SCC300 Research Questions and Hypotheses for Course Project

| May 19, 2015

SCC300 Research Questions and Hypotheses for Course Project
Output from SPSS Analyses

RQ1: Do male and female college students define “hook up culture” differently? How so?
-Waiting for open-ended question to be coded to answer ?

H1: Male and female college students will differ in their (a) use of dating apps, (b) motives for using dating apps, (c) attitudes toward dating apps, and (d) attitudes toward hook up culture.

(H1a) Use of Dating Apps:
FYI: This is a Chi Square on “Have You Used a Dating App (Yes/No)” and Sex.

Crosstabs
Case Processing Summary
Cases
Valid    Missing    Total
N    Percent    N    Percent    N    Percent
What is your sex? * Have you ever used a dating app?    558    88.2%    75    11.8%    633    100.0%

What is your sex? * Have you ever used a dating app?  Crosstabulation
Have you ever used a dating app?    Total
Yes    No
What is your sex?    Male    Count    86    91    177
Expected Count    73.0    104.0    177.0
% within What is your sex?    48.6%    51.4%    100.0%
% within Have you ever used a dating app?    37.4%    27.7%    31.7%
% of Total    15.4%    16.3%    31.7%
Female    Count    144    237    381
Expected Count    157.0    224.0    381.0
% within What is your sex?    37.8%    62.2%    100.0%
% within Have you ever used a dating app?    62.6%    72.3%    68.3%
% of Total    25.8%    42.5%    68.3%
Total    Count    230    328    558
Expected Count    230.0    328.0    558.0
% within What is your sex?    41.2%    58.8%    100.0%
% within Have you ever used a dating app?    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%
% of Total    41.2%    58.8%    100.0%

Chi-Square Tests
Value    df    Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)    Exact Sig. (2-sided)    Exact Sig. (1-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square    5.810a    1    .016
Continuity Correctionb    5.373    1    .020
Likelihood Ratio    5.772    1    .016
Fisher’s Exact Test                .017    .010
Linear-by-Linear Association    5.799    1    .016
N of Valid Cases    558
a. 0 cells (0.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 72.96.
b. Computed only for a 2×2 table

(Hlb)Motives for Using Dating Apps:

Group Statistics
What is your sex?    N    Mean    Std. Deviation    Std. Error Mean
I have used or currently use dating apps to increase my self-esteem.    Male    87    2.97    1.166    .125
Female    146    3.44    1.281    .106
I have used or currently use dating apps to potentially start a romantic relationship.    Male    87    2.94    1.223    .131
Female    145    2.82    1.251    .104
I have used or currently use dating apps to potentially meet new friends.    Male    87    2.61    1.165    .125
Female    145    2.48    1.236    .103
I have used or currently use dating apps to find sexual partners.    Male    87    3.61    1.145    .123
Female    145    2.19    1.178    .098

(More from analysis on next page)

Independent Samples Test
Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances    t-test for Equality of Means
F    Sig.    t    df    Sig. (2-tailed)    Mean Difference    Std. Error Difference    95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Lower    Upper
I have used or currently use dating apps to increase my self-esteem.    Equal variances assumed    1.227    .269    -2.817    231    .005    -.473    .168    -.804    -.142
Equal variances not assumed            -2.885    194.533    .004    -.473    .164    -.796    -.150
I have used or currently use dating apps to potentially start a romantic relationship.    Equal variances assumed    .826    .364    .724    230    .470    .122    .168    -.210    .453
Equal variances not assumed            .728    184.405    .467    .122    .167    -.208    .452
I have used or currently use dating apps to potentially meet new friends.    Equal variances assumed    .443    .506    .812    230    .417    .133    .164    -.190    .457
Equal variances not assumed            .825    189.774    .411    .133    .162    -.186    .452
I have used or currently use dating apps to find sexual partners.    Equal variances assumed    .119    .731    8.999    230    .000    1.423    .158    1.111    1.735
Equal variances not assumed            9.065    185.364    .000    1.423    .157    1.113    1.733

(H1c) Attitudes Toward Dating Apps

Group Statistics    What is your sex?    N    Mean    Std. Deviation    Std. Error Mean
AttitudesTowardDatingApps_AVG    Male    174    2.7391    .56790    .04305
Female    380    2.5311    .57731    .02962

Independent Samples Test
Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances    t-test for Equality of Means
F    Sig.    t    df    Sig. (2-tailed)    Mean Difference    Std. Error Difference    95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Lower    Upper
AttitudesTowardDatingApps_AVG    Equal variances assumed    .612    .434    3.957    552    .000    .20803    .05258    .10476    .31130
Equal variances not assumed            3.981    340.643    .000    .20803    .05225    .10525    .31081

