Social/Cultural Anthropology Essay

| February 10, 2014

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This is an essay for a Social/Cultural Anthropology topic. ( This is not a sociology topic. It is an anthropology topic and so the focus of this paper should be social/cultural anthropology).
The topic is: Well-known academics such as Jared Diamond, Stephen Pinker and Napoleon Chagnon have argued that warfare has played a key role in human evolution and has literally become a part of our nature as a species, while others, such as Margaret Mead, suggest that warfare emerges in particular social and cultural contexts, and is characteristic of some societies and not others. Utilizing data primarily from the field of social-cultural anthropology* (rather than biological, linguistic, or archaeological data), make an argument that war is either inherently natural and universal, or created in particular social-cultural contexts. You must use the required readings shown below. It is mandatory to use these readings. If you are having trouble opening these readings, let me know so that i can attach a pdf of these readings. Along with these readings, you must use another scholarly reference. You need to use the required refereed reading(s) (not the popular, non-refereed reading) given with each topic, and at least ONE other scholarly source that you select yourself (additional source). The additional source must be a refereed (peer-reviewed) journal article, i.e. not a book. It may not be a website, unless the website is an exact online copy of a refereed publication. After reading these required readings and the additional reference, you must start the essay. The side that i have taken is that warfare is not innate and instead created in particular social cultural contexts.
I have an essay proposal for this topic however i’ve received a poor mark on it. Fix the errors mentioned on my proposal form by my professor to make this an A grade paper. my school is considered the Harvard of Canada so please write a high quality paper.
Required Readings ( these are not the refereed readings so you must find a peer reviewed Social/Cultural Anthropology journal article to use as reference for the essay. The links below are only material you must read to get an understanding of this topic. Please do not avoid reading these articles. it is crucial for this paper.)
Required Readings ? Refereed Journal Articles:Chagnon, Napoleon. A. (1988). Life histories, blood revenge, and warfare in a tribal population. Science, 239(4843), 985-992.
Mead, Margaret. (1940). Warfare is only an invention?not a biological necessity.Asia, 40(8), 402-405. Available online at:https://astro.temple.edu/~dmg33/Mosaic_II_fall_files/Mead.pdf
Required Readings ? Popular Articles:
Corry, Stephen, Jan. 30, 2013. Savaging Primitives: Why Jared Diamond?s ?The World Until Yesterday? Is Completely Wrong
Culotta, E. (2013). Latest Skirmish Over Ancestral Violence Strikes Blow for Peace. Science, 341(6143), 224-224.
Horgan, John. July 18, 2013. New Study of Foragers Undermines Claim That War Has Deep Evolutionary Roots
Details on the Essay Format:
1)Length
? 1,500 words maximum (or about 6 double-spaced pages) excluding the Reference List.? Go by word count, not page count and do word counts as you write (most word processors do this.)
? Over 1,500 words may result in a grade penalty for me.
2)Required Page Elements
? Don’t make a separate title page.
? Top of first page: List your name (given name, then family name), student number, title of the essay and the date you actually submit the paper.
? Use 12-point Times, Times New Roman or Arial typeface with at least 2.5cm margins all around.
? Double-space throughout.
? Number the pages.
3) Filename Format
Save your essay in the following format:
? Phase Two (draft): lastname.firstname.phase2.doc or lastname.firstname.phase2.docx
? Phase Three (final): lastname.firstname.phase3.doc or lastname.firstname.phase3.docx
4) No Illustrations
Do not use any illustrations: no photos, maps, diagrams, maps, or tables.
No Footnotes or Endnotes
Do not use any footnotes or endnotes.
No Quotations
Do not use any quotations. The exception is when you are commenting in your paper on an author’s wording of a text passage. In that case you may use a quote. Any unauthorized use of a quotation will result in an automatic, non-negotiable deduction of 10% of my total essay mark .
Paraphrasing
In many cases, paraphrasing is plagiarism, and should be carefully avoided. Never copy any part of a text into your paper, even if you then put your own words around or in the copied patch. On our web page onplagiarism [read it!] we call this disguised copying, and it is the most common type of plagiarism. It is no excuse if you follow your disguised-copied text with a reference to where you copied it from.
