture and its effects in work organisations is a topical and fast-growing part of the business studies curriculum, which includes material from several diverse academic disciplines. There are several textbooks which cover this unit’s syllabus and these books should be useful in identifying core concepts, theories and debates. The main textbook is:  French, R. (2015), Cross-Cultural Management in Work Organisations, 3rd Edition, London: CIPD. ISBN 9781843983675. An alternative contemporary textbook which covers unit material is:  Browaeys M-J. (2011) & Price, R. (2011), Understanding Cross-Cultural Management, 2 nd Edition, Harlow: FT Prentice Hall. Recommended reading from French and Browaeys and Price will link to lectures throughout the unit. Two newly-published books in the area are:  Aycan, Z. Kanungo, R.N. and Mendonca, M. (2014), Orgainzations and Manamgement in Cross-Cultural Context, London: Sage  Patel , T. (2014), Cross-Cultural Management: A Transactional Approach, London: Routledge. Page 4 Another comprehensive – although older- textbook is:  Schneider, S. & Barsoux, J-L. (2003), Managing Across Cultures, 2 nd Edition, Harlow: FT Prentice Hall. A useful book on the topic of inter-cultural communication is:  Guirdham, M. (2011), Communicating Across Cultures, 3rd Edition, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. A 3rd edition of this textbook was published in 2011. This unit takes a social science perspective and a number of Organisational Behaviour and Human Resource Management textbooks touch on aspects of cross-cultural management. It can be worthwhile referring to such books to gain a broader view on topics.  Brooks, I. (2009) Organisational Behaviour, 4 th Edition, Harlow: FT Prentice Hall. Chapter 10 written by Jon Stephens is especially relevant.  French, R. Rayner, C Rees, G & Rumbles, S. (2011), Organizational Behaviour, 2 nd Edition, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.  Buchanan, D & Huczynski, A. (2013), Organisational Behaviour, 8 th Edition, Harlow: FT Prentice Hall.  Mullins, L.J. (2013), Management and Organisational Behaviour, 10th Edition, Harlow: FT Prentice Hall.  Brewster, C. Sparrow, P. Vernon, G & Houldsworth, E. (2011), International Human Resource Management, 3 rd Edition, London: CIPD.  Gilmore, S. & Williams, S. (2012), Human Resource Management, 2 nd edition, Oxford: OUP. The following books are recommended for those of you who wish to either look at more specialised published material or examine original sources…this is always highly recommended.  Hampden-Turner, C & Trompenaars, F. (2000), Building Cross-Cultural Competence, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.  Hofstede, G. (2001), Cultures Consequences, 2 nd Edition, London: Sage.  Hofstede, G. Hofstede, G.J. & Minkov, M. (2010), Culture and Organisations: Software of the Mind, 3 rd Edition, New York: McGraw Hill.  Lewis, R. (2005), When Cultures Collide, London: Nicholas Brealey.  Mead, R. & Andrews, T.G. (2009), International Management: Culture and Beyond, 4 th Edition, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.  Minkov, M. (2007), What Makes Us Similar and Different, Sofia, Bulgaria: Klasica.  Moran, R. Harris, P. & Moran, S. (2011), Managing Cultural Differences, 8 th Edition, Oxford: Elsevier.  Trompenaars, F and Hampden-Turner, C. (1999), Riding the Waves of Culture, 2 nd Edition, London: Nicholas Brealey. A third edition of this book was published in 2011. Page 5 We are convinced that this unit’s content is particularly topical and it will be useful if you can identify relevant articles and broadcasts from suitable media, i.e. ‘serious’ newspapers and television/radio. You will get credit for identifying appropriate examples of issues and concepts drawn from real life. The Internet is, as ever, a potentially valuable source of information on all topics when used selectively…just because it is on the Net does not mean the material has the slightest academic veracity. Nonetheless a search engine enquiry on any key word or phrase is likely to bring forward some interesting results! You may also wish to use University library resources to examine academic journal articles on selected topics. Many suitable journals are available on-line under particular University of Portsmouth license agreements. In the case of this unit the following journals are recommended (please note this is not an exclusive list.)  Academy of Management Review.  Cross-Cultural Management.  International Journal of Cross-Cultural Management.  International Journal of Human Resource Management.  Journal of International Business Studies. THE INCLUSION OF LIKELY JOURNALS IS AN EXPRESSION OF AN IMPORTANT TRUTH. IN AN AREA WHERE WE HAVE OUR OWN ( POSSIBLY STRONGLY HELD) – PRE-FORMED VIEWS, IT IS CRITICALLY IMPORTANT TO LOOK AT EVIDENCE IN ORDER TO FULLY UNDERSTAND TOPICS, WHILE KEEPING ABREAST OF CHANGES. IN THIS WAY ONE CAN EVEN MAKE INFORMED PREDICTIONS ABOUT THE FUTURE. 1.8 Student feedback 2014/15 We were pleased to receive positive feedback from students, both informally and via the unit evaluation forms. The forms revealed an overall satisfaction score of 4.1 (for the 10 credit unit) and 3.6 (20 credit unit.) We have restructured some seminars in response to comments from students in previous years. In particular, we add one seminar for coursework Q &A this year. 1.9 Teaching Staff. This year’s teaching team comprises: Dr Wenjin Dai, Dr Ray French, Dr Kajal Sharma and Dr Rui Yang. One of these lecturers will be your seminar tutor – they will make it clear how you can best contact them. Page 6 2. LECTURE PROGRAMME Week 1 w/c 21/9/15 Introduction to the unit. What is culture and why study it? Reading: French (2015) Chapters 1 and 2. Browaeys & Price (2011) Chapter 1. Week 2 w/c 28/9 Understanding culture. The ‘etic’ or comparative approach (i): Hofstede and his successors. Reading: French Chapter 3 pp 41-59 Browaeys & Price Chapters 2 & 5. Week 3 w/c 5/10 Understanding culture. Comparing cultures (ii): Ed Hall and ‘context’. Reading: French Chapter 3 pp 60-63 Browaeys & Price pp116-125. Week 4 w/c 12/10 Understanding culture. Moving on: 21st century approaches. Reading: French Chapter 4 Week 5 w/c 19/10 Part 1 Review. Values or institutions? The convergence debate. Reading: Reprise French Chapters 1-4 Browaeys & Price Chapters 1, 2 & 6. Week 6 w/c 26/10 Cross-cultural competence (i). Transitions and culture shock. Reading: French Chapter 9 Browaeys & Price Chapter 9. Week 7 w/c 2/11 Transitions and culture shock continued… Reading: See Week 6. Page 7 Week 8 w/c 9/11 Week 9 w/c 16/11 Cross-cultural competence (ii). Ethics. Reading: French Chapter 9 pp 202-209 Browaeys & Price pp103-110. Ethics continued… Reading: See Week 8. Week 10 w/c 23/11 Week 11 w/c 30/11 Week 12 w/c 7/12 Week 13 w/c 4/1/16 Week 14 w/c 11/1 Week 15 w/c 18/1 Inter-cultural communication (i). Perceptual differences, barriers and stereotyping. Reading: French Chapter 6 Browaeys & Price Chapters 13 & 14. Inter-cultural communication (ii). Attribution of behaviour and NVC. Reading: French Chapter 6 Browaeys & Price Chapters 13 & 14. Workplace differences (i). Motivation and exchange Reading: French Chapter 8. See also relevant sections in Mullins and Brooks. Workplace differences (ii). Rewarding employees Reading: French pp175-184 and relevant International HRM books and journals. Workplace differences (iii). Values and leadership. Reading: French Chapter 7. Browaeys & Price Chapters 2 & 8. Workplace differences (iii) Values and leadership continued. Reading: See Week 14. Page 8 Week 16 w/c 25/1 Week 17 w/c 1/2 Week 18 w/c 8/2 Week 19 w/c 15/2 Week 20 w/c 22/2 Week 21 w/c 29/2 Week 22 w/c 7/3 Week 23 w/c 14/3 Week 24 w/c 21/3 Workplace similarity or difference? Organisation structure and Organisational culture. Reading: French Chapter 5. Browaeys & Price Chapter 7. Culture and HRM. National systems and institutions. Reading: French pp 213-220. Relevant International HRM books. Culture and HRM in practice: Recruitment and Selection. Reading: French pp221-227 and relevant International HRM books. Negotiating Internationally. Reading: French pp129-133 Broeways & Price Chapter 15. Conflict and cultural differences. Reading: Browaeys & Price Chapter 17. French Chapter 6 (reprise.) Managing cross-cultural teams Reading: French pp 157-162. Browaeys & Price Chapter 16. Cultural Intelligence – the way forward. Reading: French pp197-198, 244-245 Revision lecture 1. Revision lecture 2. Page 9 3. SEMINARS. There will be a total of 24 seminars. Seminar topics are listed below: Seminar 1. Week One Introduction to the unit. 1. Give out hard copy handbooks and discuss expectations with your seminar tutor. 2. Agree case study groups (3-4 students per group). Seminar 2. Opening discussion. This exercise is designed to introduce some of the issues covered in the unit and for you to consider your prior knowledge and experience. From Aycan, Kanungo and Mendonca (2014). Email Exchange: From: James Pandur Sent: Friday July 29th 2011, 1527 To: Alistair Mayfraud Dear Alistair, Warm greetings from our new project office. I hope you and your family are keeping well since our meeting last week. Thank you again for your hospitality extended to me and my family. Alistair my friend, I must bring a potential problem to your attention. The new administrative assistant Ms. Buckley has sent me the following email few days ago. Her email gave me the impression that she had no manners, especially as a young lady. She was addressing me as if I was a friend. She is talking about having fun together! Does she not know that I am her superior and that she is supposed to work very hard in this project. Please advise my friend. Do you think we should think about a replacement? May God’s blessings come upon you and your family. James Pandur. From: Leanne Buckley Sent: Wednesday July 27th 2011, 1013 To: James Pandur Hi James, I am Leanne your new admin assistant in the Power Inc. Project! How are you? I plan to be in the office on Monday, will you be in? I look forward to meeting you in person and having fun working on the project. Take care and see you soon. Leanne. Page 10 Questions To what extent could the differences outlined in this exchange be the result of cultural background? Can you guess what those cultural differences might be? What other factors could explain the differences in communication style and attitudes towards working relationships? What do you understand by the term stereotyping? How would you expect reputable researchers to guard against, or minimise, the dangers of stereotyping when studying culture in business?i Identify positive aspects of stereotyping. For each of the following statements, identify one country for which you would give a ‘true’ response and one other for which you would answer ‘false’. (a) People in the society are comfortable taking risks. (b) People like to socialise and get to know each other before conducting business. (c) People feel comfortable questioning tier supervisor’s decisions. (d) People value being direct and speaking their mind freely. (e) Children are taught to conform and be ‘team players’. (f) Women are expected to be subservient to men. Seminar 3. THE MOKUSEI SAKE COMPANY. The Mokusei Sake Company was founded in March 2009 as a joint venture between Mokusei International , a Japanese rice wine importing company based in Fort Worth Texas and Gilkes Farms Inc an American rice-milling business with headquarters in New Orleans. The company was established in San Antonio Texas at an ex-dairy renovated to enable Sake production. Prior to setting up the company, a team of Japanese Sake makers were brought over from a small agricultural village in Honshu known for producing renowned high-quality Sake. This team was led by a sake master, Mr Takashiyama