Research Concepts For HIM. (Health Information Management) 1. Explain how a field’s literature can be a source of significant research questions or problem

Research Concepts For HIM. (Health Information Management) 1. Explain how a field’s literature can be a source of significant research questions or problems.

2. List some important characteristics of literature reviews.

3. Explain the difference between one tailed hypotheses and two-tailed hypotheses Health Informatics Research Methods: Principles and Practice, Second Edition

Chapter 10: Defining the Research Question and Performing a Literature Review

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© 2017 American Health Information Management Association

Learning Objectives

Formulate research questions for topics in health informatics and HIM

Articulate clear hypotheses related to research questions

Search knowledge bases such as bibliographic databases

Extract essential information from information sources

Use key terms associated with research questions, hypotheses, and literature reviews appropriately

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Six Components of Systematic Research Process

Defining the research question*

Performing a literature review*

Selecting a research design and method

Collecting data

Analyzing the data

Presenting results

*Components discussed in this chapter; Items 3–6 covered in subsequent chapters

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Importance of Purpose

Knowing the research’s purpose is critical

Purpose

Answer a significant question

Solve a meaningful problem

Contribute to body of knowledge

Drives six components of systematic research process

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Development of a Research Question: Using FINER

Feasible Interesting Novel Ethical Relevant

A research question is a clear statement in the form of a question of the specific issue within a topic that a researcher wishes to study

Important to write well-developed research questions because they guide the literature review and the selection of the research design

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Quantitative Process Vs. Qualitative Process

Quantitative process

Generate objective information

Linear

Researchable and specific

Clearly defined at onset of research project is clearly defined

Qualitative process

Interpret or understand phenomena

Iterative or cyclical

Initial preliminary question is refined during research project

Can be ambiguous at onset of research project

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Sources of Research Questions

Research models

Recommendations of previous researchers

Gaps in the body of knowledge

Problematic areas

Organizations’ problems

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Refinement of the Research Question

Refinement: Narrowing to a manageable scope and researchable question

Feasibility

Additional details learned during literature review

Scope: Breadth of the question

Wide scope is unmanageable

Narrow to an aspect

Researchable question: Observable phenomena that can be empirically studied

Scale: Extent or pervasiveness

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PICO(TS)

Acronym for a well-developed and manageable research question

Patient, Population, or Problem of interest includes the condition, subpopulation, and other characteristics and demographics

Intervention is broadly defined as treatment, program, or other independent variable manipulated in study

Comparison or Control against which intervention’s effect is compared

Outcome is specific result of interest, the dependent variable; should be measurable

Timing is the time frame or duration of interest (optional)

Setting is context, such home or primary care clinic (optional)

Researchers also refer to PICO, PICOS, or PICOT depending upon the elements they use

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PICO(TS) (cont.)

In states with higher levels of managed care penetration, how does health information exchange, compared to states with lower levels of managed care, affect Medicaid costs?

Population: States with high levels of managed care

Intervention: Health information exchange

Comparison: States with lower levels of managed care

Outcome: Medicaid costs

Timing and Setting are omitted; however, Timing could be added as 2010 through 2015 and Setting could be inpatient hospital

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Problem Statement

Quantitative research

Operationalizes

Operational definitions

Qualitative research

Tentative supposition

Guides initial data collection and is revised during the study based on the data obtained

Single sentence with an action verb that specifically and succinctly states what the researcher will be doing to investigate the research question

Limits study’s scope by setting boundaries

Action verb indicates study’s research design

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Hypothesis

Quantitative

Explicit, testable statement that describes research question in operational definitions and measurable terms and is written a priori

Operationalized variables

Prediction of association or difference

Computable measurement

Study’s intention

Qualitative

Tentative or working supposition

Revised during data collection

Iterative and cyclical

Statement of the researchers’ predictions on the study’s outcome

Based on theory, model, observation, or expectation from analysis and interpretation of studies in the literature

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Quantitative Alternative Hypothesis and Null Hypothesis

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Direction of Hypothesis

One-tailed hypothesis (test)—predicts direction

Two-tailed hypothesis (test)—no prediction of direction

Choice depends upon

Theory or model

Previous results in literature

Type of study

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Purpose Statement

Declarative sentence that summarizes the specific topic and goals of the research study

Clearly states what the researchers are trying to achieve

Is near beginning of article or research proposal

Explains reason for study, engages the reader, or both

Makes clear how the research will advance the goals of the reader, audience, or funding agency

Other terms: Aims, objectives, goals, dependent upon journal and funding agency

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Literature Review

Literature review is the systematic acquisition, analytical examination, critical evaluation, and synthesis of important information about a topic

Comprehensive

Relevant

Literature review has three meanings

1. Process of identifying, reading, summarizing, analyzing, and synthesizing

2. Dependent product, which is introduction to manuscript or literature review explaining background of research question

3. Independent product ,which is an expansion of dependent product into an entire article, book chapter, or book

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Purposes and Process of Literature Reviews

Purposes

Orient readers and persuade them of necessity of research study

Assure reader that researcher has conducted thorough review of the topic

Build the researcher’s knowledge of topic resulting in competencies

Process

Identify sources of information for the literature review

Seek and retrieve the literature

Collect and record information

Analyze and synthesize the information obtained in step 3

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Sources of Information

Printed works

Peer-reviewed journal articles

Books and book chapters

Conference papers

Government documents

Audiovisual media and electronic media

Others

Credibility

Peer review

AACODS (Authority, Accuracy, Coverage, Objectivity, Date, Significance)

Grey literature

Primary sources and secondary sources

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Search and Retrieval of Information Sources

Knowledge bases, such as bibliographic databases and digital collections

Systematic plan to identify

Databases and collections

Search terms

Search multiple and variety of databases

Health informatics and HIM are multidisciplinary

All relevant works not in one bibliographic database

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Collection and Recording of Information Sources

Use reference management software

Capture complete citation data at first access to source

Record key information in summary table

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Analysis, Evaluation, and Synthesis of Information Sources

Step 4 takes the most time

Summary table can be analytical and evaluative tool by identifying and emphasizing

Key features

Common characteristics

Trends

Gaps

Chronicling a series of descriptions is inadequate

Synthesizing is required and makes sense of all the information that has been captured

Comparing similarities and contrasting differences

Critically evaluating studies methods and tools

Interpreting findings

Drawing conclusions

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Development of the Literature Review

Characteristics

Comprehensiveness that is relevant and focused

Concise statement of what is known and unknown

Logical and succinct summary from mostly primary sources

Critical analysis and evaluation including strengths, weaknesses, limitations, and gaps

Synthesis

Conventions

Transparency

Organizational structure

Progression

Equitable coverage

Pertinence

Style

Good literature reviews deliver concentrated knowledge to the reader

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Review

Research question: Clear statement, in form of a question, of a specific issue within the topic the researcher wishes to study

Development of a quantitative research question results in a researchable and specific question at onset of study; development of qualitative research question results in initial preliminary question refined during study

Acronyms FINER and PICO(TS) represent strategies to refine research questions

Problem statement: Single sentence with action verb that specifically and succinctly states what will be done to investigate the research question

Hypothesis: Statement of researchers’ predictions on study’s outcome. Quantitative versions are null and alternative and can be one-tailed or two-tailed

Literature review: Systematic acquisition, analytical examination, critical evaluation, and synthesis of important information about a topic

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