Topic: PTSD and the Military

| June 19, 2015

Order Description

PTSD refers to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, which is a psychological disorder The writer who decides to complete this project will later utilize this material to

complete a 16 page literature review on the subject.

Please submit a clear thesis statement/historical argument which identifies the topic and provides the point of view that is the basis of your literature review. An

example of the annotated bibliography/historical argument will be uploaded for reference.

The annotated bibliography will provide a summary of the sources you would use in your research, and it provides you the opportunity to review the source material for

indications of scholarship, objectivity and other criteria important in research in the field of military study.

Please use the uploaded example as a guide.

Annotated Bibliography: Diseases of Military Important

Military history is replete with examples of people fighting, whether the fighting was over land, resources, money, power or pride is nearly irrelevant in the

grand timetable of geologic time.  However, one thing has been constant, as long as there have been humans; there have been organisms that needed us to survive.  A

warm, moist environment that can go to incredible lengths to ensure species survival is a perfect host to a wide variety of microorganisms.  Some of these

microorganisms are bacteria, some are viruses and others are transmitted by things that bite humans: ticks, fleas, flies and mosquitoes, commonly called ‘vectors’.

Military history in many cases has not determined by which side was the most prepared, which side had the better defensive position, etc.  Instead, in many pivotal

battles, the winner was the side who was able to deal the best with indigenous microorganisms that lived in the area.  Those who were ‘new’ to the areas they were

invading were often times devastated by disease instead of combat.  As this annotated bibliography will briefly show, diseases are important part of our planet and

diseases of military importance have had significant impacts on military history from at least 430BC.

Arness, Mark K., Brian H. Feighner, Michelle L. Canham, David N. Taylor, Stephan S. Monroe         et al. “Norwalk-Like Viral Gastroenteritis Outbreak in U.S.

Army Trainees.” Emerging         Infectious Diseases, 6, (2000): 204-207.
Studying the history of diseases of military importance is a constant task, in this article; the authors investigated and examined the cause of a serious

gastroenteritis outbreak among Active duty U.S. Army soldiers.  The exploratory process and reasoning is presented along with the results of their analysis. Graphical

representations of the data present startling clear evidence of how fast an outbreak can occur and the possible serious consequences to military readiness.
Bavaro, Mary, F. Daryl J. Kelly, Gregory, A. Dasch, Braden R. Hale and Patrick Olsen. “History         of U.S. Military Contributions to the Study of Rickettsial

Diseases.” Military Medicine,         170, (2005): 49-60.
This article goes into significant detail about epidemic Typhus, scrub Typhus, and other Rickettsial agents, how they are transmitted, by what vectors, the

effects and course of the disease and the military significance of these diseases over the course of military history.  While not a completely exhaustive article

researching every single instance during military battles, this article succinctly explains how Rickettsial diseases have been one of the deciding factors in a host of

famous battles.
Christopher, George, W., Brian K. Agan, Theodore J. Cieslak and  Patrick E. Olson.  “History of     U.S. Military Contributions to the Study of Bacterial

Zoonoses.”  Military Medicine 170,     (2005): 39-48.
Along with the Rickettsial agents, zoonotic bacteria are among the most important diseases affecting military personnel, past or present.  This article

presents a historical review and military significance of plague, Q fever, anthrax, leptospirosis, bartonellosis, tularemia and brucellosis.  Present day counter

agents to this agents is also presented along with evidence of efficacy compared with historical accounts of these agents adversely affecting soldiers.
Pages, Francois, M. Faulde, E. Orlandi-Pradines and P. Parola.  “The Past and Present Threat of     Vector-Borne Diseases in Deployed Troops.”  European Society of

Clinical Microbiology         and Infectious Diseases, 16, (2010): 209-224.
In an article written by French scientists, the authors explain how infectious diseases have impacted military history.  A brief history about the period from

WWI and WWII is included; however this article focuses on more recent conflicts and the effects of infectious disease, whether transmitted by a vector, airborne or

human contact.  Control measures to help counteract a multitude of diseases are presented.
Peterson, Robert K. D. “Insects, Disease, and Military History: The Napoleonic Campaigns and         Historical Perception.” American Entomologist, 41 no. 3

(1995): 147-160.
In a technically well written, but easy to understand format, Peterson recounts how diseases of military important were instrumental during human history,

especially during periods of concentrated human fighting.   The author examines three Napoleonic Campaigns from 1798- 1813 and the influence of insect-borne disease on

the military.  Epidemiological factors and models of disease transmission during this time period are examined along with the impact these diseases had on lower-

enlisted, officers and leaders.
Shade, William H., Diseases of Military Importance.  Ft. Sam Houston: U.S. Army Medical         Department Center and School. (2011).
This is a book about diseases of military importance created by the Army Medical Department Center and School.  This institution is the center for Army medical

schooling and has recently transitioned to encompass the other branches of the U.S. Military along with our host nations for training in all medical areas.  Since

diseases cause plentiful injuries to both civilian and military personnel, this publication presents the newest U. S. Army training regarding a brief history of

disease, transmission methods, effects on personnel and control measures.
Warner, Rex, Thucydides: History of the Peloponnesian War. New York: Penguin Books,     (1972).
This book presents an exhaustive look at the Peloponnesian War through the eyes of one who was involved in the events for most of the time, Thucydides.

Thucydides was born around 460 BC and died in about 400 BC.  The War started in 431 BC and the plague struck Athens in 430-427 BC with Thucydides himself becoming

stuck.  Luckily, he recovered and his account of the Plague and its effects on the population are examined.  Since having information about early disease transmission

and the effects on military battles is difficult, his eye-witness account is mandatory.

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