Refine paper Non-Human Factors Analysis of Aviation Accident Focus on Machine Failure

| November 16, 2015

Hi,

I need someone to implement my paper in part of

1.result&discussion(result you can make up if possible)

2. conclusion

3. add technical terms

4. some appendix

5. add more references

 

Paper in topic: Non-Human Factors Analysis of Aviation Accident Focus on Machine Failure.

 

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS. 2

1.0 CHAPTER ONE.. 4

1.1Background Information and Rationale. 4

1.2 Study Objectives. 4

1.3 Significance of the Study. 5

1.4 Scope of the Study. 5

CHAPTER TWO.. 6

2.1 INTRODUCTION.. 6

2.1.1 MACHINE FAILURE.. 7

2.1.2 ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS. 7

2.1.3 INSUFFICIENT TERRAIN CLEARANCE.. 8

2.1.4 FAILURE TO AVOID COLLISIONS WITH WATER OR GROUND.. 8

CHAPTER THREE.. 10

3.0 METHODOLOGY.. 10

3.1 Data. 10

3.2 Tool 10

3.3 Data Collection. 10

3.4 Data Analysis. 10

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.. 11

4.1 Accident Rate. 11

Regarding to the data from the National Transportation Safety Board of United State,  the analysis results show the statistic of accident caused by Mechanical failure are increasing any 10 years. From 1950 to 1960 the accident happened 19 times. From 1961-1970 is 20. From 1971-1980 is 21. From 1981-1990 is 18. And from 1991-2000 is 22. 11

Figure 4.1 Accident Rate caused by Mechanical from year 1950-2000. 11

4.2 Part of airplane caused of accident 11

As analyzed data found that the main technical fault is the engine part. It is considered as 80 percent apart from other. Next is 10 percent from nose gear, 6 percent from wing and 4 from other respectively. 11

Figure 4.2 Failure Part of Aircraft 1950 – 2000. 12

4.3 Faulty Report Caused Accident on Machine Failure. 12

Figure 4.3 Faulty Report Caused Accident on Machine Failure. 12

4.4 DISCUSSION.. 13

REFERENCES. 14


1.0 CHAPTER ONE

1.1Background Information and Rationale

Since Orville and Wilbur Wright invented the first aircraft in 1903, it was continuing developed for many purposes such as military purpose, mail, and commercial. As the time passed by, in late of 19th century, the aviation industry were begun. Since then, the aircraft became popular among human because it could go further more than another transportation. Year by year the number of passengers were increasing as well as aircrafts’ accident. Sadly, as the history of aviation yearly reports were scattered about tragic losses and accidents rate. In late 1950s, there was attempting to increase level of the safer flight but it failed. On the other hand, the accident rate in the aviation industry was increasing much more than before not only just a aircraft commercial but also in military part. Later on, the crashing of aircrafts was continuing happen even we had the development of technologies. At this point, there is a question “Why do the aircraft accident happen?”. According to the department of Transport and Regional Development(1996) reports that seventy-two percent of accidents were judged to involve pilot factors. This shows that it is not only human caused of Fatal Accident. In fact, there are more factors which caused accident of aircraft such as mechanical failure, weather, sabotage, and other cause. According to Federal Aviation Administration(2004) , casual factors that were Air Transport Association of America(ATA) code related were considered as mechanical related and consisted of 26 percent of all accident/incident reports. This is the unexpected event which is not caused from human but it caused from thing that we invented. Therefore, this research find out which is the most part of airplane caused of accident. And analyze the reason why the machine failure of aircraft happen. Next following paragraph will describe more information of this research.

1.2 Study Objectives

This study aims to find out the major part of airplane caused of accident and the reason why the machine failure of aircraft happen

1.3 Significance of the Study

This study seeks to improve the body of knowledge on the non-human factors that contribute to aviation accidents. The students and the professionals in the aviation field will be equipped with more knowledge on the non-human factors that contribute to aviation accidents. It will act as a basis for research on how to prevent the occurrence of these accidents.           The research findings will also attract interest and people will be willing to do research on these factors to improve the safety of the air transport. The information is also important in for policy makers within Colleges and Universities in developing policies regarding the training in the aviation industry. The focus will change and focus on these areas to ensure the graduates who come out are well equipped on how to handle the non-human factors contributing to aviation accidents(Bureau of Air Safety Investigation, 1996).

1.4 Scope of the Study

1.4.1  This paper only analyze the data of US aviation, not include international aviation.

1.4.2. The study boundary is focusing on mechanical failure.
 

CHAPTER TWO

2.1 INTRODUCTION

As aviation industrial fast grown the number of passengers were rapidly increase approximately 8 million per day and will continue increase by 28% to 3.6 billion by 2016 (IATA, 2012). Comparison during the early aircraft generation, there were  high accident rate, currently, the accident rate are decreased because of innovation of aircraft safety has been improved. Although a number of design implementation have had a dramaic impact on airplane accident rate which helping to reduce risks, these still could not stop aircraft accident. (Allianz Global Corporate & Specialty SE, 2014).Non-human factors that are associated with aviation accidents are issues of concern in the aviation industry. Most of the accidents that occur due to non-human factors have been reported to be the most fatal. Many times when such accidents occur, there is no one left alive among the people who had bounded that plane. The remains of the people cannot even be recognized. DNA and other tests are normally done to identify the remains of the people who get involved in those accidents. It is an issue of serious concern in the aviation industry. A lot of research has been done on the non-human factors in efforts of making the air transport totally safe for transport(Marcia Fajer, 2011).

 

According  to NG (2002) insufficient information on how to tackle non-human factors related to aviation accidents is a serious concern. Most of the scholars have been engaged in this area of research to try and come up with the solution to this issue. However, an ultimate solution has not yet been reached on the way forward. The research is important as it will provide some light on this issue that has been of serious concern in the aviation industry.

