Sample Philosophy Essay

| February 11, 2014

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Choose ONE topic from the 5 below to write on for a sample philosophy essay
The main objectives of writing the essay are to give a sample showing:
(1) how to demonstrate the depth of your understanding of the topic as covered in primary texts utilised list in study guide attached
(2) to appreciate topics in philosophy of mind by dealing in detail with the arguments, objections and replies discussed in the primary text;
(3) to cultivate the core philosophical skill of critically and carefully analysing arguments, providing reasons for your views as you go along. Noting that It is essential that you engage carefully with the primary texts.
Please Don’t just summarise views; extract the detailed arguments from the texts themselves. Scrutinise the premises and the way the arguments are put together.
This will reveal the rich structure of these debates and will set thoughts going about what to say about it. .
Word Limit: 2200 words +-10%
plus should be presented in 12-point font and single.
It will require references and a bibliography 10 to 15 harvard style aprox 300 words.
Preferred Essay template attached and primiary tex utiliseable per item limited to the primary texts listed in the attachment study guide scholarly references.
Given that you completed a previous order number on topic if you as writer 385180 choose the related topic as choice I can attached some feedback based on my review and re work of this item to assist.
Please ensure that you use the essay template attached as structure
Topic Options are as follows;
. Suggested – Recepie and format to improve the academic English and structure for the Essay follows;
. 1) Could a kind of functionalist plausibly hold that the mind is identical to the brain? Discuss mad and martian pain: is Lewis right that all the different requirements on a theory of mind can be brought together in a coherent package? Give your reasons for or against specific parts of Lewis?s theory or argument. Focus on the texts covered in the study guide.)
. (2) The Knowledge Argument is supposed to show that physicalism is false. Explain how the argument is meant to work. Discuss one or two objections to it, including the ability reply. Weigh up selected objections and replies, give your reasons for favouring one or more objections or replies over others. Is one or more ultimately successful? Focus on the texts covered in the study guide.)
. (3) The Zombie Argument is supposed to show that physicalism is false. Explain how the argument is meant to work. Discuss one or two objections to it, including Patricia Churchland?s objection. Is she right that it is an argument from ignorance? Consider what Chalmers can say in defence. Weigh up the different sides of the debate and give your reasons for your position. Focus on the texts covered in the study guide.)
. (4) Is panpsychism a good solution to the mind-body problem? Carefully explain why, according to Nagel, one might believe in panpsychism, and then critically assess it as a solution to the mind-body problem: discuss and give your reasons for why this theory is or is not rationally acceptable. Focus on the texts covered in the study guide.)
. (5) What exactly is externalism or anti-individualism about mental content? What is the main argument Burge provides in favour of the view? Why does Fodor think externalism is incompatible with the kinds of explanations we need to offer in scientific psychology? Do you think he is right? Consider what an externalist might say. (Focus on the texts covered in the study guide.)
Essay Recpie as follows:
The ?Recipe? for the Essay
Introductions fulfil a number of very specific functions in an essay; they are possibly the most important part of an essay because it is in the first 50-80 words that your assessor starts to evaluate your grade
To be effective, an Introduction should undertake the following:
Specify the general subject area of the essay?s inquiry
Specify the specific issue/topic under consideration
Specify the ?problem? relative to this issue and identify the range of contrasting views/perspectives on this ?problem?.
Specify the author?s (i.e: your) thesis or argument in relation to this? problem?.
Specify the methodology you will implement to explore this issue and problem.
Specify the program of your essay ? its structure.
Note the logic: from the GENERAL to the SPECIFIC
Critical Tips
The verb ?argue? should appear somewhere in your introduction, eg: This paper argues; I argue; The main argument of this paper….
At some stage in your Introduction, you must tell your reader what it is they are reading, eg: This paper; This essay; This report.
Avoid clich?d opening sentences such as sayings/proverbs Avoid dramatic opening sentences (eg: attention grabbing statistics) Check your Introductions for terms and phrases such as ?All around the world?, ?Everywhere/one?, ?Always?, ?It cannot be denied?, ?For a longtime?, ?Humankind?, ?In society? BE EXPLICIT about what you doing and how you are going to go about doingit!!!!! You are NOT writing a murder mystery novel; you are composing a technical piece of writing that examines a specific issue and produces a definite outcome as to a critical position relative to that issue.
The Body Paragraph
The body section of most critical essays develops the author?s argument by:
. Examining the important theories related to the issue
