Sociology homework help

| January 1, 2016

1.Crimes of the Powerful – 2015-16 – CRM020X231A

2. INTRODUCTION
Traditionally, Criminology has focused on crimes committed by the most disadvantaged and powerless members of society. Crimes of powerful individuals or organisations have not attracted the same level of attention. Yet, crimes committed by the powerful contribute to more financial loss, injuries, and deaths than all ‘conventional’ crimes combined. In this module we consider the range and types of harms caused by this offending. In addition, the difficulty in defining state, corporate, white-collar and organised crime will be explored. The module therefore blends understandings of theoretical perspectives on crimes of the powerful with a case study approach to investigating these crimes.
a. Learning objectives and outcomes
Students who successfully complete this module will be able to:
• Demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of the difficulties associated with investigating and theorising crimes of the powerful
• Examine the socially constructed nature of definitions of crime and the structure of criminal law
• Evaluate the limits of criminology and the criminal law in relation to the challenge of crimes by the powerful
• Understand the complex relationship between states, corporations and crime
• Understand the role of national and transnational forms of regulation and law enforcement that can be applied to crimes of the powerful
• Critically review selected literature on state crime, white collar crime, environmental crime, organised crime and corporate crime
• Relate available literature to a relevant contemporary case study
b. Reading strategy
There is a specific reading list for each seminar – including where appropriate – weblinks and web-articles available on Moodle, you are expected to engage with at least some of the specified reading in preparation for seminars. You are also encouraged to independently seek out alternative resources in the library.
c. Essential reading
No one book covers the content of this module; however the essential text includes a range of readings relevant to the subject area.
Whyte, D. (2009) Crimes of the Powerful: a reader. Open University Press: Maidenhead.
d. Other useful texts
Aas, K.A. (2007) Globalization and Crime. London: Sage.
Beirne, P and South, N (eds) (2007) Issues in Green Criminology. Cullompton: Willan Publishing.
Brysk, A. (2002) Globalization and Human Rights. California: University of California.
Cohen, S. (2001) States of Denial: Knowing About Atrocities and Suffering. London: Polity
Croall, H. (2001) Understanding White Collar Crime. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Curtis, M. (2004) Unpeople: Britain’s Secret Human Rights Abuses. London: Vintage.
Davies, P., Francis, P. and Wyatt, T. (eds) (1999) Invisible Crimes and Social Harm, London: Pelgrave Macmillan.
Doig, A. (2006) Fraud. Cullompton: Willan.
Edwards, A. and Gill, P. (2003) Transnational organised crime: perspectives on global security. London: Routledge.
Goodale, M. and S. Engle (Eds.) (2007) The Practice of Human Rights: Tracking Law Between the Global and the Local. Cambridge: Cambridge Studies in Law and Society.
Goodhart, M. (2009) Human Rights: Politics and Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Green, P. and Ward, T. (2004) State Crime. London: Pluto Press.
Green, P. (2005) Disaster by Design Corruption, Construction and Catastrophe, The British Journal of Criminology (2005) Volume 45 Issue 4 pp.528–546, 1 July 2005
Hillyard, P., Pantaxis, C., Tombs, S. and Gordon, D (Eds.) (2004) Beyond Criminology: Taking Harm Seriously. London: Pluto Press.
Jamieson, Ruth and Mcevoy, Kieran (2005) State Crime by Proxy and Juridical Othering, The British Journal of Criminology, (2005) Volume 45 Issue 4 pp. 504–527, 1 July 2005
Jefferson, Andrew M. (2005) Reforming Nigerian Prisons Rehabilitating a ‘Deviant’ State, The British Journal of Criminology (2005) Volume 45 Issue 4 pp.487–503, 1 July 2005
Karstedt, S, Levi, M, and Godfrey, B. (2006) Markets, Risk and ‘White-Collar’ Crimes: Moral Economies from Victorian times to Enron, British Journal of Criminology, Special Issue Vol. 46 Is. 6, November 2006.
Kramer, Ronald C. (2005) A Criminological Analysis of the Invasion and Occupation of Iraq War, Aggression and State Crime, The British Journal of Criminology (2005) Volume 45 Issue 4 pp. 446–469, 1 July 2005
Lyman, M. D. and Potter, G. W. (2004) Organised crime. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education
McCulloch, Jude (2005) Suppressing the Financing of Terrorism Proliferating State Crime, Eroding Censure and Extending Neo-colonialism, The British Journal of Criminology (2005) Volume 45 Issue 4, pp.470–486, 1 July 2005.
Michalowski, R. and Kramer, R. (2006) State-Corporate Crime. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
Palast, G. (2002) The best democracy money can buy. London. Robinson.
Pearce, F. (1976) Crimes of the Powerful. London: Pluto Press.
Roche, D. (2005) Truth Commission Amnesties and the International Criminal Court, The British Journal of Criminology (2005) Volume 45 Issue 4 pp.565–581, 1 July 2005
Rolston, B. and Scraton, P. (2005) In the Full Glare of English Politics Ireland, Inquiries and the British State, The British Journal of Criminology (2005) Volume 45 Issue 4 pp.547–564, 1 July 2005
Rose-Ackerman, S. (1999) Corruption and government: causes, consequences, and reform. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ruggiero, V. (2006) Understanding Political Violence. London: Open University Press.
Shover, N. (ed) (2001) Crimes of privilege: readings in white-collar crime, lOxford: Oxford University Press.
Simpson, S. (2002) Corporate Crime, Law, and Social Control, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Slapper, G. and Tombs, S. (1999) Corporate Crime. Harlow: Longman.
Sluka, J. A. (ed.) (2000) Death Squad: The Anthropology of State Terror. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Sutherland, E. H. (1983) White-collar crime: the uncut version. New Haven. Yale University Press.
Tombs, S. and Whyte, D. (2003) Unmasking the Crimes of the Powerful, Critical Criminology. Vol 11 (11) 217-236.
Tombs, S. and Whyte, D. (2007) Safety Crimes, Cullompton: Willan.
Ward, T. (2005) State Crime in the Heart of Darkness, The British Journal of Criminology (2005) Volume 45 Issue 4 pp. 434–445, 1 July 2005.
Wells, C. (2001) Corporations and criminal responsibility. Oxford. Oxford University Press.
e. Websites
Be wary of internet material, which is highly variable in character and quality. Think about who has put it there and why! By all means use it but use it carefully and critically. Always cite Internet sources, as you would any written source.
Useful Sites
Australian Institute of Criminology http://www.aic.gov.au
British Library http://portico.bl.uk/
British Society of Criminology Code of Ethics for Researchers http://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/ss/bsc/council/CODEETH.HTM
Cabinet Office www.cabinet-office.gov.uk
Carter Centre for Human Rights http://www.cartercenter.org
Criminal Justice Systems UK http://www.criminal-justice-system.gov.uk/
Downing Street http://www.number-10.gov.uk/
Hansard (House of Commons Daily Debates) http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/cm/cmhansrd.htm
Home Office www.homeoffice.gov.uk
Human Rights Watch www.hrw.org
International Association for the Study of Organized Crime www.iasoc.net
Liberty/Human Rights www.liberty-human-rights.org.uk
National Statistics http://www.statistics.gov.uk/
National Criminal Intelligence Service www.ncis.co.uk
Official Publications UK http://www.ukop.co.uk/
State Watch www.statewatch.org
Parliament UK http://www.parliament.uk/hophome.htm
United Nations http://www.un.org
United States Department of Justice, COPS http://www.cops.usdoj.gov
Wikileaks http://wikileaks.info/
Also read the quality press and publications such as The Guardian, The Independent, Prospect, New Internationalist and The New Statesman.
f. Journals
There are several journals that relate to the course which will be useful to you.
British Journal of Criminology
Criminology and Criminal Justice
Crime, Media, Culture
Critical Criminology
European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice
European Journal of Criminology
Feminist Criminology
Howard Journal of Criminal Justice
International Journal of Criminology and Penology
Probation Journal
Punishment and Society
Sociology
3. ASSESSMENT
There are TWO components of assessment for this module:
❑ Assessment 1: 1000 Word Campaign File (worth 30%)
❑ Assessment 2: 3000 Word Essay (worth 70%)
a. Assessment 1: 1000 Words Individual Campaign File (30%)
Deadline: 14.00 Friday 16th October 2015
The topic for the campaign file is:
For too long crimes committed by the powerful have been ignored, the time for action is now!