Kaiou, at that time 73 years of age. Kaiou was a man of traditional values with a fifty five –year background in Sake production. He was perceived as a quiet, agreeable and conscientious individual who also possessed considerable physical strength…he held a fifth level black belt standing in Judo. On arrival in the United States this team was accommodated in trailers at the new factory in San Antonio. A strong sense of group identity built up within the team who shared common kitchen and bathroom facilities. The team worked very long hours to set up the Sake production area and to develop a robust yeast culture which would underpin rice fermentation. A typical working day for the Japanese team would commence with a fourty-five minute exercise routine led by Kaiou the Sake master. A long working day ended with a group rendition of a work song which celebrated the efforts and achievement of the team on that day. The Mokusei Senior Management Team was made up of Dr James McCullough senior; Chair of the Board and President of Gilkes Farms: his son James McCullough junior, Executive VicePresident ; and Yakamoto Binasu; Vice-president for logistics and President of Mokusei Page 11 International. McCullough jnr was the only senior executive based at the production plant; McCullough snr and Binasu were based in New Orleans and Fort Worth respectively. James McCullough jnr had returned to the family business in 2007 after a series of roles in Hawaiian Sound, a successful fast-food franchise. He was a university business school MBA graduate, well-connected in Democratic Party circles. He was regarded as strongly individualistic and entrepreneurial in his business dealings. Outgoing and affable he had been generally wellrespected and liked throughout his business career. Nonetheless, he had never operated outside the USA or had any significant dealings with overseas co-workers or suppliers. As the business grew, American marketing, finance and human resources staff were recruited to work in New Orleans, while additional production workers from the San Antonio locality joined the factory site. These workers came from a variety of backgrounds including white, black, Hispanic and Asian-American ethnic groups. Increasingly college students from local universities supplementing their income joined the workforce, together with women workers often returning to work from maternity breaks. From the very start of the venture McCullough snr and Binasu had been aware of potential difficulties in creating an internationally-focussed business such as Sake production. Accordingly in June 2009 they recruited Tina Usagi as the chief language instructor for the Japanese contingent. A Japanese American, born and raised in Osaka, she gave private English lessons to Mr Kaiou the Sake master for six hours per week, concentrating on technical vocabulary. In addition she conducted “basic survival” English classes for the junior Sake makers. Before long problems of a more fundamental and complex inter-cultural nature emerged. When full production began, including the local San Antonio workforce, Kaiou’s mono-cultural production methods became increasingly to be resisted; firstly through sullen acceptance and then overt hostility. The newly hired Americans essentially saw their work as a ‘nine to five’ commitment of labour. This cohort possessed a sense of individual identity, equal status, informality and plain speaking. In comparison, the Japanese workers were characterised by a sense of group identity, respect for hierarchical status, formal style and more indirect expression. The American workforce were initially intrigued by Kaiou’s management style but soon questioned whether they should work beyond their contracted hours in order to meet daily production targets. This practice was accepted as normal by the Japanese contingent. As a result Kaiou called a meeting with McCullough jnr to discuss some of the issues he faced in the production area. Tina Usagi was called in to translate for both parties. James McCullough was sympathetic to Kaiou’s concerns but explained that in the US, employees could not be expected to work overtime without monetary reward. They may be happy to put in unpaid extra hours but this could not be guaranteed. He pointed out that that the Japanese workers were paid on a fixed salary payment related to quarterly production – so working beyond the standard working day was acceptable. The local employees were paid on an hourly rate and overtime would need to be taken on at a higher and separate rate; most probably ‘one and a half times pay’. In summary he felt that the current situation with the two groups working different hours could continue. After this meeting it could be noted that the younger Japanese workers began to follow the local staff in ‘punching out’ at five o’clock. Increasingly this younger group began to bond with the American employees with several joint social events taking place and subsequent friendships Page 12 developing. Morale among the more senior Japanese workers fell, although they did not express their discontent directly. Tina Usagi was called on to translate several further meetings between McCullough and Kaiou which, she noticed, would end in frustration for both participants .She found the sessions embarrassing as she often found herself taking one or other side in the debates. On one occasion she chose not to translate the description of Kaiou as a “farmboy”. When Kaiou reported that a delivery truck driver had told him to “go screw yourself”, she also declined to enlighten him as to what was meant. In Spring 2010 a ‘Sake Experience’ –essentially a tasting room – was opened to encourage local residents to visit the plant and try the finished product. Tina Usagi provided advice to the ‘Sake Experience’ staff and , in addition, provided a ‘voiceover’ to a Powerpoint presentation depicting the Sake production process. Occasionally, to supplement her pay, she would attend tasting sessions serving Sake and chatting to the visitors. On one such occasion she was embarrassed to see that the ‘Experience’ staff had added a slide showing Kaiou’s face with the following accompanying commentary. “Takashiyama Kaiou is on a mission to sell Sake to the civilised world! In leaving Japan Takashiyama has placed his life in peril since he is now blacklisted by the Sake triads who control the business in East Asia”. Immediately she heard this story Tina spoke to the tasting room manager, Robert Smith to ask how this had been added to the presentation. Robert did not know but considered it to be a “grabber” which had boosted sales by adding “human interest” to the product. Tina responded that it was an unkind and untrue story which would have serious implications as the consequences of Kaiou ‘losing face’ among his colleagues were very grave indeed. Despite Tina’s warning the triad story remained in the presentation. Three weeks later, during a routine English lesson, Kaiou told Tina that he was aware that his portrait was being used in the Sake experience show and asked her to translate the storyline. Tina realised that she too would share in Kaiou’s loss of face: in Japan the whole organisation loses face when an employee makes an error, so apologising profusely, she translated the voiceover sequence in full. Kaiou’s reaction was very solemn as she had anticipated. He immediately took her by the arm and led her into James McCullough junior’s office. Entering without knocking he asked her to repeat what she had translated. He then demanded an apology from the organisation. James McCullough told Kaiou that he was very sorry, had most definitely not known about the addition of the story, and would deal with the matter right away. He would get on the phone to the tasting room and have the staff remove the offending section before the next open day. After this he would get his secretary to write a letter of apology to Kaiou. After telling Kaiou to leave, McCullough confronted Tina. He asked her sternly “how had this whole thing got to this stage”? He informed her that it was her job to stamp down on conflicts such as these .He also reprimanded her for failing to alert him of the potential row before it blew up. The next day Tina was told by Robert Smith that he no longer wished to see her in the Sake Experience. After that she was called upon less frequently by McCullough jnr and, within a period of six weeks, she no longer heard from the Mokusei Sake company. This case study is based on the Nomizu Sake case study written by Professor Mary Yoko Brannen; published in Gareth Morgan, (1989), Creative Organizational Theory, London: Sage. Names, dates and some text have been changed by Ray French who has also added questions – see below. The events depicted in the case study did occur. Page 13 QUESTIONS: 1. What issues are raised in this case study? 2. How would you evaluate James McCullough junior’s management of a multi- cultural company? 3. How would you evaluate Tina Usagi’s behaviour? Could she have been more effective? 4. Identify two significant differences between American and Japanese employees in this company. 5. How useful is the work of Geert Hofstede and Fons Trompennars in explaining events at the Mokusei Sake Company? Seminar 4. Image-conscious: crossing cultural barriers at AXA Creating an employer brand can be tricky when you are a global insurance conglomerate such as AXA. When the company originally thought up a brand name, it came up with the word Élan, which means ‘leap forward’ in French. But in Canada the word more commonly refers to a moose. Unimpressed with this image, Canadian employees understandably objected, and the name was quickly discarded in favour of ‘AXA’ in 1985. This was just one of the cultural and linguistic barriers that the company had to be sensitive to when creating a global employer brand. AXA started out as French insurer Mutuelle Unis, but has grown rapidly over the past 20 years into a global conglomerate providing financial protection and wealth management solutions. It now employs 140,000 people across 50 countries after a series of acquisitions, including a US company, Equitable, in 1985, and more recently Guardian Royal Exchange in the UK and Nippon Dantai in Japan. The challenge for the group has been to create an employer brand and a workplace culture that crosses cultural, language and social barriers, according to Françoise Colloc’h, senior executive vice-president of HR, brand and communications, and a member of AXA’s management board. ‘It has been more about taking the best of each company to make that part of the AXA culture, rather than destroying the past of those companies and saying there is only one way – the Mutuelle Unis way,’ Colloc’h says. Part of creating that employer brand was to establish a set of values representing the way it wanted to behave towards clients, shareholders and employees. The company did this in 1990, after its purchase of Equity & Law in the UK. ‘We started discovering that cultures were very different. We needed to share the ethics that were supporting our core business,’ says Colloc’h. AXA initially came up with seven values. These were loyalty, pride, courage, ambition, realism, imagination and integrity. But she admits that the company made a mistake by having a French team think up these values, because they failed to take cultural differences into account. ‘The more global we became, the more we discovered that these values were reflecting French, rather than a global, culture.’ One example of different interpretations of values concerned the word ‘loyalty’ which, in Japan, could in some circumstances imply committing hara-kiri, a form of ritualised suicide. ‘We Page 14 discovered that some of our wording was not adaptable in some cultures,’ Colloc’h adds. As a result, two years ago the head office in Paris decided to rework AXA’s values. Employees from seven countries, including the UK, Japan and USA, were chosen to make up 10 focus groups and discuss the relevance of the values to different cultures. The feedback resulted in the identification of five values that would surmount cultural barriers and reflect client’s expectations of AXA. These were professionalism, integrity, team spirit, innovation and pragmatism. Yet having an employer brand and a set of global values is not enough to create a global culture. The firm realised that its staff had to embody the behavioural traits associated with its five values – in other words, they had to ‘live’ the values. It has tackled this issue by recruiting and appraising staff against behaviours linked to values. But has AXA been successful in creating a global brand? Paul Walker, employer brand consultant at TMP Worldwide, believes that AXA has done a great job in creating a uniform brand across all its business. At the same time, he warns that although most of the values could be interpreted in the same way in parts of the world with a broadly Western culture, the company has to be aware of differences in interpretation. ‘For example, in China AXA could encounter real problems trying to define what “professionalism” means in a country where the professional cadre was largely removed by the Cultural Revolution,’ he says. The company has sought to address issues of cultural confusion by letting individual countries interpret the values. AXA also uses pictograms–a form of visual alphabet – to illustrate behavioural concepts and management style in 28 forms. ‘It’s significant that it has adopted a graphic, rather than verbal, expression of its values in an attempt to sidestep any cultural booby-traps,’ says Walker. AXA believes that these pictograms cross cultural barriers, especially in Asia. ‘It creates a common language,’ says Andrew Burk, director of organisational development and reward, AXA UK. AXA uses pictograms, known in the company as ‘AXAgrams’, within the organisation to illustrate behavioural concepts and management styles. The AXAgram opposite represents encouraging employees to be honest and not afraid of speaking up. Pictograms were still being used in AXA strategic management development programmes as late as 2008. Adapted from an article in People Management by Karen Higginbottom 2003. Page 15 ACTIVITY Read the case study above, and respond to the following. 1 In what ways have issues of communication affected AXA’s attempts to create a ‘global brand’? 2 What would you see as the advantages and disadvantages of using graphic forms of communication in the context outlined in the article? 3 How might a knowledge of Ed Hall’s work on ‘high- and low-context cultures’ help a manager or consultant to improve communication within a global conglomerate such as AXA? Seminar 5. Open discussion/debate on Etic & Emic approaches Separating the class into two groups: the ‘Etic’ group and ‘Emic’ group. Before the seminar, please read the articles and materials posted on the unit’s Moodle site: under ‘Seminar 5’. Suggesting talking points (not exclusive): 1. Discussion on the validity of Hofstede’s work: Credits & critiques. 2. What are the key assumptions of etic approach? Do you agree with these assumptions, and why? 3. How would you describe the emic approach? What are the merits and critiques on emic approach? Seminar 6. Advance work needed Read the case below and prepare answers to the questions. Provide answers to the questions in your group during the seminar. It would be beneficial to draft individual answers before the class. Case study: Managing Guanxi in a Swiss-Chinese Joint Venture. Swissotels Hotels and resorts is a global hotel management company owned by Raffles International Hotels and Resorts. It is one of the largest hotel chains in the world. It owns hotels in 31 destinations, including Asia, Australia, Europe, North and South America. In order to open a hotel in China, the company started the process by entering into a joint Page 16 venture between Swissotel and Dalian Emporium Bloc. This came to fruition, and a new hotel – Swiss Hotel Dalian – was opened. This is a luxurious five-star hotel with more than 600 employees, and enjoys a reputation as the most famous accommodation in Dalian. Despite the fact that the Chinese and Swiss are in business together, there are strong cultural differences which affect the running of the hotel. Joint ventures are fairly common in China because there is a need for western management expertise. The Swiss partners found that operating in China meant that management practices that they had previously taken for granted had now to be established. The Swiss general manager commented that ’a big problem with Chinese partners is their lack of understanding of how modern hotels work. They agree to follow our practices initially, but since then we have experienced a lot of opposition from the staff’. The Swiss resident manager said that he had found attitudes to be very different between the two countries: ‘What I have found is a lack of initiative among many people here. I have to tell them exactly what they ought to be doing. The older Chinese managers have problems in understanding and absorbing foreign management ideas, such as the need for clear performance measures. This can lead to disagreements and the feeling of “them” and “us” in the hotel’. In China business dealings rely more on individual relationships and are fairly informal. In the West, doing business is based upon legal requirements, which in turn are based on concepts such as justice and equity. In China, a personalised and close business relationship is called guanxi, and it plays a paramount role in business. Guanxi involves relationships among individuals that create obligations for the continued exchange of favours. For organisations, Guanxi serves as a strategic tool, especially for those without strong government ties. At the individual level, managers may establish and use guanxi to carry out business. It can be used to gain access to new customers, keep existing clients, facilitate daily business operations, or even avoid government investigations. One of the Swiss managers at the hotel said: ‘Relationships in Switzerland are often focused at the level of the firm, but in China guanxi is focused on the individual level. In Switzerland, relationships will form after a deal is accomplished, but in China, guanxi has to be established before a deal starts. Chinese people make friends first, build up guanxi, and then do business later’. The Swiss public relations manager considers that good guanxi with the staff is important because it enhances the working environment, creates a good atmosphere in which to work and the mutual trust built up enables staff to accomplish tasks smoothly. Harmony is the highest goal of action and thought in Confucianism, and in order to maintain it, everyone wants to seek compromise not confrontation. Managers may lose their good guanxi if they treat staff badly in public: good guanxi is maintained by treating everyone with respect. Also good guanxi with the local government officials, local customs and local tax office officials is considered a potential strategic resource because the relationship can be exploited to the joint venture’s advantage. The Chinese purchasing manager and the Swiss general manager often have dinner with the officials of the Dalian Customs Department. The general manager learnt through bitter experience that this is the best way to conduct relations. When he began working in China he could not understand why it took so long for the customs officials to check new supplies for the hotel when they were being transported from another Chinese city. He has now learnt that by building up guanxi with the officials; Page 17 whenever new supplies are expected, a phone call to the officials of the Customs Department will ensure that the goods are checked very quickly. Also, good guanxi, with suppliers is essential because a hotel needs substantial amounts of fresh high quality food and beverages every day, especially when banquets are organised on the spur of the moment. Good guanxi with the suppliers ensures that they will deliver food and drinks whenever needed. However, the Swiss restaurant manager considers that the establishment of guanxi is very expensive for the hotel. He commented that ‘relationships start with friendship: then there are little gifts here and there. The surprise to me was how much food and drink and entertaining is involved in building up the relationship. They tend to drink Mao Tai (an expensive wine in China) – it’s a good opportunity to have it! In Switzerland it is acceptable to go for a sandwich together, but here you have to spend a lot of time and effort to get to know each other. In China people in a hurry don’t succeed. We frequently treat government officials to fine dining and present them with gifts such as a full set of golf clubs worth $10,000 – these are normal social activities.’ The Chinese personnel manager also was unhappy with guanxi because it means that often the better qualified candidates for jobs are not hired. The recruitment process at the hotel is still based on guanxi. The personnel manager has said that this means when she receives applications for a position on the hotel staff, there is sometimes attached to the application form a note from a senior government official which says ‘could you pay special attention to this person?’: or a note from a Chinese department manager saying’ take care of this person’ She says that recommendations from important officials have to be acted upon because of the importance of the relationship.’ You cannot refuse their requests because there would be trouble. If I didn’t get these notes, I probably wouldn’t employ these people. When I am recruiting, I have to consider each applicant’s position in society. If they have no skills, I just give them a very easy job.’ The Chinese front-of-house manager said that he well remembered a young woman whose father was a good friend of a senior manager at the hotel. Without knowing about that, he employed her to clean the toilets in the lobby. The senior manager objected strongly to this and continually insisted on better positions for her. She was promoted to a good position in housekeeping, although no extra staff were needed in that department at the time. At the hotel, new graduates were frustrated to find their educational qualifications treated with little respect by the management. When a group of graduates started their graduate training at the hotel, a non- graduate was among the group. One of the graduates commented: ‘We all had better qualifications than the non-graduate, yet he was given first choice of position, and he chose the computing department in the front office. He obtained a position that was interesting and easy because he had guanxi with a senior manager. Although I have a degree I have no guanxi and went into the housekeeping department. My work was much harder than his and involved doing morning evening and night shifts.’ The promotion of those with guanxi rather than ability is still the norm, and the result is that unqualified personnel occupy decision- making posts, and the hotel experiences poor management, low productivity and further nepotism which negatively influence performance. Page 18 Due to the importance of guanxi for business in China, most of the management posts in the hotel in Personnel, Purchasing and Sales are taken by Chinese staff. The expatriate Swiss managers occupy the positions which do not depend on guanxi in order to function effectively – General Manager, Resident Manager and Restaurant Manager. Although there are disadvantages to guanxi, it enables businesses to run smoothly in China, and the lack of contacts for foreign managers, coupled with the length of time it takes to build up contacts, means that it is very difficult for them to manage in China without foreign partners. Case study tasks 1.How are notions of fairness and justice which underpin the employment relationship in China different from those in western societies? 