Research Design and Planning

| June 19, 2015

Research Design and Planning

1.0 Background to the Problem
The globalization of Libya and broader Africa has led to churning of industrial and economic activity (Achankeng, 2003).

These activities have resulted in socio-economic changes for the people of Libya such as indulgence in consumer and factory

manufactured products. Populations in cities have grown exponentially and this has culminated in accumulation of massive

solid wastes. African countries are categorized as developing countries and thus priorities in these economies do not augur

well for solid waste disposals. Abdelnaser, et al., 2011siad that unfortunately, the myriad factors that play out in Libya

have led to cumulative amounts of solid waste and land fill disposals. The accumulation of municipal solid waste without

proper management in open land areas is threatening to the environment and proxy human populations (Aziz, et al., 2010).
Land fill gas consists of about 45-50% methane, 50% carbon dioxide and a paltry less than 1% non-methane organic compound

(NMOC). Methane and carbon dioxide are classified as green house gases (GHG) by the IPCC and UNEP regarded as contributors of

climate change and global warming (Chen & Greene, 2003). The decomposition of organic waste disposals releases methane gas

into the atmosphere while incineration of inorganic wastes such as plastic produces carbon dioxide and gaseous carbon

compounds into the atmosphere. It is estimated that waste contributes about 5% of global greenhouse gas emissions; this

estimate is bound to surge as global waste rises. Solid waste dumpsites emit putrid odors, deplete oxygen in soil, pollute

groundwater through seepage, degrade the landscape and scenery, harbor pests and explosions from ignitions are not a rarity.

The threat of solid waste is indelible, but the potential is undeniable (United Nations Industrial Development Organization,

2.0 Problem Definition Matrix
Step 1: Topic + Target Group/Locality = Research Subject
Topic: Harnessing Land fill gas for Green power
Target Group: Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)
Locality: Libya
Research Subject:  Recycling Municipal Solid Waste for Harnessing Land fill gas for Green power in Libya
Step 2: Research Subject + Nature of Enquiry = Research Problem

Research        Nature            Of       the      Enquiry
Subject    Exploratory    Descriptive    Hypothesis-
testing    Explanatory
Recycling Municipal Solid Waste for Harnessing Land fill gas for Green power in Libya
What are the effects of municipal solid waste that necessitate harnessing land fill gas for green power?    What

is the viability of recycling municipal solid waste and harnessing LFG for green power?    Can municipal solid waste be recycled

and LFG harnessed for green power?    How can municipal solid waste producing land fill gas be recycled and harnessed for

green power?

Research problem (Hypothesis-testing): Can municipal solid waste be recycled and LFG harnessed for green power in Libya?

Step 3: Research Problem + Aim of Study = Research Questions
Research Problem    Aim of Enquiry
Knowledge Seeking    Needs Assessment    Program Planning    Policy Formulation    Program Evaluation

Impact Assessment
Can municipal solid waste be recycled and LFG harnessed for green power in Libya?
To establish the feasibility of municipal solid waste management and recycling for harnessing LFG for green power

To determine the required MSW policy, structures and commitment to establish land fill gas green energy projects

Formulate a research strategy to understand the problem of MSW and understand tactics for management for successful recycling

and LFG green power generation    Policy formulation by government, legislature and institutions to spur initiatives and goals

in MSW management and recycling LFG to harness green power    To conduct a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis for

establishment of MSW recycling land fill gas energy harnessing for green power and determine if it is worthwhile    To

pin point the benefits accrued from recycling land fill gas for energy and MSW management and the impacts on the environment

and human populations

Research questions
    Knowledge seeking
How feasible and viable is this project to recycle municipal solid waste and harness the green energy potential in land fill

gas in Libya? Would it be worthwhile to pursue this venture?

    Needs Assessment
What necessary measures would have to be undertaken to successfully manage municipal solid waste for recycling land fill gas

for energy in Libya? What policies, structures, establishments, set ups etc would be necessary for the initiative to come to


    Program Planning
How would the research be planned and strategized to gather conclusive and succinct information for undertaking municipal

solid waste management with an aim to recycle the waste for land fill gas energy and power generation in Libya?

    Policy formulation
What policies structures and frameworks would the government of Libya, concerned institutions, groups, stakeholders and local

governments need to set in place to establish a sustainable municipal solid waste management system and subsequent recycling

and LFG energy and power system? Can other similar frameworks and policies be emulated where success has been achieved and be

suited for Libya?

    Program Evaluation
What are the associated benefits and costs as revealed by the research strategies and information on municipal solid waste

management and recycling of LFG for energy and power in Libya? Are the insights of the research conclusive to viably sustain

the model in Libya?
    Impact Assessment
What are the impacts of land fill gas energy and power harnessing projects from municipal solid waste in Libya on the

environment and populations? Can these impacts be quantified for continued assessment and evaluation?
3.0 Rationale
The ever increasing urban population in Libya, coupled with the simultaneous increase in demand for factory manufactured

consumer goods has contributed to generation of municipal solid waste. Libya is a developing country and solid waste

management is not highly prioritized as is typical of developing countries in Africa (Abdelnaser, et al., 2011). However,

waste continues to be generated due to gradually increasing economic activity and industrialization. A need for managing this

waste prudently is obvious and despite the lack of initiative to tackle it, options that are likely to yield revenues and

benefits are far likely to be embraced due to their returns on capital and broader benefits overall (Atcha & Van Son, 2002).