In many professional jobs you are expected to be able to write briefing papers or case-files. For example, in policy, press and campaigns work, a background document of key information may be requested. Writing a campaign file will allow you to demonstrate your ability to provide a clear and concise exposition of a particular situation or issue, any policy dimensions and implications, and recommendations for action.
A good campaign file will include:
o a clear statement of the topic of the brief and a short summary of the issue (the more specific the better)
o a relevant and brief background to the issue
o a concise analysis of the issue and suggestions for change
o conclusions and recommendations for action
o evidence to support your campaign
o Visual representations to make your campaign look appealing
The case-file must be rigorous and evidence-based (including references), it should be persuasive. In terms of presentation, you can also use bullet-points or some other format (such as boxed text) to highlight key points.
Examples of real-life campaigns:
http://www.globalwitness.org/library/oil-transparency-must-underpin-negotiations-over-libya%E2%80%99s-future-%E2%80%93-global-witness
http://www.amnesty.org/en
http://www.transparency.org.uk/all-news-releases/175-revolving-door-between-government-and-business-spinning-out-of-control
http://www.earthday.org/takeaction/campaigns.html
http://ww8.corporateaccountability.org/
http://www.hazards.org/
http://www.crimeandjustice.org.uk/
b. Assessment 2: 3000 Word Essay (70%)
Essay deadline: 14:00 Friday 11th December 2015
ESSAY TITLES
Answer ONE question only:
1. Critically assess the claim that crimes committed by the powerful are rarely the focus of investigation, prosecution and punishment.
2. Provide a comprehensive overview and critical analysis of a case which highlights a crime committed by the powerful.
3. Should environmental harm be considered a crime?
4. Critically evaluate the claim that Criminology has failed to take crimes of the powerful seriously.
5. Discuss the definitions and characteristics of:
o white collar OR
o corporate OR
o organized OR
o state crime.