2.To what extent can theoretical approaches to culture help an understanding of the situation in the hotel? 3. How realistic in your view is it to expect guanxi to decline in significance within Chinese business in the period up to 2020? Give reasons for your conclusions. From: Lucas, R. Lupton, B. and Mathieson H (2006), Human Resource Management in an International Context, London CIPD. Seminar 7. No more ‘stiff upper lips’? The reaction to the death of Diana Princess of Wales in 1997, seemed too many to signify a cultural change in the UK. Across the country people spontaneously set up impromptu floral memorials, and there were numerous examples of publicly-expressed grief. In the days following the Princess’s death, many people took to the streets, or at least the parks of London and other cities, to express their sadness collectively. Some observers found these public displays of emotion to be at odds with the typical perception- or stereotype- of the British as a private and emotionally-reserved people. Others took a more judgemental view. A BBC News report dated February 23rd 2004, summarised the report of a ‘think-tank’ Civitas which was quoted as claiming that ‘Britons are feeding their own egos by indulging in ‘recreational grief for murdered children and dead celebrities they have never met”. The Civitas report went on to on to claim that ‘wearing charity ribbons, holding silences and joining protest marches all indicated the country was in emotional crisis’. Although to many the public displays of grief were a new phenomenon in the UK, it can be noted that they represented an example of cyclical change since there are documented cases of similar outpourings in the past, and the (possibly stereotypical) notion of the British ‘stiff upper lip’ can itself be emerging from a particular historical time; in this case the Victorian era.  Identify some possible explanations for culture change in the UK, as manifested in the reaction to the death of Diana, Princess of Wales. Page 19  Identify one example of culture change either in the country you were born or currently reside. Are all or only some members of the population affected by the change? How would you explain your example of ‘culture shift’? Seminar 8. CASE STUDY Miranda’s story. Case study written by Ray French based on biographical research conducted in another British university (i.e. not Portsmouth.) Miranda Fung was born and brought up in Wuhan, China. Her given name is Li Hua Fung: she was given the added Western name by her teacher when she first learned English in school. Miranda enrolled on a bachelor’s degree in business administration at a Welsh university in 2009. Her father is a senior manager in the chemicals industry, and Miranda is ambitious to progress to a managerial position in the future, preferably within the financial services sector. Approaching her three-year stay in the UK, Miranda was keen to learn about the new culture, feeling that this would give her self-confidence and enhance her career prospects. She enjoyed her induction programme which included organised trips to London and Stonehenge, and quickly made friends with other students who she met via the Chinese society at the ‘freshers’ fayre’. In her first few weeks of study, however, she experienced some difficulties in many of her subjects. Although she quickly emerged as a star performer in her statistics module, in other subjects – particularly marketing and organisational behaviour – she found that she equally quickly fell behind. Although she enjoyed the subjects, Miranda was unused to working with other students on case studies. In China she had experienced a far greater input from the teacher. Her schooling in China had accustomed her to taking copious notes from classes which were mostly taken up by the teacher talking. In her new environment, she found herself experiencing a sense of loss of familiar teaching and learning styles, and while she knew that she had to adapt to the less didactic approach evident in the UK, in moments of reflection she had to admit that she found the Chinese model better. There was also strange behaviour to confront outside the classroom. The British students in her hall of residence made too much noise for her liking, mostly but not only at weekends, and she was frankly appalled by the levels of alcohol consumption among both male and female UK students. When a group of her Chinese friends asked the British students to be a little quieter, on more than one occasion the response had been to invite Miranda and her friends to join the party. After four weeks, following an unsuccessful all-night attempt to take notes from a recording she had made of a lecture, Miranda was distressed to find herself breaking down in tears during a telephone call to her parents. Her first term of study from September to December, she would later recall, was largely spent in a haze of distress. With hard work and perseverance, Miranda progressed to her second year of study, where she found events to be more under her control. She had learned to seek advice from lecturers regarding her study methods, and took on board lessons from feedback she received on her written work. However, she tolerated rather than embraced group seminar work, and still could Page 20 not see why she had to constantly reference academics’ work in her essays because she felt that it stopped her expressing her own ideas. In an email to an old school friend in Wuhan, Miranda confided that she had now learned what the expectations were of a student in a British university, and was able to adapt her behaviour to these in order to achieve some measure of success. She had become more and more focused on completing her qualification as a means to advancing her career and earnings potential. Pressed by her friend as to whether she felt a changed person, Miranda replied that she did not. Read the case study above, and respond to the following. 1. Which (if any) of Craig’s (1979) ‘adaptation behaviours’ is displayed by Miranda, according to her own account of culture shock. Give reasons for your answer. 2. Should a university put measures into place in order to alleviate potential culture shock as felt by overseas students – and if so, what could these be? 3. Are Miranda’s experiences merely an extreme version of a transition and would a British student also experience ‘shock’ when entering a university course. Give reasons for your answer. Seminar 9. Self-check progress exercise. A Quiz will be posted on Moodle. Seminar 10. Group discussion. Advance preparation required for Questions 1 and 3. There is no definitive template of agreed ethical principles which cross-cultural managers can refer to when seeking help with ethical dilemmas arising from their work. Within the terms of cultural relativism, ethical standards are mostly fluid. The cross-cultural manager in following this approach should appreciate the norms of a new country and adhere to them, even if they go against accepted standards in his or her own home culture. Suggesting tasks: 1. Identify any two forms of behaviour in business that you consider to be universally wrong – i.e. they should not occur in any culture – and two that you think you would tolerate in another culture, even though they were not normally accepted in your home culture. Give reasons for your choice. 2. Discuss your findings within a small group (two to four people). How can you account for similarities and differences in your views? 3. Look at Transparency International’s latest * Corruption Perception Index. How can we account for relative position of countries in the index and why do Transparency International conclude that corruption is so damaging? *2013 Page 21 Seminar 11. In this seminar we will play a DVD which identifies some issues in cross-cultural communication. The programme lasts 25 minutes allowing for discussion of points raised based on the following questions. 1. To what extent do the practical scenarios in the programme reflect or contradict the theoretical approaches to cultural differences in communication? 2. What are the key learning points within the DVD that may be of use to an international manager? Give reasons for your conclusions. 3. More generally, from your own experience identify an example of a misunderstanding that may have resulted from cultural difference. How could that situation have been better handled? Seminar 12. Consolidation session and Q&A. Seminar 13. Karoshi Karoshi is a Japanese compound noun that literally means ‘death from overwork’. It has become something of a technical term used to describe cases of sudden death in service. The word has special significance in Japanese culture because it also has historic connotations of ritual suicide, but it is now primarily applied there when the death is caused by stress-related conditions such as heart disease and strokes (which are major killers across large parts of the globe). The first ‘business’ case of karoshi was reported in the late 1960s following the death from a stroke of a 29-year-old male employee who had been working for a major Japanese media company. Some 20 years later this specialised use of the term was popularised after the sudden and premature deaths of a number of senior managers. The Japanese media at that time highlighted the deaths as examples of a serious and newsworthy phenomenon, and death through overwork – i.e. stress-related collapse – became the subject of considerable debate within Japanese society, understandably leading to some degree of alarm. The Japanese Ministry of Labour first published statistics on karoshi from 1987, partly in response to serious public concern. The phenomenon has continued in the intervening period. On June 20 2014, the Japanese parliament passed a law calling for support centres, aid to businesses and more research on karoshi. It seems that the impact of karoshi shows no signs of decreasing with Japan’s police agency counting more than 2000 work-related suicides in 2013, while lawyers estimated that in 2009, 10,000 deaths were attributable to overwork. 