Developing countries, especially Libya, are likely to be more receptive to these endeavors if there are economic and

industrial benefits as this aligns with their targets as developing economies (US Environmental Protection Agency, 2012).
The conundrum of municipal solid waste in Libya requires astute measures to effectively manage the waste as a resource and

recycle it. Currently, the practice has been to dump waste in open land areas, heaped and periodic incineration (Aziz, et

al., 2010). Solid waste has a long life cycle of gradually releasing green house gas and toxic compounds essentially

perpetuating their effects (Jensen & Pipatti, 2003). In Benghazi, the second capital city in Libya, there is a lack of proper

documentation of solid waste from its generation, collection, handling, management and final disposal. Constraints to

effective waste management are multi-faceted contributed by lax legislative, economic and institutional initiatives. The

problem is evidently deep rooted and a major acquiescent overhaul is dire. There is supporting evidence and research that

conversions of waste to an energy resource while mitigating the effects of land fill gas is feasible. Successful case studies

of these initiatives have been implemented across the world and have proved effective yielding far reaching benefits to the

environment, economy, populations and stakeholders (US Environmental Protection Agency, 2012).
The stepwise research process aims to produce a comprehensive and detailed summary of the problem of solid waste, its

management and recycling and eventual harnessing of energy from the land fill gas. A final succinct answer to the hypothesis

will then be arrived at after the research.

Abdelnaser, O., Alsadey, S. & Galvilescu, M., 2011. Municipal Solid Waste Management in Bani Waldi City, LIBYA: Practices and

Challenges. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, 22(4), pp. 227 – 280.
Achankeng, E., 2003. Globalization, Urbanization and Municipal Solid Waste Mangement in Africa. Adelaide, s.n.
Atcha, S. Y. & Van Son, V. T., 2002. Opportunities with Land Fill Gas. Corporate Guide to Green Power Markets, 20 November,

p. 16.
Aziz, H. A., Pakir, A. H., Omran, A. & Gebril, A. O., 2010. Municipal Solid Waste Management in Benghazi (Libya): Current

Practices and Challenges. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, September, 9(9), p. 7.
Chen, C. & Greene, N., 2003. Is Landfill Gas Green Energy?, New York: Natural Resources Defense Council.
Jensen, J. F. & Pipatti, R., 2003. CH4 Emissions from Solid Waste Disposal, s.l.: s.n.
LDK ECO SA, 2006. Support to DG Environment for Development of the Mediterranean De-pollution Initiative “Horizon 2020″.

March, Issue 070201, p. 10.
United Nations Industrial Development Organization, 2009. Scaling Up Renewable Energy in Africa, Addis Ababa: s.n.
US Environmental Protection Agency, 2012. A Guide to Developing and Implementing Greenhouse Gas Reduction Programss,

Washington D.C.: EPA.
World Bank, 2012. What a Waste: A Global Review of Solid Waste Management, Washington D.C.: s.n.


Topic: tour agency.

Two-part assignment…

Part 1: Compose a detailed response to the questions below (minimum of 300 word response).

Part 2: Read responses from other students and respond with comments to a minimum of TWO postings (100 word minimum for each



What departments will you be working and observing in as part of your internship experience?

What are your personal objectives for the internship?

Here are others one.
first one
I got a job at the Korean American Chamber of Commerce Las Vegas. This Korean American Chamber of Commerce Las Vegas is

trying to get organize the Korean people living in Las Vegas. And I do not have my specific department yet, I think, I will

be rotating my jobs and working on several different jobs with the president of Korean American Chamber of Commerce Las

Vegas. Also, I heard that the KACCLV is going to hold two major events in October and January 2013. While preparing the

events, I will translating several different letters from English to Korean and send it to Korea or the people living in

U.S.. Also, try to contact the people who can come to our events.

From this internship I am look forward to learn several things. First of all, I want to experience the real working

environment. Until now, I have learned a lot of things in class and now I want to see how it is relate to the real

environment. Also, I want to know a lot of people. I have lived in Las Vegas for several years but I do not know many people.

While working in Korean American Chamber of Commerce Las Vegas I will contact many people and from this work I will meet a

lot of people and that will help me to build my network. Another objective is that, after this internship I am going to look

for the job, and this job will be very helpful. Because, as I said, I will working on several different jobs and the works

will relate to several different departments. Lastly, in my opinion, people learn better from the real environment than from

the lecture. So from this internship, I will learn more and I can build up my knowledge stronger.

second one
1.What departments will you be working and observing in as part of your internship experience?

Fritz Martin Management is a sports brand management company, whose main objective is to generate market earnings to sustain

athlete?s lifestyles. This is done by setting up endorsements by maintaining strong relationships with corporate decision

makers. In addition to endorsements, FM Mgmt books appearances for its clients. This includes key note speeches, signings,

and photo opportunities.
As a Fritz Martin Management intern will have the opportunity to work hands on with the staff, assisting them with marketing,

logistics, client management, project planning, and research. In addition I will be responsible for comprising a database of

new contracts, business leads, potential clients, and all additional information.
While working in the above mentioned areas I will research and analyze potential markets, develop a working knowledge of all

office software and operations, create marketing campaigns, and procure athletes for corporate functions and marketing

Additionally, I will represent clients at their appearances, and photo/video shoots to ensure that what they are doing or

being asked to do is in their best interest. Most recently I had the pleasure of being NFL Hall of Famer, Marcus Allen?s

representation. This consisted of me booking his flight and hotel room, picking Mr. Allen up from the airport, driving him to

his hotel and ensuring a successful check-in. The following morning I picked him up, drove him to his appearance, oversaw

that he wasn?t being asked to do more than what the contract called for, politely informing fans that his signature was under

contract and then taking him back to the airport.

2. What are your personal objectives for the internship?

My personal objective for this internship is learn the marketing and brand management business; more specifically in the

field of sports. In doing so I hope to gain a full time job working for Fritz Martin Mgmt come the end of the Fall semester.

about me.
im woking in tour agency.




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