c. Essay Writing Guidelines:
For the essay you should develop a logical argument based on the essay question. Spend extra time and work on the structure of the essay as this will help you express your ideas better and achieve a higher mark.
o Introduction The first sentence should paraphrase the essay question (This essay will…). Provide a brief answer to the essay question and explain how you will support the answer by providing an overview of the topics that will be covered in the essay (length: 250∼ words). This section should be written at the start to give you guidance, and should be edited according to the essay content and conclusions when the essay is completed.
o Essay body Divide the section in paragraphs of 200/250∼ words. In each paragraph:
o Identify one topic or concept that is relevant to the subject and helps you create an argument and to answer the essay question (topics/concepts can be identified in the lecture slides, while reading and by approaching your tutor for suggestions).
o In the first sentence explain why the topic chosen is important to answer the essay’s question.
o In the following sentences of each paragraph: Critically examine the topics and concepts you have chosen, critically state alternative points of view (always reference these views with good quality sources) and provide evidence to support them.
o Conclusion Summarise the topic/concepts covered in the main body. Try to create linkages between the topics and concepts in order to form a strong argument and answer the essay question with a final statement. Be bold, brave and direct. In this section you should not add new concepts, theories and references (250/300∼ words).
d. Guidelines for Essay Presentation:
o Referencing The rule of thumb is that every statement/claim made in the essay should be followed by well-formatted in-text references. Ensure there are at least two different references in each paragraph of the essay body.
o Bibliography All your works should have a well-formatted bibliography.
o Quotations Any work with more than 5% of quoted text will be penalised. Quotations should be well-formatted.
o Student number Each page should be numbered and have your student number and the module code typed on it.
o Avoid plagiarism Always use in-text references in your works. If you are quoting too much, you can paraphrase the concepts/theories in your own words
o Guidance Please refer to the Roehampton Intranet for full details of referencing, bibliography and quotations:
http://studentzone.roehampton.ac.uk/library/referencing/generalreferencing.html http://www.roehampton.ac.uk/uploadedFiles/Pages_Assets/PDFs_and_Word_Docs/Library/Harvard%20Full%20Guide%202014.pdf
o Length and word count Essays that are 10% longer or shorter of the required length will be penalised. Note your word count at the end of the assignment.
o Presentation Present your work in a legible form. Print your essay on only one side of each sheet of paper.
o Margins Leave a generous margin on the left-hand side of each sheet.
o Double space Each line should have a space of 1/5 or 1/1/2, except in the case of indented quotations that should be single spaced and indented.
o English At university level you are expected to have a good use of the English language. If you think (or have been suggested) that you should seek help, contact the Academic Learning Adviser at to arrange 1to1 sessions and support courses.
e. Referencing
Please refer to the Roehampton Intranet for full details of referencing
http://studentzone.roehampton.ac.uk/library/referencing/generalreferencing.html
f. Plagiarism
Plagiarism is an offence against academic values and an offence against the academic regulations of University of Roehampton. Plagiarism could result in module failure or expulsion. The academic regulations regarding plagiarism are provided below.
http://studentzone.roehampton.ac.uk/programmedetails/acregsver9contents.asp
g. Late Work
The University expects all deadlines for the submission of coursework to be met. If you have mitigating circumstances then please follow the guidelines set out below.
http://www.roehampton.ac.uk/academicoffice/documents/mitigating%20circumstances.pdf
h. Marking Criteria
First Class (70% and above)
o All main areas discussed in depth.
o Thorough logical argument. Ideas clearly stated. Good analysis & evaluation. Imaginative & original approach.
o Correct length. Very good written style, organisation & presentation.
o Very good range of current research to augment wide general reading. Correct referencing.
o Correct grammatical structure and spelling.
Upper Second Class (60% – 69%)
o Main areas discussed in some depth.
o Argument well constructed & coherent. Interesting approach. Ideas clearly stated.
o Correct length. Good written style & presentation.
o Good use of research to augment general reading. Correct referencing.
o Correct grammatical structure and spelling.
Lower Second Class (50% – 59%)
o Main areas discussed.
o Good understanding of concepts. Ideas clearly stated. Coherent argument.
o Correct length. Good presentation.
o Good range of standard texts with some reference to research. Correct referencing.
o A few errors in grammatical structure and spelling.
Third Class (40%– 49%)
o Relevant areas discussed.
o Some under-standing of concepts & issues. Lacks clarity in places.
o Correct length. Reasonable presentation.
o Standard texts. Not all sources referenced. Inadequate referencing.
o A few errors in grammatical structure and spelling.
Fail (below 40%)
o Little relevance but evidence of some work undertaken.
o Below depth of knowledge required. Concepts poorly understood but evidence of some work undertaken.
o Length outside stipulated limits. Poorly written & presented but evidence of some attempt made.
o Little evidence of reading.
o Inadequate or non-existent referencing throughout.
o Low standard of literacy skills.
i. Electronic submission through TurnItIn
University of Roehampton, like many other universities in the UK, has incorporated the use of the TurnItInUK service to help detect and deter cases of plagiarism. The tool is also available to you (students) as a Learning resource to help you check your own work and ensure it is properly referenced. The service is integrated within the University’s Virtual Learning Environment, Moodle.
You are required to submit your assessments to the service via an assignment created in Moodle where they will be stored together with your name and institution. Once your material has been uploaded it will be stored electronically in a database and compared against work submitted from this or any other department(s) within this institution or from other UK institutions using the service. Your work will also be checked against a current and archived copy of the internet and a host of other academic databases.
Once a submission has been made, your lecturer will receive an originality report from the service. In most cases, this feedback from the originality reports will be used by the tutor/lecturer to instruct you about the process of referencing and the importance of maintaining academic standards. In some cases, dependent on extent, level and context, the institution may decide to undertake further investigation which could ultimately lead to disciplinary actions, should instances of plagiarism be detected. Such decisions are entirely at the discretion of your lecturers.
For help and information on making electronic submissions and viewing originality reports visit the Moodle Student Support Site.
For help and guidance on using TurnItInUK and accessing it as a learning resource you can view the Moodle How to guide: Use Turnitin UK – plagiarism tool available via the Moodle log in page.
You can also contact the eLearning team:
Via email:
Telephone:
4. CONTACT TIME
In the Criminology teaching programme we are committed to providing you with a comprehensive learning experience. To do this we ensure that you have sufficient direct contact with your lecturers. Some of this will be in compulsory taught sessions, which are the minimum amount of contact that you must have with us to pass the module. In addition to this we offer a range of contact options which are flexible for your convenience. We recognise that you have extra demands on your time, which is why we have broadened our contact options to reflect this.
Depending on the module, these are some of the contact opportunities that you will be able to utilise. Read your individual module handbooks for more information:
o Lectures and seminars. This is your minimum compulsory contact time. Core criminology modules have 4 hours per week. Optional modules have 2 hours per week.
o Email contact with tutors. This is often the best way to get in touch as you can then arrange a one-to-one meeting with your tutor at a mutually convenient time.
o Optional drop-in session. Tutors often have timetabled drop-in sessions where you can see them about your concerns. There will be many of these throughout the academic year.
o Individual tutorial support. These are often timetabled at the end of a course where you are able to have a one-to-one meeting with your lecturer about that module. You can expect these on most of your modules
o Personal tutor system. Every student has a personal tutor who they can contact and arrange to see. It is a good idea to contact your tutor and see them during the year.
o Telephone. All lecturers have an office telephone that you can call.
o Marking coursework. This might not seem like “contact” with your lecturer, but when marking coursework your lecturer is actually engaged one-to-one with whatever you have put in your essay. They will then be providing feedback and advice on how to improve your work.
o Reviewing drafts of work. Lecturers are often surprised that few students present drafts of work before the deadline for feedback. Take advantage of this if it is offered to you.
o End of year progression days. In Criminology we offer you the chance to meet with the team and discuss your progress to your second or third year. We can review your work as a whole and look for areas to improve.
o Online Moodle support. Moodle is a great way to contact your lecturers. They will often upload important information or announcements.
o Virtual learning support in the form of online discussion and debates.
o Powerpoint and lecture and seminar information made available. Lecturers upload materials including handouts, reading and slides onto Moodle – often in advance of the lecture. Look out for these.
o Examinations and tests. Lecturers might set tests to check your progress.
o Additional study skills support sessions. You will see these advertised in the department and should take advantage of them.
We advise you to make the most of contact opportunities and if in doubt, get in touch. We will be happy to see you.
5. TEACHING PROGRAMME
WEEK 1: Introduction: Crimes of the Powerful
In this introductory week information about the module will be provided. This will outline the assessment procedures, teaching programme and basic expectations of students.
In addition we will consider how criminal harms form a very small proportion of the vast bulk of harms which take place daily. The narrow sets of events defined as harmful neglects to recognise that it is frequently those who define crime and harm who themselves cause so much harm in society.
Seminar activity:
Check the Moodle site for the seminar activity and reading material.