1. Page 22 It is reported that Chinese white-collar workers are now exhibiting the same outcomes, with one report claiming that; ‘microblogging site Weibo is filled with complaints about stressed-out lives and chatter about reports of others, young and old, worked to death: a 24-year-old junior employee at a major public relations company, a 25-year-old auditor at one of the top accounting practices and one of the chief designers at a state-run aeronautics organisation. The same report indicated that the problems related to white-collar workers who, in exchange for salaries typically double that of blue-collar pay, put in hours on top of stipulated workdays, often in violation of Chinese labour law. 2. A variety of factors were used to explain Japan’s significant economic growth from 1945 through to the financial crises of the 1990s. These include comparatively high levels of investment, particularly in technology, and the emergence of government import controls leading to overwhelming domination of home markets. However, explanations of this strong performance over a prolonged period have also commonly recognised the role played by particular workplace values and practices (Needle, 2010). Qualities of loyalty, teamwork and harmony, together with the effect of Hofstede and Bond’s long-term orientation are perceived as important factors that contributed to Japan’s rise after the havoc wreaked at the end of World War II. Williams et al (1992) nonetheless also record the important role played by a long-hours and hard-work culture – and the resultant cost advantages for Japanese companies. In other words, the strictly nonmiraculous factor of sheer hard work was key in explaining the Japanese ‘economic miracle’. The unintended consequences of Japan’s long-hours work culture, conceivably in tandem with employees’ conscientious attitudes deriving from a strong sense of loyalty and duty, can now be seen in mental and physical strain resulting, in extreme cases, in karoshi. It will be interesting to see whether the concept becomes more widely recognised in other countries (within Europe the UK exhibits a pattern of long working hours) and whether the phenomenon also occurs within Japanese-owned companies operating in other locations. Within Japan, karoshi has been cited in legal cases, lawyers seeking compensation in proven cases for surviving partners and relatives. However, before compensation can be awarded, a designated government official must first acknowledge that the death was work-related. This can involve a lengthy process in order to establish whether the government is liable for karoshi compensation. In the light of the subjectivity involved in attributing the causes underlying a recorded cause of death, the whole area remains controversial. 1&2. China Suffers Karoshi, as white-collar workers die from overwork. The Japan Times News,June 30 th 2014: http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2014/06/30/asia-pacific/social-issues-asia-pacific/china Read the above vignette, and respond to the following; either on your own or as part of a group. 1 Motivation theories often focus on positive outcomes – both for employees and employing organisations. Show how the notions of individual self-concept and societal norms (see Lecture 12) can be used to explain karoshi. 2 With reference to theories of cultural difference and motivation, explain why this phenomenon was first identified in Japan. To what extent is it likely to be noted in Western societies in the future? Give reasons for your conclusions. Page 23 Seminar 14. Open Q&A session on the coursework assessment due for submission on Friday January 29th Please do not show your written draft to your tutor. Seminar 15 Case Study Bonuses and long-term incentives gain more widespread acceptance across the world Pay-for-performance advances in Asia and Latin America Today’s successful global companies are increasing their use of performance-based pay and are also moving to customise incentive pay packages by region, according to the Towers Perrin 2005–2006 Worldwide Total Remuneration study. The study highlights compensation and benefit practices in 26 key locations around the world. ‘Based on the success of performance pay in North America and Europe’s developed economies, Asian and Latin American companies are now instituting similar practices that tie employee compensation to business results,’ said Martine Ferland, principal and head of Towers Perrin’s HR Services Business Global Consulting Group. The study also found that multinational companies are deriving advantages by applying a global framework to their pay and benefit programmes while adapting actual mix and level to regional standards. This kind of approach can help companies cut costs and bring more consistency to their reward practices worldwide, at the same time remaining competitive by varying performance pay and other types of remuneration by country and region based on regulatory and cultural differences. ‘As companies continue to shift the pay mix in favour of performance pay, it implies that an HR strategy should – at a minimum – articulate the company’s desired pay mix and competitive positioning against the market. It should also state whether target levels will be set locally, regionally or at a global level and identify how performance will be measured,’ said Ferland. Performance-based (variable) pay as a share of total remuneration for chief executive officers (CEOs) worldwide range from 14% in India to 62% in the United States. Variable pay as a share of total remuneration for accountants worldwide had a much smaller variation, ranging from 0% in countries like Sweden, Switzerland and Venezuela to about 10% in Mexico and South Africa. Performance-based pay consists of bonus payouts and long-term incentives (LTIs), which generally come in the form of stock options or some other type of equity compensation. Successful companies employ a methodology that ties bottom-line results to the compensation of nearly every employee. This is most effective when it is part of a total approach to employee remuneration that includes cash, equity and benefits like retirement and health care. ‘The size and frequency of stock and other long-term incentives are on the rise in most parts of the world, although we are seeing a decline in the use of stock options in some developed economies, particularly the United States, as a result, among other things, of new accounting rules and increased scrutiny by institutional investors looking to protect the dilution of capital,’ said James Matthews, Towers Perrin principal and consultant in the Global Consulting Group. Page 24 Part of the performance pay package, bonuses are being used more widely and to more eligible employees in global companies. ‘We are seeing annual bonuses, which used to be reserved for the professional-level employee, being used more broadly in lower levels in the organisations, represented in our study by the manufacturing employee,’ said Matthews. ‘For the first time, in countries like Canada, France, Korea, Mexico and the United Kingdom, year-end bonuses for this group are the norm and not the exception. ‘Furthermore, in Asian countries such as Taiwan, Malaysia, China (Shanghai) and Singapore, annual bonuses are in the range of 10% to 15% of salary at the professional level. This is more than 5% to 10% of salary that is common practice in North America and Europe for this group.’ Extracts from Towers Perrin press release. Stamford, CT, 11 January 2006 Case Study from French, R. (2015.) P183 ACTIVITY Read the case study above, and respond to the following. 1 How can we account for the increase in the use of performance-related remuneration in countries outside the UK and the USA? 2 With reference to cultural theories, describe the extent to which you anticipate resistance to the implementation of performance bonuses from workers in cultures outside the Anglo cluster. Seminar 16. Leadership and Culture Case Study. Leading National Football Teams across the World. The Dutch football coach Guus Hiddink has been described as having a special place in the latest stage of football’s history. In the twenty-first century he has been the world’s leading exporter of football know-how from Western Europe to the margins of the earth. Born in 1946, Hiddink became a player and coach in Dutch club football. A successful career followed which also involved spells as coach of clubs in Spain and Turkey and a move into international management with the Dutch national team. His cross-cultural coaching career really took off in his mid-50s though, when he became manager of the South Korean national side. At that time South Korea, who were due to co-host the 2002 World Cup tournament, had never won a single match in that competition. Their participation in 2002 was, however, a considerable success and the country unexpectedly reached the semi-final. More success followed for Hiddink when he coached Australia in the 2006 World Cup and Russia in Euro 2008. Hiddink’s globe-trotting football coaching career was scheduled to come full circle with his appointment as Netherlands national team manager following the 2014 World Cup. How does Hiddink himself account for his success in leading foreign nationals? He firstly respects the local way of life saying that; “I don’t go to work on the culture of the country. I just leave it, I respect it. I only do something about the conditions that they need to perform on the pitch. And of course, there are a couple of things off the pitch that do influence that’. However Hiddink, while respecting local culture, has not been afraid to change what he perceives to be its dysfunctional aspects. He Page 25 found that status attributed to players because of their age was holding back the development of the South Korean team and installed a younger player as captain – contrary to the prevailing cultural norms. He also engendered greater responsibility in the team, stating that the mindset of Korean players needed to change: “They are used to thinking, I’m a soldier, I’ll do what’s asked of me. And you have to go a step further if you want to make a team really mature. You need people who can and will take the team in their hands”. What Hiddink was doing was bringing in a new cultural style of playing, based on the flexible notion of ‘total football’ pioneered in the Netherlands in the 1970s. While Guus Hiddink’s career as an international coach meant that he did not work with multicultural teams at any one time, his experience is, nonetheless, an interesting guide to some of the issues encountered in leading people from different cultures. Questions 1. Moran, Abramson and Moran (2014) set out the cultural context in which characteristic and acceptable leadership styles are formed and sustained. When analyzing South Korea they note (op cit p.447) ‘there is little concept of equality in relationships…in relationships it is often necessary to appear to lower oneself in selfless humility and give honor to other people. To put oneself forward is considered arrogant and worthy of scorn.’ How could a study of Project GLOBE have helped Guus Hiddink to prepare for his stints as football coach in South Korea, Australia and Russia? 2. Identify the key competencies displayed by Guus Hiddink in his leadership of footballers from different cultures. 3. To what extent do you think that Hiddink is ‘culturally intelligent’*? Give reasons for your conclusions. *This term will be covered more fully in Lecture 22. Seminar 17 Culture and Organisation Structure Class discussion based on Chapter 5 review questions in core textbook (French, 2015). Please prepare answers to the following questions in advance. 1. Summarise the arguments which minimise the role of culture in explaining organisation structure. 2. Identify and discuss Hofstede’s explanation of how culture can impact on organisation structure. 