The reference style for this paper is the AAA style.
Instructions on how to format using the AAA style is on this website: https://anthropology.utoronto.ca/ant100/documenting.html
Here is some advice my school has given regarding writing this paper. Please read this and try to follow this.
Read carefully and critically
The skill of reading critically must be learned — no one is born with it! Your ability to read academic papers efficiently will improve greatly during your university studies. It is worth your while to read this advice on reading and researching.
Show a creative, original attitude to the topic
The word is related to the verb essayer in French, meaning to try. In an essay you try out a number of ideas and decide which ones best cover your topic. The aim of the essays in ANT100Y is to come up with your own perspective on the given topic, not just repeat the standard notions about it. The most worthwhile papers are often ones where students examine critically their own ideas.
Being critical in this sense does not mean being negative. It means not taking things to be self-evident, but instead to examine the assumptions and reasoning behind them. In particular, be critical of extremely common and popular opinions (you may hold on to them, but do examine them). Examples: Pre-industrial people led harder lives than ours; Racial distinctions are based on physical realities; Highly literate cultures are more advanced than cultures without writing; Western representations of the Muslim world are excuses for imperialism.
(See the advice file Critical Reading for Critical Writing.)
Take a position
An essay doesn?t just repeat information or other people’s opinions; it takes a stand on issues and controversies. A good university essay needs to map out a fairly complex position and then explain and defend it. You will probably summarize your position in the introductory paragraph of your essay. You may want to restate it in different words in your concluding paragraph.
(See also the advice file Using Thesis Statements.)
Revise, revise, then revise again
As you read and think more, be ready to revise and clarify your work. Your work will require you to refine your position?often changing it radically from your starting point. Never, ever submit your first draft. The Essay (advanced draft) as opposed to the Essay Revised assignment) is a draft, but NOT your first draft!
Consider using more than the required number of sources
Besides avoiding any hint of plagiarism, essays that weave in a rich texture of references to other scholarly authors show that they are based on careful and critical reading. Notice how the scholarly sources you read integrate multiple references to others’ work as a way of signalling that they know what else has been said about their topic, and are now adding to the store of knowledge.
Never add sources just for the sake of increasing their number. This will not gain you marks, but rather may lose you some because it could make your essay less focused. If, however, you are using a greater number of sources that are clearly relevant to the topic and your take on it then do so: it will improve your work and might make the difference between a B and an A.
Minimize jargon
The more you read good academic writing, the more you will be able to reproduce its style in your own work. But do not force it: until you are comfortable with academic jargon and clear on what all your terms mean, it’s better to stay away from it. Even once you master it, use jargon only when you cannot express things just as clearly and precisely without it.
Avoid metaphors like society says, or the media make us if possible, and ask instead who in society or the media says or does what to whom. This will help you ask more interesting questions and give more thorough answers.
Cut out the junk
One of the commonest, but worst, mistakes is to increase the length of your essay, thinking that this will give you a better mark. It’s probably better to come in under the limit than to pad your work with careless, possibly meaningless, writing. Take the time to think and research more if you have to. Then shorten rather than lengthen your essay. If anything can be said more briefly without losing substance then do so. Asked about the secret of good writing, Ernest Hemingway said, Cut out the junk.
Basically the argument of this paper should be that warfare is an invention. Warfare is just circumstantial which is usually caused by environmental stress and conflict, etc. But remember violence doesn’t mean warfare. Violence is like human squabbling ( kids hitting each other) Violence is not our focus, it is WARFARE.
I may have missed a few details. I may have been unclear about certain parts of this essay. If any questions or doubts, feel free to contact me. Make sure the peer reviewed source is reliable and strong. make sure it is a social/cultural anthropology paper. I will attach document of my essay proposal and my Ta’s comments on that. Do no rely completely on my essay proposal as i received a poor grade. Rely on the tips provided by my TA.
This must be an A grade worthy paper.
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