Reading:
Box, S. (1983) Crime, power and ideological mystification in Box, S. (1983) Power, crime and mystification, London: Tavistock Publications.
Hillyard, P. and Tombs, S. (2007) From ‘Crime’ to Social Harm?, Crime, Law and Social Change, Vol. 48, Issue 1-2, pp. 9-25
Beetham, D. (1991) ‘Towards a Social-scientific Concept of Legitimacy’ in The Legitimation of Power. Basingstoke: Macmillan Press.
Scraton, P. (2002) ‘Defining “power” and challenging “knowledge”: critical analysis as resistance in the UK’ in (eds) Carrington, K. & Hogg, R. Critical Criminology: Issues, debates,. Cullompton: Willan
Marx, K. (2009) ‘Capital: a critical analysis of capitalist production, Volume 1’. In: D. Whyte (Ed.) Crimes of the Powerful: A Reader. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Pearce, F. and Tombs, T. (2009) ‘Toxic Capitalism: corporate crime and the chemical industry. In: D. Whyte (Ed.) Crimes of the Powerful: A Reader. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Christie, N (1998) ‘Between Civility and the State’ in Ruggiero, V., South, N. & Taylor, I. [eds] The New European Criminology, London: Routledge.
Cohen, S. (1986) Visions of Social Control: Crime, Punishment and Classification, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Fierlbeck, K. (1998) Globalising democracy : power, legitimacy, and the interpretation of democratic ideas London: Manchester University Press.
Foucault, M. (1979) Discipline and punish: the birth of the prison, Harmonsworth: Penguin.
Hillyard, P. & Percy-Smith, J. (1988) The Coercive State, London: Fontana.
Muncie, J. & McLaughlin, E. [eds] (2001) The Problem of Crime, London: Sage in association with Open University 2nd edition
WEEK 2: Conceptualizing, analysing and making visible crimes of the powerful
We will consider how criminal harms form a very small proportion of the vast bulk of harms which take place daily. The narrow sets of events defined as harmful neglects to recognise that it is frequently those who define crime and harm who themselves cause so much harm in society. In this session we will consider what makes ‘power’ legitimate and when does it cease to be so? Should harm form the basis on which ‘crime’ is defined? Would a social harm approach put crimes of the powerful centre stage?
Seminar activity:
Check the Moodle site for the seminar activity and reading material.