(H1d) Attitudes Toward Hook Up Culture

Group Statistics
What is your sex?    N    Mean    Std. Deviation    Std. Error Mean
AttitudesTowardHookUpCulture_AVG    Male    170    3.2809    .47366    .03633
Female    362    2.9907    .42963    .02258
Independent Samples Test

Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances    t-test for Equality of Means
F    Sig.    t    df    Sig. (2-tailed)    Mean Difference    Std. Error Difference    95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Lower    Upper
AttitudesTowardHookUpCulture_AVG    Equal variances assumed    2.145    .144    7.028    530    .000    .29021    .04130    .20908    .37133
Equal variances not assumed            6.785    303.598    .000    .29021    .04277    .20603    .37438

RQ2: How is one’s class rank related to his or her attitude toward “hook up” culture?

Descriptives
AttitudesTowardHookUpCulture_AVG
N    Mean    Std. Deviation    Std. Error    95% Confidence Interval for Mean    Minimum    Maximum
Lower Bound    Upper Bound
First Year    68    2.9982    .36555    .04433    2.9097    3.0866    2.25    4.00
Sophomore    109    3.0155    .42459    .04067    2.9349    3.0961    1.88    4.19
Junior    195    3.1298    .49188    .03522    3.0603    3.1993    1.75    4.38
Senior    141    3.1449    .49322    .04154    3.0628    3.2271    1.75    4.38
Graduate    25    2.9750    .38864    .07773    2.8146    3.1354    2.38    3.75
Total    538    3.0868    .46333    .01998    3.0475    3.1260    1.75    4.38

ANOVA
AttitudesTowardHookUpCulture_AVG
Sum of Squares    df    Mean Square    F    Sig.
Between Groups    2.239    4    .560    2.639    .033
Within Groups    113.042    533    .212
Total    115.281    537

(More from this analysis on next page)

Post Hoc Tests
Multiple Comparisons
Dependent Variable:   AttitudesTowardHookUpCulture_AVG

Tukey HSD
(I) What is your academic standing?    (J) What is your academic standing?    Mean Difference (I-J)    Std. Error    Sig.    95% Confidence Interval
Lower Bound    Upper Bound
First Year    Sophomore    -.01732    .07117    .999    -.2121    .1775
Junior    -.13165    .06486    .253    -.3092    .0459
Senior    -.14679    .06799    .197    -.3329    .0393
Graduate    .02316    .10771    1.000    -.2717    .3180
Sophomore    First Year    .01732    .07117    .999    -.1775    .2121
Junior    -.11433    .05508    .232    -.2651    .0364
Senior    -.12947    .05874    .180    -.2902    .0313
Graduate    .04048    .10212    .995    -.2390    .3200
Junior    First Year    .13165    .06486    .253    -.0459    .3092
Sophomore    .11433    .05508    .232    -.0364    .2651
Senior    -.01514    .05091    .998    -.1545    .1242
Graduate    .15481    .09783    .509    -.1130    .4226
Senior    First Year    .14679    .06799    .197    -.0393    .3329
Sophomore    .12947    .05874    .180    -.0313    .2902
Junior    .01514    .05091    .998    -.1242    .1545
Graduate    .16995    .09994    .434    -.1036    .4435
Graduate    First Year    -.02316    .10771    1.000    -.3180    .2717
Sophomore    -.04048    .10212    .995    -.3200    .2390
Junior    -.15481    .09783    .509    -.4226    .1130
Senior    -.16995    .09994    .434    -.4435    .1036

Homogeneous Subsets
AttitudesTowardHookUpCulture_AVG
Tukey HSDa,b
What is your academic standing?    N    Subset for alpha = 0.05
1
Graduate    25    2.9750
First Year    68    2.9982
Sophomore    109    3.0155
Junior    195    3.1298
Senior    141    3.1449
Sig.        .215
Means for groups in homogeneous subsets are displayed.
a. Uses Harmonic Mean Sample Size = 65.703.
b. The group sizes are unequal. The harmonic mean of the group sizes is used. Type I error levels are not guaranteed.

RQ3: How is one’s age related to his or her attitude toward “hook up” culture?

Correlations    What is your Age (in years)?    AttitudesTowardHookUpCulture_AVG
What is your Age (in years)?    Pearson Correlation    1    .000
Sig. (2-tailed)        .996
N    560    533
AttitudesTowardHookUpCulture_AVG    Pearson Correlation    .000    1
Sig. (2-tailed)    .996
N    533    547

RQ4: What is the association of relationship status and attitude toward “hook up” culture?