3. Assess the relevance of the topic of organisation structure within the study of crosscultural management. Page 26 Seminar 18 HRM in Brunei’s public sector (Adapted from Kramar & Syed, 2012, Human Resource Management in a Global Context: A Critical Approach) Brunei is a monarchical government that is governed by Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu’izzaddin Waddaulah, who has executive authority and is assisted and advised by five constitutional bodies. The concept of ‘Malay Islamic Monarchy’ (MIB) is often thought of as a ‘national philosophy’, incorporating both the official Malay language, culture and customs and the importance of Islam as a religion and a set of guiding values. Brunei, situated in South-East Asia, has an estimated population of 390,000, of whom 67 per cent are Malay and 15 per cent are Chinese, the remaining 18 per cent comprising indigenous groups, expatriates and immigrants. About 54 per cent of the overall population is made up of the 20–54-year age group, which is the economically productive group. The main source of income for Brunei is the oil and gas industry, followed by the private and government sectors. The public sector is the main employer for the majority of citizens and residents of Brunei (Brunei Economic Development Board, n.d.). Owing to Brunei’s distinct political system, it has different employment structures from those of other South-East Asian countries. Brunei is ruled by a strict essence of conformity and consensus that does not allow organization or individuals to challenge the government and its policies. Brunei’s public sector may be seen as a ‘model employer’ (Beattie and Osborne, 2008), in the sense that the public sector sets an example to the private sector in terms of the fair treatment of employees and providing good conditions of service – this includes high levels of job security, better leave entitlement and generous pensions (Black and Upchurch, 1999). In this case study, we seek to explore how HRM policies and practices in the public sector are shaped by contextual influences in Brunei. In the public sector, the General Order and State Circulars shape HRM practices. The General Order dates back to 1962; its content covers many key elements of HRM, for example appointments, promotions, benefit entitlement, work etiquette and discipline, although certain current issues related to HRM may not be present in the booklet. State Circulars cover more current HRM issues not addressed in the General Order, including those which have just arisen. All government bodies are sent Circulars whenever any new issues arise. Circulars often call upon the command of the Sultan of Brunei, who holds the absolute power in the way Brunei should be managed. All civil servants are required to have a detailed knowledge of – and abide by – both the General Order and State Circulars in order to carry out their jobs and to progress in their careers. Every officer, supervisor or clerk who is aspiring towards promotion or a rise in salary will have to sit a written examination based on the content of both these sets of government policies. A recent innovation within HRM in the Brunei public sector is the Government Employee Management System (GEMS), which is currently being trialled. This is a webbased system that enables efficient data input and greater transparency, which allows a better management of HRM practices such as recruitment and selection, compensation and benefits, as well as human resources administration. In addition, this will reduce paper usage and help Brunei to become more ‘green’. Human resources administrators, government employees and the public are the three main stakeholders that GEMS is focusing on. GEMS allows human resources administrators to manage job advertisements, and update and approve allowance and benefit applications. Government employees can apply for allowances and benefits online, retrieve useful information such as the latest policies that have been introduced, check their balance of leave entitlement and participate in surveys and forums Page 27 where they can express their suggestions for how to improve the civil service. The public, on the other hand, can check job vacancies online, submit job applications and track their progress (Government Employee Management System, 2010). Interviews conducted with a number of mangers and non-managerial staff in three departments within the Brunei public sector have provided an insight into how the local context has an impact on the design and implementation of HRM practices. Socioculture Many interviewees felt that Brunei’s close-knit socioculture was an important factor in HRM practices. In particular, family relationships have a significant impact on workplace relations with supervisors and colleagues alike. As one interviewee stated: Working in the public sector, we are expected to respect our supervisors and officers. Supervisors and officers, regardless of their age, are like a father or leader to us; we share an informal relationship and talk to them in person if we have any issues or problems. A very family-like relationship is what motivates me, in particular, because it gives me a feeling of belonging and security. Although we have an informal relationship, it does not mean that we respect our superiors any less. Previous research in other countries has highlighted that close-knit relationships often result in subjective and informal recruitment and selection processes (see, for example, Myloni et al.’s [2004] research in Greece). The majority of the employees interviewed for this case study claimed that family connections do not influence the way people are employed. This is evident in the following except: Yes we have a very close relationship in our culture, but I must say that it has no direct influence on the way we recruit and select applicants. Because everyone goes through the same procedure, that is, a written exam and then interviews for short-listed applicants. Furthermore, there are guidelines and procedures that need to be followed when recruiting people. Also, there is a group of committee members who decides on the final result’; this is based on consensus agreement. There is no room for favouritism. … Personally, when the one who is newly recruited happens to be the son/daughter of an authority figure in the public sector, it is because he/she is qualified for the position, he/she might have already been trained with the kind of traits and skills that we are looking for. That is not nepotism. However, the above account contradicts statements made by at least three other participants, who felt that ‘nepotism’ is still the essence of recruitment and selection, particularly in the government sector. Overall, the interviews suggest that close-knit social relationships in Brunei society have an impact on employment relationship in the workplace. However, the impact is moderated in HRM practices, particularly in recruitment and selection, because governmental regulations still affect HRM policies. Law and politics The national philosophy of MIB has an important influence on the way HRM works in the public sector. One interviewee noted that: Malay culture teaches us to be respectful and courteous to others. Islam instils honesty, trust, loyalty and good faith in oneself. Monarchic government means that His Majesty the Sultan holds the ultimate power in decision-making; no one is allowed to go against His Majesty’s command. So, basically MIB influences us, in terms of the way we bring ourselves, the way we perform our work as a loyal subject of His Majesty. Every aspect of government affairs revolves around the concept of MIB. The political influence of the state has in other studies been shown to either strengthen or undermine the role of HRM (Tayeb, 2005): a more cooperative government will have a better chance of adopting HRM efficiently, and vice versa. Page 28 When asked about how the General Order and State Circulars are dealt with by public sector workers, one interviewee noted: Every circular is by command of His Majesty The Sultan; we are obliged to obey them. Officers are directed to encourage and make employees aware of existing circulars. Non-managerial staff, however, tended to take a less rigorous approach and were sometimes unfamiliar with the content of these documents. Regulations were still poorly enforced regardless of the availability of the General Order and State Circulars. Economics From an economic perspective, Brunei is currently facing an excess supply of labour in the job market. An officer thus explained this: This is a very challenging issue Brunei is facing. The demand for jobs is overwhelmingly high but the supply of jobs to accommodate the demand is rather low. This is because a new post will only be available when someone retires, resigns, there is end of contract of an employee or a budget is allocated to create new posts. Technology Technology is a new element in the government sector in Brunei. The Sultan has allocated billions of dollars for IT to be used effectively. In particular, the introduction of GEMS, described above, is indicative of a new approach to technology in HRM practice. Public sector workers have mixed reactions to this new system. One manager noted that: It’s very convenient because there’s less paperwork and sharing of documents will be easier as it is computerised. Another, less positively, argued that: Well, GEMS from what I have tried is a bit too complex for me because there are so may folders to click on and most importantly, it is in English. To be honest, I am not good in English language, so I don’t know how I will be able to get used to the changes. Officers in general tend to agree with the technological changes that the government intends to implement, whereas the staff are slightly hesitant about the changes. From the interview data, one obvious challenge facing HRM in Brunei relates to how well individuals can adjust themselves to technological changes. Moving away from the traditional face-to-face HRM services may cause some difficulty and stress for some employees. Training, on the other hand, may assist staff and officers to adapt effectively to such changes. Conclusion This study of HRM in Brunei makes clear that the macro-environmental context has a huge impact on the way HRM polices are designed and implemented. Culture serves as the overarching umbrella for all the other contexts, such as the legal and political system, the economy and adaptation to technology. In the main, HRM in Brunei revolves around the MIB ideology, which signifies the extent to which Westernoriginated HRM practices are customized and applied in the country. Human capital is given great importance and has high value in the job market; incentives are, therefore, given to improve human capital. However, the monarchical government of Brunei limits the ability for freedom of speech, freedom of associations and collective bargaining. It can be concluded that local culture and politics (MIB) have a much greater impact on the implementation of HRM in Brunei. We recommend that further research be conducted on a larger scale Page 29 to explore the contextualization of HRM in Brunei and other national contexts. Preferably, academia– industry partnership-based research in these government departments might allow for a deeper understanding of the topic. Questions 1. How do culture and politics affect the design and implementation of HRM in Brunei? 2. Culture serves as the overarching umbrella for all the other contexts, such as the legal and political system, the economy and adaptation to technology. Critically discuss this. 3. How can HRM enable individual employees to adjust themselves to technological changes in their organizations? 4. How does HRM in Brunei different from HRM in a Western country? Seminar 19 UOPB: Selection in a Global Company: a Case Study. Adapted by Ray French from Searle (2003), Selection and Recruitment: a Critical Text. A Nigerian candidate is looking for work as a marketing manager within a multinational company. A local recruitment agency forwards his CV to UOPB a bank headquartered in New York. Their selection systems were developed in the USA, although the vacancy is in Singapore. The Singapore office identifies a senior manager (who is Australian) to conduct a structured interview using a Skype link. This manager has no previous experience of international recruitment. New York HQ then ask the local site in Singapore to administer a psychometric test, in this case, a personality questionnaire. They have no experience of interpreting psychometric tests and so a consultant is hired. This is the UK-based firm who devised the test. The test results are sent to a senior consultant, a Dutch psychologist who is working at the consultant’s office in Madrid. He sends the interpretation back to the interviewing manager. After weighing up the evidence she decides that the candidate should not be appointed. The candidate is unhappy with the decision and wishes to challenge it legally as he suspects that he may have been unfairly discriminated against due to his ethnicity. Page 30 Questions: 1. What has gone wrong in this case? 2. Summarise Budwhar’s approaches to staffing/HRM strategy. Which of these should UOPB adopt in future? Give reasons for your recommendations. 