Reading:
Davies, P., Francis, P. and Wyatt, T. (eds) (1999) Invisible Crimes and Social Harm, London: Pelgrave Macmillan.
Shover, N. (ed) (2001) Crimes of privilege: readings in white-collar crime. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Beetham, D. (1991) ‘Towards a Social-scientific Concept of Legitimacy’ in The Legitimation of Power. Basingstoke: Macmillan Press.
Box, S. (1983) ‘Crime, power and ideological mystification’ in Power, crime and mystification, London: Tavistock Publications,
Scraton, P. (2002) ‘Defining “power” and challenging “knowledge”: critical analysis as resistance in the UK’ in (eds) Carrington, K. & Hogg, R. Critical Criminology: Issues, debates,. Cullompton: Willan
Marx, K. (2009) ‘Capital: a critical analysis of capitalist production, Volume 1’. In: D. Whyte (Ed.) Crimes of the Powerful: A Reader. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Pearce, F. and Tombs, T. (2009) ‘Toxic Capitalism: corporate crime and the chemical industry. In: D. Whyte (Ed.) Crimes of the Powerful: A Reader. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Christie, N (1998) ‘Between Civility and the State’ in Ruggiero, V., South, N. & Taylor, I. [eds] The New European Criminology, London: Routledge.
Cohen, S. (1986) Visions of Social Control: Crime, Punishment and Classification, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Fierlbeck, K. (1998) Globalising democracy: power, legitimacy, and the interpretation of democratic ideas London: Manchester University Press.
Foucault, M. (1979) Discipline and punish: the birth of the prison, Harmonsworth: Penguin.
Hillyard, P. & Percy-Smith, J. (1988) The Coercive State, London: Fontana. Muncie, J. & McLaughlin, E. [eds] (2001) The Problem of Crime, London: Sage in association with Open University 2nd edition
WEEK 3: The media and crimes of the powerful
The media play a powerful role in determining the moral acceptability, or not, of various acts. As an arm of the state, in dictatorships, or as corporate entities, in many democratic states, there are often self-serving agendas behind these various representations. When and how do these agendas manifest?
Seminar activity:
For week 3 seminar you will need to work in groups of 3 or 4 and analyse one of the newspapers listed below and examine and consider how crimes of the powerful are reported.
The Guardian; Financial Times; The Sun; The Mirror; Daily Mail; Telegraph
Look for any crime that involves people who can be considered in a higher social hierarchy (such as politician, war criminals, company directors etc.), large organisation (such as corporations), and storied involving specific crimes (such as financial, health and safety and environmental crimes). Keep in mind issues such as: language used, position of the article in the paper and use of images. Be critical, you may need to read between the lines to find something. Bring the newspaper you have examined and come prepared to discuss your findings.
Have you identified any article? What are the stories and how are they portrayed by the newspaper?