. Evaluating these theories? strengths and weaknesses often by applying these theories to case studies/examples
. Developing his or her own ?theory?
. The structure of all body paragraphs resembles that of an essay: an introduction/a middle section/a summary
Four main types of Body Paragraphs
Background/Historical context/Definitions
The Argument Builder
The Case Study
The Discussion
NOTE WELL: 1-4 represents a very good overall model of a critical essay?s ?internal? structure…just add an Introduction + Conclusion
. Shared features ALL types of body paragraphs share the following features:
An initial topic or signal sentence indicating clearly what the purpose and/or theme of the paragraph will be.
A summary sentence highlighting what the outcome of the paragraph?s discussion has been.
A linking sentence forward to the next discussion/stage.
The Background/Definitions Paragraph
This type of paragraph is typically quite factual/descriptive listing dates/statistical information and/or providing a range of definitions or key words, always indicating why one or other definition is preferred over another.
. A signal opening sentence might be: ?Understanding the historical context to assists in developing the argument that, orThere are a range of competing definitions of the term.
. Make sure ANY time you provide a date/statistic/figure/fact you reference the source. The Argument Builder Paragraph This is probably the most important type of body paragraph in your essay as it is where you present, analyse and evaluate evidence. These paragraphs are the key building blocks of your essay?s overall argument. These paragraphs can have two main forms [explain/discuss]:
The climactic paragraph
The conventional paragraph
. In both forms, the following elements need to be present:
. A short and unambiguous topic sentence that specifies the main theme/idea of the paragraph
. Sentences that outline the range of positions/perspectives and/or evidence on the specific theme of the paragraph
. Analysis and evaluation of these positions and/or evidence
. Summing up and statement of the paragraph?s relevance to overall argument in the essay
. Linking forward to the next discussion, phase or stage of the essay. A useful abbreviation for the argument paragraph is TEA ESL:
T: Topic sentence E: Evidence. A: Analysis E: Evaluation
S: Summary
L: Link In the argument paragraph, the language is more dynamic, a greater variety of sentence lengths and pattern. In particular, the relationships (contrast, addition) between various perspectives/positions are highlighted.
The Case Study Paragraph
The Case Study paragraph is typically more descriptive and also fully referenced. There will be very little examination of competing theoretical perspectives as the purpose of the Case Study is usually to provide a ?real world? scenario against which
the competing positions/alternate perspectives analysed in previous Argument Paragraphs can be “tested.”
As with all of the other forms of paragraphs, a case study is signalled (its purpose made explicit) as such (?The following discussion examines the case study ofin order to) and summarized (?This previous discussion has examined ____________ and shown _______).
The Discussion Paragraph
In this paragraph the range of alternate positions and theoretical perspectives are more fully assessed with direct reference to the case study/examples you have provided previously.
The language indicates a greater emphasis on the speculative attitude to knowledge whereby you critique, challenge and synthesize possible alternatives.
Your voice is far more evident in this section
It would be expected to see a variety of transitions of addition (moreover,furthermore) contrast (however, yet, nevertheless) and consequence (hence, therefore, consequently) in this discussion.
Ideally, the final sentence of this paragraph is where you bring your critical analysis of an issue to a climax, confidently (?) reiterating the thesis you proposed in the Introduction (?As has been argued throughout this essay, it is now clear that __________________?) ;Conclusions In the conclusion, most texts, including your essays:
restate the original objective of the text
restate/summarize the steps in the development of the author?s discussion
restate the author?s thesis/point of view
indicate what issue/s require further discussion and/or what have been the limitations of your research Effective conclusions Consider your Conclusion to be almost a reverse image of your Introduction starting, however, again with a restatement of the general topic of analysis Switch over to the Present Perfect tense (?This paper has examined I have argued?) Conclusions: DOs and DON?Ts
DO write shorter sentences in your Conclusion
DO affect a more direct, rational tone; more SVO sentence patterns are acceptable here as the arguing is complete; you are simply wrapping up the argument here as if writing a Report.
DO NOT try and ?end off on a bang? (emotional pleas/proverbs)
DO NOT introduce new ideas into the Conclusion
It would be unusual for a direct quote to appear in a Conclusion
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Pathophysiology
To cultivate the core philosophical skill of critically and carefully analyzing arguments, providing reasons for your views as you go along. Noting that It is essential that you engage carefully with the primary texts

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