3. Identify any one way in which Hofstede’s model of culture might inform choices of recruitment and selection methods. Seminar 20 Negotiating with the Japanese. From Broeways & Price 2011. Differences in ways in which people in different cultures typically prefer to negotiate can be explained along several dimensions. Broeways and Price (2011) summarise these differences in terms of: 1. Behavioural Predispositions. 2. Underlying Concept of Negotiation. 3. Negotiation Process. In the Japanese context behavioural predispositions include:  Interpersonal orientation. In Japan there is a wish to establish rapport and build trust. Businesses often lay on time -consuming entertainment in order to establish the personal connection. Negotiation is face-to-face with a ceremonial focus. It is seen as a formal way of rounding off an agreement. It is not however a place to change people’s minds.  Power orientation. A decision requires consultation and widespread support. The teamleader will seek the consensus, supported by experts in the field who will set out technical arguments.  Risk taking is discouraged so there will be intensive preparation prior to the negotiation and negotiators will not respond impulsively to proposals from the other side. The underlying context of negotiation in Japan is summarised by:  Strategy. Doing business is a continuous affair based on mutual trust. Negotiation is one part of establishing a relationship. The basis for a relationship should be established before details are put forward to a meeting.  Time-frame. Patience is the key. Considerable preparation will allow quick implementation of a decision. Negotiation Process refers to the following areas: Page 31  Style of Negotiation. In Japan style is indirect with highly formal communication. High context negotiators use inference and allusion. Negotiators seek to avoid confrontation, disagreement or haggling. Face-saving is very important.  Outcome Orientations. A short written agreement is preferred rather than a definite detailed contract. The establishment of a relationship is key: later amendments to agreements are considered inevitable. Questions. Choose another culture with which you are familiar and identify likely similarities and differences with the Japanese style set out above. 1.Account for the similarities and differences with reference to any one model of cultural difference (we hope to highlight three.) 2.Are the elements which characterise Japanese negotiation just good practice or are there other equally valid predispositions, contexts and processes? Seminar 21 Conflict and Cross-Cultural Awareness Task: 1. Discuss with your group and list the behaviours that might cause conflicts in a multicultural work environment. 2. Identify the underlying issues using relevant cross-cultural theories. 3. Suggest possible resolution strategies based on the frameworks from the lecture (e.g. Thomas, 1976). Seminar 22 Case Study: Managing Cross-cultural Teams Global Harmony is their dream Virtual team: Sarah Murray considers collaboration between dispersed staff of different cultures If managing diversity in the workplace is a tough task for business leaders, the challenges of keeping executives from different backgrounds working together efficiently in various parts of the world is even more difficult. Page 32 However, virtual working presents some unexpected benefits to teams whose members come from a variety of backgrounds. For executives whose first language is not English, for instance, working by means of e-mail or online chat rooms can eliminate many of the communication inequalities that might exist were the group to be working together face-to-face in the same location. People tend to be more comfortable reading and writing in their second language than speaking it, and e-mail technology provides those less sure of the language with an opportunity to reflect before communicating. “It certainly suggests that one of the things you should take into account is whether your team includes members who don’t speak English well,” says Joanne Yates, a professor of management at MIT Sloan, who has studied the use of communication and information systems in companies. “Any good virtual team has a communication plan that includes weekly conference calls or e-mail checkins, but with a virtual team where not everyone speaks English well, the regular report-ins should be in written mode rather than by phone or conference call.” The other advantage of e-mail communications is that, for those working in different time zones, group messages can be responded to when it is convenient, reducing the need for early morning or late night calls. At the same time, using e-mail for work exchanges can remove much of the hierarchy of professional communications, since many executives find it far less intimidating to send an e-mail to someone in a senior position than to telephone them. “In many organisations that are fairly hierarchical, the lower and middle management executives often won’t communicate with senior managers if it means picking up the phone,” says Emma Kirk a psychologist at Pearn Kandola, a UK-based research business and consultancy of occupational psychologists. “E-mail removes that barrier because of its informality and immediacy, so it encourages people to communicate that might not otherwise” says Ms Kirk. “And it’s now accepted that people will send off ideas to each other via e-mail.” However, cultural or behavioural differences that can manifest themselves in face-to-face working situations can be exacerbated in virtual team working, particularly when the group has members from different backgrounds. One reason for this is that, when one is physically immersed in a new culture, it takes less time to adapt to the social norms and become aware of cultural sensitivities. So those trying to do this at a distance may find it tougher to fit in, increasing the potential for misunderstandings between team members. “You don’t build the relationships in the same way as you do working face-to-face, and you don’t have those water cooler chats,” says Martin Galpin, managing psychologist at Pearn Kandola. He argues that the differences can become more problematic when people are not working in the same location. “When you have a group of people who are more diverse, there’s a danger of increasing the chances of conflict if you don’t manage it effectively.” For this reason, experts advise that those managing virtual teams organise face-to-face meetings at the start of a project or the formation of a new team of executives who will be working together remotely. While this is true for all virtual teams, it is even more important for those with cultural differences. “If a team is newly formed, there’s huge value in bringing that team together,” says Mr Galpin. “Or if a new person joins the team, they need to be able to build new relationships. There’s always a need for the social side – even if that’s just setting aside time for more informal chats during the conference calls.” Page 33 Prof Yates points out that, when people in professional groups come from different backgrounds or cultures, it is often useful to appoint someone in the team who knows both cultures as the person responsible for setting the norms of working behaviour during a project that is being carried out from different locations. And virtual working certainly does not eradicate the sort of cultural misunderstandings that can arise in a face-to-face situation. Prof Yates cites an online mini-conference she recently observed that took place between a group of US and Japanese executives working in the research and development unit of a Japanese company. “A Japanese executive was putting text into a window for instant messaging when one of the Americans started asking questions in the middle of the presentation,” she explains. “That was not culturally familiar and required an instant response, which caused real problems. So [virtual communications] have a cultural element as well.” Source: Financial Times, 12 May, 2005: 8 Questions: 1. According to the article, what are the advantages of virtual communication compared with working face-to-face in with people from different backgrounds? What other advantages? 2. The case does, however, suggest that virtual working groups should meet at the start of a project or when a new team of executives is to work together remotely. Why is this thought to be necessary? What is your opinion? 3. What are the specific problems multicultural teams experience when they are communicating with each other virtually? Share your experience please. From Browaeys & Price, 2011. Chapter 16 Activity 16.1 Seminars 23 and 24 will be devoted to revision. Page 34 4. ASSESSMENT. 4.1 Assessment details Assessment for the Unit is in two main parts, as follows: (a) Individual Examination (60% of your total mark): A two hour unseen, closed book, end of unit examination in May. You will be required to answer two questions in total from a choice of six. Further information and previous examination papers will be placed on the units Moodle site. This will be a standard unseen examination: the usual regulations regarding use of foreign language dictionaries apply. (b) Individual coursework. (40% of your total mark) The assessed coursework for this unit will take the form of an individual essay. Choose one of the titles set out below: 1. What do you understand by either the etic or emic approach to understanding cultural differences in managing people at work? Refer to the work of any two writers within your chosen approach and assess the relative value of their contribution to crosscultural managers. Refer to at least four countries in your answer. 2. How can the consequential and character ethics approaches to business ethics be applied to cross-cultural management? In what ways are the concepts of cultural and ethical relativism different? Give reasons for your conclusions. This essay should be no more than 2000 words in length. It must be submitted to the Undergraduate Centre in Richmond Building by Friday January 29th 2016. Marked essays will be returned to the Undergraduate Centre by Friday February 26 th within the University’s policy on marking of assessed work. In addition to the Generic Assessment Criteria for all Level 6 student work, tutors will be looking for the following :-  Format/layout in accordance with the specification given below  Essay structure, coherence and clarity of writing  Evidence of wide research and independent reading  Demonstration of understanding through the application and clear relevance of chosen theories/frameworks  Depth and quality of discussion, clearly focused on the questions set  Quality and relevance of conclusions – which are clearly drawn from the preceding discussion  The acknowledgement and referencing of ALL source materials within the text and within a separate bibliography. Page 35 It is expected that your essay will be presented to a professional standard. It MUST  be word processed or typed in Ariel 11 or 12 point font;  have 1.5 line spacing and include 3cms margins on ALL sides;  have clear line spaces between paragraphs and paragraphs not indented;  have all pages numbered and include your student ID number (this essay should be marked anonymously) on each page  secure contents by stapling the top left-hand corner  state the number of words used at the end of the essay (excluding footnotes, bibliography and appendices). AND  be properly proofread with no obvious typographical errors We will place the marking scheme for this assignment on the unit’s Moodle site Penalties: Penalty deductions from the total essay mark may be made for the following: 1. Format/layout – failure to follow some or all of the format/layout instructions – up to 5% 2. Word count – work exceeding the MAXIMUM word count of 2,000 words or failure to declare an accurate word count – unlimited penalty deduction, subject to the extent of breach. 