Reading:
Barak, G. (1994) ‘Media, Society & Criminology’ in Media, process, and the social construction of crime : studies in newsmaking criminology, New York: Garland Press
Jewkes, Y. (2004) Media & Crime, London: Sage ps 13-30
Kidd-Hewitt, D. & Osborne, R. [eds] (1995) ‘Crime and the Media: a criminological perspective’ Crime and the media : the postmodern spectacle. London: Pluto Press, 1995
Muncie, J. & McLaughlin, E. [eds] (2001) The Problem of Crime. London: Sage in association with Open University 2nd edition ps 44-64
Andersen, T. (2003) ‘Terrorism and Censorship’ in Griset, P. & Mahan, S. [eds] Terrorism in perspective, London: Sage
Bourdieu, P. (1998) On television and journalism, London: Pluto Press
Ericson, R. (1995) Crime and the media, Aldershot: Dartmouth,
Ericson, R. and Baranek, P. (1989) Negotiating control : a study of news sources. Milton Keynes: Open University Press,
Perl, R. (2003) ‘Terrorism, the Media and the Government’ in Griset, P. &
Mahan, S. [eds] Terrorism in perspective, London: Sage
Shaw, M (1996) Civil society and media in global crises: representing distant violence. London: Pinter
WEEK 4: Tutorial Week
This week I will be available to give you feedback on your first piece of assignment, which deadline is at 14.00 on Friday the 16th of October. Make sure to take advantage of this time to improve your work and mark. Just turn up to the lecture and seminar room.
WEEK 5: White collar crime
In his Presidential Address to the American Sociological Association in 1939, and in various publications through the following decade, Edwin Sutherland introduced the idea of ‘white-collar crime’. This challenged the stereotypical view of the criminal as lower class. Largely however, his call on criminology to focus upon corporate and white-collar crimes was ignored. In the early 1970s there occurred a re-emergence of interest in corporate crime and ‘white-collar’ crime and a popular and political concern with the socially harmful effects of corporate activity. Some commentators, however (Snider 2000), have argued that this concern had diminished dramatically by the end of the twentieth century. In this seminar we will explore the economic and political trends which impact upon how corporate and white-collar crime are perceived and consider why these areas remain marginalised in mainstream criminology.
Seminar activity:
Check the Moodle site for the seminar activity and reading material.