Descriptives
AttitudesTowardHookUpCulture_AVG
N    Mean    Std. Deviation    Std. Error    95% Confidence Interval for Mean    Minimum    Maximum
Lower Bound    Upper Bound
Single    311    3.0697    .46117    .02615    3.0183    3.1212    1.75    4.38
Casually Dating    79    3.1883    .42982    .04836    3.0920    3.2846    2.38    4.38
In a Committed Relationship    134    3.0863    .49164    .04247    3.0023    3.1703    1.75    4.38
Engaged    5    2.9250    .25541    .11422    2.6079    3.2421    2.63    3.31
Married    7    2.7679    .32014    .12100    2.4718    3.0639    2.44    3.25
Divorced    3    3.0208    .50130    .28943    1.7755    4.2661    2.50    3.50
Total    539    3.0857    .46359    .01997    3.0465    3.1249    1.75    4.38

ANOVA
AttitudesTowardHookUpCulture_AVG
Sum of Squares    df    Mean Square    F    Sig.
Between Groups    1.760    5    .352    1.647    .146
Within Groups    113.864    533    .214
Total    115.624    538

(No need for post hoc analyses)
H2: There is a negative relationship between use of dating apps and favorable views of traditional relationships.

Group Statistics
Have you ever used a dating app?    N    Mean    Std. Deviation    Std. Error Mean
AttitudesTowardTraditionalRelationships_WithoutRecode_AVG    Yes    231    2.6364    .73928    .04864
No    326    2.8413    .70868    .03925

Independent Samples Test
Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances    t-test for Equality of Means
F    Sig.    t    df    Sig. (2-tailed)    Mean Difference    Std. Error Difference    95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Lower    Upper
AttitudesTowardTraditionalRelationships_WithoutRecode_AVG    Equal variances assumed    .843    .359    -3.302    555    .001    -.20489    .06205    -.32678    -.08301
Equal variances not assumed            -3.278    482.318    .001    -.20489    .06250    -.32770    -.08208

H3: There is a positive relationship between the use of dating apps and favorable attitudes toward hook up culture.

Group Statistics
Have you ever used a dating app?    N    Mean    Std. Deviation    Std. Error Mean
AttitudesTowardHookUpCulture_AVG    Yes    225    3.2017    .44909    .02994
No    314    3.0038    .45707    .02579

Independent Samples Test
Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances    t-test for Equality of Means
F    Sig.    t    df    Sig. (2-tailed)    Mean Difference    Std. Error Difference    95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Lower    Upper
AttitudesTowardHookUpCulture_AVG    Equal variances assumed    .375    .541    4.993    537    .000    .19788    .03963    .12003    .27574
Equal variances not assumed            5.007    487.661    .000    .19788    .03952    .12024    .27553

H4: Individuals with higher communication apprehension will have more positive attitudes about dating apps.

Correlations
ComApp_
Groups    ComApp_
Meetings    ComApp_
Interpersonal    ComApp_
PublicSpeaking    ComApp_Total    AttitudesTowardDatingApps_WithoutRecode_AVG
ComApp_Groups    Pearson Correlation    1    .798**    .666**    .527**    .890**    -.096*
Sig. (2-tailed)        .000    .000    .000    .000    .024
N    621    602    601    607    578    555
ComApp_Meetings    Pearson Correlation    .798**    1    .705**    .626**    .921**    -.099*
Sig. (2-tailed)    .000        .000    .000    .000    .020
N    602    611    596    599    578    546
ComApp_Interpersonal    Pearson Correlation    .666**    .705**    1    .550**    .850**    -.096*
Sig. (2-tailed)    .000    .000        .000    .000    .025
N    601    596    610    600    578    545
ComApp_PublicSpeaking    Pearson Correlation    .527**    .626**    .550**    1    .757**    -.023
Sig. (2-tailed)    .000    .000    .000        .000    .589
N    607    599    600    617    578    553
ComApp_Total    Pearson Correlation    .890**    .921**    .850**    .757**    1    -.090*
Sig. (2-tailed)    .000    .000    .000    .000        .040
N    578    578    578    578    578    516
AttitudesTowardDatingApps_WithoutRecode_AVG    Pearson Correlation    -.096*    -.099*    -.096*    -.023    -.090*    1
Sig. (2-tailed)    .024    .020    .025    .589    .040
N    555    546    545    553    516    564

H5: Individuals with lower self-esteem will have more positive attitudes about dating apps.

Correlations
AttitudesTowardDatingApps_WithoutRecode_AVG    SelfEsteemAVG
AttitudesTowardDatingApps_WithoutRecode_AVG    Pearson Correlation    1    .040
Sig. (2-tailed)        .346
N    564    555
SelfEsteemAVG    Pearson Correlation    .040    1
Sig. (2-tailed)    .346
N    555    620

RQ6: What is the association between an individual’s communication apprehension and motives for using dating apps?