However, study has shown that most of the plane accidents occur as a result of combination of factors. There are normally many factors that go wrong for an accident to occur. Most of the times, it’s difficult to attribute one factor to the occurrence of aviation accidents. Reports have shown that both human and non-human factors come into plain for an accident to occur(Shappell S, 2007).

 

 

2.1.1 MACHINE FAILURE

Machine failure can occur due to a number of factors. Study has shown that most accidents occur when there is an introduction of a new technology. During this period, most people are not aware of how to deal with the new technology when there is a fault. During this season, most accidents have been reported to occur. It has been shown that as time goes by and people get used to the new technology, the number of accidents reduces(Administration, 2004).

Research has also shown that most accidents occur when people are in their basic trainings in the early years. It is during this period that most accidents are normally reported. As one gets experienced in the field, the numbers of accidents have been reported to reduce. It is expected that as they get experience in the field they are well conversant with the machines and operating them is not a major problem.

Mechanical problems have been reported to cause some of the fatal accidents. The accidents can be attributed to mechanical problems. A deadly crash occurred in Japan in 1985. The cause was a poorly repaired rear pressure bulkhead. The rapture led to loss of control. It resulted in collision with a mountain and the accident was very fatal(Bureau of Air Safety Investigation, 1996).

 

2.1.2 ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

Research has shown that environmental factors contribute to aviation accidents. It is a non-human factor since humans have less control of how the weather will be. According to Rasmussen, Cole, Moore &Kuperman (2000) claims that snowfall and surface weather conditions associated with five commercial aircraft accidents in which ice accumulation on critical aircraft surfaces due to snow was identified as a major contributor to the accident. Aviation accidents related to weather have been reported to be very fatal. They are the kinds of accidents that when they occur, the victims of the accidents cannot be recognized. Research has shown that, most of the times, these accidents are accompanied with fire that burns the victims to ashes, unable to recognize the victim until further test has been done(Bureau of Air Safety Investigation, 1996).

Research has shown that environmental related aviation accidents happen when the plane losses control especially in adverse weather condition. It becomes difficult to operate the plane in such circumstances. It has contributed to a great number of aviation accidents since it becomes difficult to navigate through adverse weather conditions(Marcia Fajer, 2011).

 

2.1.3 INSUFFICIENT TERRAIN CLEARANCE

Research has shown that sometimes planes fail to fly effectively when the pathway through which they are flying through is not clear. It results in poor coordination and at this moment it is very easy for accidents to occur. When the terrain is not clear it becomes difficult to negotiate through the weather and accidents normally occur(NG, 2002).

When the route is not clear communication becomes impaired. The pilot finds it difficult to communicate with the control room. It has been reported that failure to communicate poses danger for accidents to occur since the pilot cannot be updated of how the weather is likely to be. The pilot cannot predict how safe the route is going to be. It has contributed to accidents happening(Shappell S, 2007).

 

2.1.4 FAILURE TO AVOID COLLISIONS WITH WATER OR GROUND

Research has shown that non-human aviation accidents can occur when the pilot is unable to avoid obstacles on his/her way. The obstacles have been reported to cause confusion to the pilot. Sometimes pilots have been reported to have lost direction in an effort of trying to escape obstacles in their route. Accidents have occurred in an effort of escaping the obstacles(Administration, 2004).

 

It has been reported that accidents occurred because a pilot was unable to overcome obstacles in his way. When the pilot is unable to overcome obstacles on his way, collision occurs. It results to accident that occurred without being attributed to human factors. The collision accidents have been reported as one of the fatal accidents in the aviation industry. The cause of collision accidents has been attributed to poor weather that leads to poor visibility. As a result the pilot finds that they have collided with an obstacle. These kinds of accidents have also been attributed to navigation. It results to the pilot colliding with obstacles in his way resulting to the occurrence of accidents(Marcia Fajer, 2011).

 

As mentioned before there are a few works which researched on aircraft accident caused by non-human factors, however they would not detailed about mechanical problems much. Therefore this paper will dig through details of aviation accident focus on Machine failure by analyzing the statistic data from US National Transportation Safety Board, 2012. This paper aims to find out the major part of airplane caused of accident and the reason why the machine failure of aircraft happen, which will explain more details in the following chapters.

 

 

 

 

 
 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 METHODOLOGY

This chapter discusses the methodology employed in the research project. It gives details about the tools, methods of data collection for the study area and analysis, as well as methods of presentation.

3.1 Data

In this study will gather aviation accident statistic data from national       transportation safety board of US and analyze data and show result as graph

3.2 Tool

Aviation Accident statistic raw data from National Transportation Safety Board of  United State.

3.3 Data Collection

To meet the objectives, the gathering data will be analyzed and the result will be             shown by graph.

3.4 Data Analysis

3.4.1) After collecting data, the data will be analyze by separating the type of data.

3.4.2) The next step, analysis data by using frequency and percentage method in stack column chart and tables.

Following descriptive and statistical data analysis, the results were tabulated and represented diagrammatically in bar charts, pie charts and frequency tables.

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR:RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Accident Rate

Regarding to the data from the National Transportation Safety Board of United State,  the analysis results show the statistic of accident caused by Mechanical failure are increasing any 10 years. From 1950 to 1960 the accident happened 19 times. From 1961-1970 is 20. From 1971-1980 is 21. From 1981-1990 is 18. And from 1991-2000 is 22.

 

Figure 4.1 Accident Rate caused by Mechanical from year 1950-2000

4.2 Part of airplane caused of accident

            As analyzed data found that the main technical fault is the engine part. It is considered as 80 percent apart from other. Next is 10 percent from nose gear, 6 percent from wing and 4 from other respectively.

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