Reading:
Johnstone, P. (1999) ‘Serious white collar fraud: historical and contemporary perspectives’ Crime, Law and Social Change 30: 107-130
Sutherland, E. (1983) White Collar Crime, New Haven: Yale University Press.
Nelken, D. (2007) ‘White-collar and corporate crime’. In: M. Maguire, R. Morgan and R. Reiner (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Croall, H (2001) Understanding white collar crime, Buckingham: Open University Press
Geis, G. & Jesilow, P. (1993) White-collar crime, Newbury Park, Calif. ; London : Sage Publications
Levi, M. (1987) Regulating fraud : white-collar crime and the criminal process, London: Tavistock Publications
Nelken, D. [ed] (1993) White-collar crime, Aldershot: Dartmouth
Savelsberg, J. (1994) Constructing white-collar crime: rationalities, communication, power, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press
Bakan, J. (2009) ‘The corporation: the pathological pursuit of profit and power’ In: D. Whyte (Ed.) Crimes of the Powerful: A Reader. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
WEEK 6: Corporate crime
While corporate crime receives media attention, especially in high profile cases such as the Enron affair or News International, it remains a comparatively under researched and underreported criminal phenomenon. There is also the problem that many activities by corporate businesses do not easily fit into the illegal category and yet cause untold suffering and damage. Should criminology pay more attention to this type of crime and in doing so take a broader moral view of the misdemeanours committed by these companies?
Seminar activity:
Check the Moodle site for the seminar activity and reading material.

Reading:
Punch, M. (1996) Dirty Business, London: Sage. Chap. 2
Ruggiero, V. (2002) ‘Moby Dick and the Crimes of the Economy’, British Journal of Criminology 42, ps 96-108
Ruggiero, V. (1996) Organized and corporate crime in Europe: offers that can’t be refused. Aldershot: Dartmouth Chap 1
Braithwaite, J (1984) Corporate crime in the pharmaceutical industry. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul
Gobert, J.& Punch, M.(2003) Rethinking corporate crime, London: Butterworths
Pearce, F. (1976) Crimes of the powerful: Marxism, crime and deviance, London: Pluto
Ruggiero, V. (1996) Organized and corporate crime in Europe: offers that can’t be refused. Aldershot: Dartmouth.
Simpson, S. (2002) Corporate crime, law, and social control, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Tombs, S. & Whyte, D, (eds) (2003) Unmasking the Crimes of the powerful: Scrutinizing States and Corporations, New York: Peter Lang
Slapper, G. & Tombs, S. (1999) Corporate crime. Harlow: Longman
WEEK 7: State Crime
If a crime is an act defined by the state and its institutional mechanisms, then who is to define state crime? The epistemological problem of defining state crime has probably been one of the reasons why the research category ‘state crime’ has been marginalised by contemporary criminology. Nevertheless, the study of state crime constitutes one of the most critical fields of criminology as it reveals and examines various aspects of the modern state’s structure and its legitimating power in relation to crimes committed by governments. Although crimes committed by states are the most serious ones, there is little research about this issue; nor has there been much sociological analysis on the topic. In this seminar we will examine the literature that is available and debate the meaning of state crime and whether it can be adequately tackled in the current political, economic and social climate.
Seminar activity:
Check the Moodle site for the seminar activity and reading material.

Reading:
Barak, G. (1991). Crimes by the capitalist state: An introduction to state criminality. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Chambliss, W. (1989). “State-organized crime”. Criminology, 27, 183-208.
Cohen, S. (2002). “Human Rights and Crimes of the State: The Culture of Denial” in Criminological Perspectives, 2nd Edition. (E. McLaughlin, J. Muncie and G. Hughes eds.). London: Sage.
Green, P. and Ward, T. (2004) State Crime: Governments, Violence and Corruption. London: Pluto Press.
Transparency International Global Corruption Report 2003 http://www.transparency.org/publications/gcr
WEEK 8: Environmental Crime
This week we consider an emerging area of criminological interest: Green criminology. What the term means, the types of areas it is interested in and some critiques of the subject will be examined. Lynch and Stresky argue that green crimes, like other crimes, are social constructions influenced by social locations and power relations in society. With respect to power issues, we will be looking to examine the meaning of the term green and how it is interpreted in different contexts by different people.
Seminar activity:
Check the Moodle site for the seminar activity and reading material.

Reading:
Bierne, P. and South, N. (2007) Issues in Green Criminology: Confronting Harms Against Environments, Humanity and Other Animals. Devon: Willan Publishing.
Halsey, M. (2004) ‘Against Green Criminology’. British Journal of Criminology 44 833-853 http://bjc.oxfordjournals.org/againstgreencrim
Lynch, M.L. and Stretsky, P.B. (2003) ‘The Meaning of Green: Contrasting Criminological Perspectives’. Theoretical Criminology, 5 (7) pp. 217 – 238. http://tcr.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/7/2/217

Special Edition of Theoretical Criminology (1998) 2 (2) http://tcr.sagepub.com/content/vol2/issue2/
WEEK 9: Organized Crime 1
Do we live in a crime-friendly world, where nation states are more interested in power than crime control? Transnational organized crime is a multi-faceted phenomenon and has manifested itself in different activities, such as, drug trafficking, trafficking in human beings; trafficking in firearms; smuggling of migrants; and money laundering. However, questions have been raised regarding whether these groups of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals, frequently operate with the implicit support of supposedly more legitimate enterprises (politicians, business groups etc).
Seminar activity:
Check the Moodle site for the seminar activity and reading material.