Correlations
I have used or currently use dating apps to increase my self-esteem.    I have used or currently use dating apps to potentially start a romantic relationship.    I have used or currently use dating apps to potentially meet new friends.    I have used or currently use dating apps to find sexual partners.    ComApp_Total
I have used or currently use dating apps to increase my self-esteem.    Pearson Correlation    1    .209**    .119    -.080    -.136*
Sig. (2-tailed)        .001    .070    .221    .047
N    234    233    233    233    216
I have used or currently use dating apps to potentially start a romantic relationship.    Pearson Correlation    .209**    1    .356**    .254**    -.101
Sig. (2-tailed)    .001        .000    .000    .142
N    233    233    232    232    215
I have used or currently use dating apps to potentially meet new friends.    Pearson Correlation    .119    .356**    1    .204**    -.191**
Sig. (2-tailed)    .070    .000        .002    .005
N    233    232    233    233    215
I have used or currently use dating apps to find sexual partners.    Pearson Correlation    -.080    .254**    .204**    1    .049
Sig. (2-tailed)    .221    .000    .002        .475
N    233    232    233    234    216
ComApp_Total    Pearson Correlation    -.136*    -.101    -.191**    .049    1
Sig. (2-tailed)    .047    .142    .005    .475
N    216    215    215    216    578
RQ7: What is the association between an individual’s self esteem and motives for using dating apps?

Correlations
I have used or currently use dating apps to increase my self-esteem.    I have used or currently use dating apps to potentially start a romantic relationship.    I have used or currently use dating apps to potentially meet new friends.    I have used or currently use dating apps to find sexual partners.    SelfEsteemAVG
I have used or currently use dating apps to increase my self-esteem.    Pearson Correlation    1    .209**    .119    -.080    .183**
Sig. (2-tailed)        .001    .070    .221    .005
N    234    233    233    233    230
I have used or currently use dating apps to potentially start a romantic relationship.    Pearson Correlation    .209**    1    .356**    .254**    .063
Sig. (2-tailed)    .001        .000    .000    .346
N    233    233    232    232    229
I have used or currently use dating apps to potentially meet new friends.    Pearson Correlation    .119    .356**    1    .204**    .116
Sig. (2-tailed)    .070    .000        .002    .081
N    233    232    233    233    229
I have used or currently use dating apps to find sexual partners.    Pearson Correlation    -.080    .254**    .204**    1    -.035
Sig. (2-tailed)    .221    .000    .002        .597
N    233    232    233    234    230
SelfEsteemAVG    Pearson Correlation    .183**    .063    .116    -.035    1
Sig. (2-tailed)    .005    .346    .081    .597
N    230    229    229    230    620

Demographics (Who was in our sample):

Descriptive Statistics
N    Minimum    Maximum    Mean    Std. Deviation
What is your Age (in years)?    558    18    57    20.80    2.625
Valid N (listwise)    558

What is your sex?
Frequency    Percent    Valid Percent    Cumulative Percent
Valid    Male    178    28.2    31.9    31.9
Female    380    60.2    68.1    100.0
Total    558    88.4    100.0
Missing    System    73    11.6
Total    631    100.0

What is your academic standing?
Frequency    Percent    Valid Percent    Cumulative Percent
Valid    First Year    70    11.1    12.4    12.4
Sophomore    115    18.2    20.4    32.7
Junior    207    32.8    36.6    69.4
Senior    147    23.3    26.0    95.4
Graduate    26    4.1    4.6    100.0
Total    565    89.5    100.0
Missing    System    66    10.5
Total    631    100.0

What is your Ethnicity?
Frequency    Percent    Valid Percent    Cumulative Percent
Valid    Asian/Pacific Islander    67    10.6    12.2    12.2
Black/African-American    10    1.6    1.8    14.1
Hispanic/Latino    45    7.1    8.2    22.3
Native American    4    .6    .7    23.0
White/Caucasian    405    64.2    74.0    97.1
Middle Eastern    16    2.5    2.9    100.0
Total    547    86.7    100.0
Missing    System    84    13.3
Total    631    100.0

What is your current relationship status?
Frequency    Percent    Valid Percent    Cumulative Percent
Valid    Single    321    50.9    57.0    57.0
Casually Dating    82    13.0    14.6    71.6
In a Committed Relationship    145    23.0    25.8    97.3
Engaged    5    .8    .9    98.2
Married    7    1.1    1.2    99.5
Divorced    3    .5    .5    100.0
Total    563    89.2    100.0
Missing    System    68    10.8
Total    631    100.0

What is your sexual preference?
Frequency    Percent    Valid Percent    Cumulative Percent
Valid    Heterosexual    522    82.7    93.4    93.4
Homosexual    14    2.2    2.5    95.9
Bisexual    15    2.4    2.7    98.6
Questioning    8    1.3    1.4    100.0
Total    559    88.6    100.0
Missing    System    72    11.4
Total    631    100.0

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