3. Plagiarism – in accordance with Departmental/University Regulations. Students are reminded of the need to avoid plagiarism in all assessments. The University Regulations describe plagiarism as: the incorporation by a student in work for assessment of material which is not their own, in the sense that all or a substantial part of the work has been copied without any adequate attempt at attribution, or has been incorporated as if it were the student’s own when in fact it is wholly or substantially the work of another person or persons. Any student suspected of plagiarising will be referred to the Head of Undergraduate Programmes and an Academic Misconduct Hearing will be arranged. Students should ensure that all sources are fully cited in footnotes and in the bibliography and that indentation or quotation marks (as appropriate) are used when quoting. Students who fail to include a bibliography will be penalised. If any student has a query about any of the above matters and wishes to obtain clarification or further information please contact the unit co-ordinator or your personal tutor Page 36 Referencing and Bibliography In-text citations should be presented in the Harvard APA style (see University Library booklet or at http://referencing.port.ac.uk/apa/index.html). Law students, please take note that business units require different referencing skills to those employed in law units. Your Bibliography, presented at the end of your essay, should list all readings in alphabetical order of the surname/family name of the first author or of the organisation. There should not be any sections; internet websites should be fully referenced and included in the list. 4.2 Marks and Feedback Commenting on draft student coursework. The purpose of assessment is for tutors to be able to evaluate your own skills and your knowledge and understanding of the unit’s content, as evidenced by the work that you hand in. Tutors are here to help you in your studies. However, a balance must be struck so that everyone can be certain that what is being marked remains clearly your own work. What help you can expect tutors to provide Tutors can answer general queries about how to approach an assignment, interpretation of questions, relevant content, matters of style and English usage, referencing, appropriate reading, etc. Tutors can give guidance about what measures students might take to generally improve work. What you cannot expect tutors to do Tutors cannot provide detailed comments or suggestions on assignments, review written drafts of coursework, give repeated feedback on successive changes to the same assignment, etc. Tutors cannot give any indication of possible mark or classification for draft work, including whether a piece of draft work might be passable or not, or what detailed changes might be desirable to maximise the chances of achieving any particular mark or grade. Marks for the coursework assignment will be available on or before Thursday February 26 th (save in the case of work submitted after the due date). Marks will be posted on the Student Portal, and your marked coursework and tutor’s feedback will be available for you to collect from the Undergraduate Centre once it has been marked and processed. You will be emailed when it is ready to collect, so please wait for that email before checking. If there is any delay in the processing of marks, the unit co-ordinator will communicate this to you and make arrangements for the marks to be posted on the unit’s Moodle site so that you receive them as soon as they are ready. Individual feedback will be provided on feedback sheets which will be attached to your coursework. These sheets will highlight the strengths of the work and identify development points to help you to work out where you went wrong and how you can improve your performance in the future Marks for the exam will be available within 20 working days of the examination. Marks will be posted on the Student Portal. Page 37 General feedback on performance in coursework and exams will be posted on the unit Moodle site. Please note that all coursework and exam marks remain provisional until they have been confirmed by the Unit Assessment Board. Part 12 paragraph 1.4 of the Examination and Assessment Regulations September 2012 makes it clear that students may not question the academic judgement of the examiners and states that any requests for a review of a mark based on such grounds alone will be dismissed. Students can only request a re-mark under the following circumstances: there has been a material and significant administrative error; or there has been a procedural irregularity in the assessment process as defined in the Examination and Assessment Regulations. You can obtain a copy of the Regulations by following this link: www.port.ac.uk/accesstoinformation/policies/academicregistry/filetodownload,10383,en.pdf Although you cannot question the academic judgement of a tutor, we are happy to meet with students to discuss their performance. Tutors’ weekly office hours provide a good time for this discussion and you should approach the unit co-ordinator in the first instance. However, you must make sure that you have read and reflected on your individual feedback before you get in touch with a tutor to arrange a meeting to discuss your work. 4.3 Deferral/Second Attempt Arrangements The pass mark for this unit is 40%. If your combined weighted mark for the two parts of the assessment (the coursework and the exam) is 40% or more, you have passed. This is true even if you have a mark below 40% for one of the two parts of the assessment. If you do not achieve a combined weighted mark of 40% or more you are “referred” in the unit, then the mark you can achieve for the unit as a whole after referral is limited to a maximum of 40% (capped). If you are unable to complete an assessment for valid extenuating circumstances and have had an Extenuating Circumstances application accepted (an “ECF”) then you are “deferred” in the unit and the mark you can achieve after deferral is not limited to 40%. Should it be necessary for you to re-take all or part of the assessment during the summer referral/deferral period, then the assessments are “like for like”. This means that (a) if you achieved less than 40% or are deferred in the coursework, you will need to complete a new individual piece of written work – details of which will be posted on Moodle and available from the Assessments Office (b) if you achieved less than 40% or are deferred in the examination you will need to re-sit the exam. (c) if you achieved less than 40% or are deferred in both, then you will need to do both. Page 38 Referral/deferral assignments must be submitted to the Assessment Office by the end of the summer referral/deferral period, i.e. by 22nd July 2015. There is nothing to prevent you submitting earlier than that if you wish, but it is likely that it will not be marked until the deadline. The timing of the referral/deferral period, including the examinations is set by the University and all referral/deferral assessments must take place during this time. The timetable for referral/deferral examinations will be made available shortly after the end of the summer term. All referral/deferral exams will be scheduled between July 4 th and July 2nd 2015. Important Notes: There are serious implications for your progression on your course if you miss a scheduled refer/defer examination Do NOT book holidays, etc. during the referral/deferral period. If you have any queries on the regulations surrounding Referral/Deferral work and progression on your course, please speak to your Personal Tutor, Year Tutor or Course Leader. 4.4. Generic Assessment Criteria Generic assessment criteria apply to all undergraduate courses in the University and are intended to help you understand the rationale behind our grading of assessed work in a transparent way. We trust that you will find these published criteria helpful when planning your work. Comments made by your tutor on returned coursework are likely to reflect the marking criteria and offer an opportunity to reflect on your performance and consider how your work could have been improved. The University of Portsmouth criteria for Undergraduate Level 6 are set out below. 80+ As below plus: – Excellent work which contains accurate relevant material and shows analysis, originality or creativity of approach and a clear, well-articulated understanding of the subject matter – Wide research incorporating up to date, relevant original material. Likely to add new insights to the topic and approaches the quality of published material. – Excellent with few or no errors in organisation, structure, grammar, spelling, punctuation, use of diagrams and tables. Accurate citation. 70-79 As below plus: – Outstanding work which is clearly written, well argued and covers the subject matter in a thorough, thoughtful and competent manner Contains some originality of approach, insight or synthesis. – Evidence of extensive research and good use of source material Good use and presentation of references. – Excellent in terms of presentation, organisation, structure, grammar, spelling, punctuation, diagrams and tables. Page 39 60-69 As below plus: – A very good, well presented piece of work covering much of the subject matter and which is clearly and lucidly written Good attempt to consider and evaluate the material presented and view it in a wider context. – Shows some originality of thought with good critique and analysis of assumptions. – Evidence of research in the topic area and satisfactory use of sources and references. – Very good in terms of organisation, structure, use and flow of language, grammar, spelling, format, diagrams, tables, etc. 50-59 As below plus: – Work that demonstrates understanding of the topic area with some attempt to discuss material. – Evidence of research in the topic area extending beyond key texts. – Satisfactory presentation and/or use of references/bibliography according to convention – A satisfactory attempt to follow directions regarding organisation, structure, use and flow of language, grammar, spelling, format, diagrams, tables, etc. The majority of students would normally be expected to fall within this range 40-49 Adequate work that attempts to address the topic and demonstrates some understanding of the basic aspects of the subject matter. – Topic is researched using mainly books and internet Attempts to use and/or present references/ bibliography according to convention. – A basic attempt to follow directions regarding organisation, structure, use and flow of language, grammar, spelling, format, diagrams, tables, etc. 30-39 FAIL Work in this range attempts to address the question/problem but is substantially incomplete and deficient Serious problems with a number of aspects of language use are often found in work in this range and the work may be severely under/over-length and/or fails to grasp the nature of the topic matter Content, analysis, expression, structure and use of sources will be very weak or missing 0-29 FAIL No serious attempt to address the question or problem, and/or manifests a serious misunderstanding of the requirements of the assignment Acutely deficient in all aspects.

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