Reading:
Arlacchi, P. (1986) Mafia Business: The Mafia Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. London: Verso.
Bernstein, Lee (2002) The Greatest Menace: Organized Crime in Cold War America. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.
Block, Alan A., and Chambliss, William J. (1982) Organizing Crime. New York: Elsevier.
Cohen, A.K. (1977). “The Concept of Criminal Organisation,” British Journal of Criminology,17(2), 97-111.
van Duyne, P., Jager, M., von Lampe, K. and Newell, J. (2004) Threats and Phantoms of Organised Crime, Corruption and Terrorism: Critical European Perspectives (pp. 21-50). Nijmegen, Netherlands: Wolf Legal Publishers. http://www.organized-crime.de/
WEEK 10: Organised Crime 2
In this session we will discuss how organized crime works in practice with particular emphasis on how to access government organisations. In addition we will consider also how can you go about researching crimes committed the powerful? [See the reading for Week 8]
Seminar activity:
Check the Moodle site for the seminar activity and reading material.

Reading:
Lasslett, K. (2010) Scientific Method and the Crimes of the Powerful, Critical Criminology, September 2010, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 211-228
Harvie, D. (2000) Alienation, Class and Enclosure in UK Universities, Capital and Class, Volume 23 Issue 71.
Conti, J. A. and O’Neil, M. (2007), ‘Studying power: qualitative methods and the global elite’, Qualitative Research, Volume 7 Issue 1, 63–82.
Desmond, M. (2004), ‘Methodological challenges posed in studying as elite in the field’, Area, Volume 36 Issue 3,pp. 262–9.
Westmarland, L. (2011) Researching Crime and Justice: Tales from the Field. London: Routledge.
Almond, P. (2006) An Inspector’s-Eye View: The Prospective Of Work Related Fatalities Cases British Journal of Criminology Vol. 46 Issue 5, September 2006 pp 893-916
Almond, P. (2009) The dangers of hanging baskets: Regulatory myths and media representations of health and safety regulation, Journal of Law and Society, Volume 34 Number 3.
Almond, P. (2008) Investigating Health and Safety Regulation: Finding room for small-scale Projects. Journal of Law and Society Special Issue: Law’s Reality: Case Studies in Empirical Research on Law Volume 35, Issue Supplement 1, pp:108–125, June 2008.
Mathiesen, T. (2004) Silently Silenced. Essays on the Creation of Acquiescence in Modern Society, Winchester: Waterside Press.
Whyte, D. (2000) Researching the Powerful: Towards a Political Economy of Method? IN King, R, & Wincup, E. (2000) Doing Research in Crime and Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
WEEK 11: Responses to, and Regulation of, crimes of the powerful
The relative power that certain groups and individuals have limits the extent to which they can be held to account in domestic and international law. How power is exercised is a critical aspect to responses to and regulations of crimes of the powerful. The role of the law is important in establishing a general pattern that appears to make a natural order whereby it is individuals rather than corporations that are seen as criminal. In addition, the concept of mens rea (the moral element of the crime) will be discussed. Crimes of the powerful often fall outside the attention of the criminal law, and are inadequately monitored, recorded and prosecuted. Instead compliance strategies rather than criminalization are used to deal with crimes of the powerful.
Seminar activity:
Check the Moodle site for the seminar activity and reading material.

Reading:
Marx, K. (2009) ‘Capital: a critical analysis of capitalist production, Volume 1’. In: D. Whyte (Ed.) Crimes of the Powerful: A Reader. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Alvesalo, A. (2009) ‘Downsized by law, ideology, and pragmatics – policing white-collar crime’. In: D. Whyte (Ed.) Crimes of the Powerful: A Reader. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Braithwaite, J. and Geis, G., (1982) On Theory and Action for Corporate Crime Control, in N. Shover and J.Wright (eds.) (2000), Crimes of Privilege: Readings in White-Collar Crime, New York, Oxford University Press, 2000.
Michalowski, R. and Kramer, R. (2009) ‘The space between laws: The problem of corporate crime in a transnational context. In: D. Whyte (Ed.) Crimes of the Powerful: A Reader. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
WEEK 12: Tutorial time: Come to class for 1 to 1 session with your tutor
This week I will be available to give you some feedback on your essay, which deadline is 14.00 on Friday the 11th of December. Make sure to take advantage of this time to improve your work and mark. Just turn up to the lectures and seminars room.99*

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