PSY 380 FINAL EXAM

| November 21, 2015

MultipleChoiceQuestions(Enteryouranswersontheenclosedanswersheet)

  1. Whichofthefollowingdoesnotdescribeatrait?
  2. Apersonisgivenanumericscoretoindicatehowmuchofatraitthepersonpossesses.
  3. Therearemanytraitstodescribeeveryone.
  4. Traitscoresarediscontinuousvariables.
  5. Apersoncanbedescribedoneverytrait.
  6. Personality referstomotivation.
  7. description
  8. development
  9. dynamics
  10. measurement
  11. Allofthefollowingaredynamicissuesaddressedbypersonalitytheoriesexcept:
  12. adaptationandadjustment
  13. cognitiveprocesses
  14. individualdifferences
  15. culture
  16. Aisaconceptualtoolforunderstandingcertainspecifiedphenomena.
  17. theory
  18. theoreticalconstruct
  19. psychologicaltest
  20. variable
  21. Ahypothesisistestedby:
  22. logicalreasoning
  23. reviewingthepublishedliterature
  24. conducting empiricalresearch
  25. examiningtheresultsofseveralrelatedstudies
  26. Implicittheories of personality could be described by all but which of the following?
  27. Theyaregenerallyheldbyordinarypeople.
  28. Theyareunscientific.
  29. Theyarenotnecessarilyincorrect.
  30. Theiraccuracyisguaranteed.
  31. Inusingthe“knowngroupsmethod”todeterminewhetheratestisvalid,aresearcherneeds totest:
  32. groupsofpeoplewhomheorsheknowspersonally
  33. subjectswhoagreetohavetheirnamesknown
  34. groupswithpublishednormsonavarietyofpersonalitytests
  35. groupswhichcanbepresumedtodifferontheconstructbeingmeasured
  36. Personalityresearchersuse:
  37. self-reportmeasures
  38. projectivetests
  39. behavioralmeasures
  40. Alloftheabove.
  41. IntheanalysisofAdolfHitler,towhatdidtheanalystsattributeHitler’styrannical rage?
  42. Hisunderdevelopedid.
  43. Hisoveractivesuperego.
  44. Hisfailureasanartist.
  45. Hisweak/non-existentego.
  46. Theterm“psychicdeterminism”refersto:
  47. thescientificmethod
  48. theinfluenceoftheunconscious
  49. extra-sensoryperception
  50. willpower
  51. Hypnosisisbestdescribedasa(n):
  52. separatestateofconsciousness
  53. fraudulentclaim
  54. stateofgreatsuggestibility
  55. epileptic-likeseizure
  56. Theunconsciousisleastlikelytoberevealedthrough:
  57. theinterpretationofdreams
  58. humor
  59. objectivetests
  60. freeassociation
  61. Theaimofinstinctsis:
  62. mentalhealth
  63. sublimation
  64. tensionreduction
  65. unknown
  66. Whichstructureofpersonalitycorrespondstothe“voiceofconscience,”warningustoavoid evil?
  67. ego
  68. id
  69. superego
  70. hallucination
  71. Whichofthedefensemechanismslistedbelowisthemostprimitive?
  72. projection
  73. denial
  74. identification
  75. rationalization
  76. Accordingto thetext, Dr. MartinLuther King, Jr.,spoke in symbolicterms of thefuturepotentialsoftheworldbecausehewas:
  77. aminister
  78. anintuitivetype
  79. black
  80. anextravert
  81. AccordingtoJung,therelationshipbetweentheconsciousandunconsciousaspectsof personalityisbestunderstoodas:
  82. inflation
  83. conflict
  84. repression
  85. compensation
  86. Jungdescribedtheegoasthe:
  87. gatekeepertoconsciousness
  88. centerofwill
  89. mostconsciousaspectofpersonality
  90. Alloftheabove.
  91. Men’s“innerwoman”isdescribedbyJung’sconceptofthe:
  92. anima
  93. animus
  94. shadow
  95. GreatMother

 

 

 

  1. Thearchetypesthatareclosesttoconsciousnessarethe:
  2. GreatMotherandtheSpiritualFather
  3. HeroandtheTrickster
  4. MandalaandtheSelf
  5. ShadowandtheAnima(orAnimus)
  6. AccordingtoBettelheim’sresearch,whenchildrenareexposedtofairystorieswithallthemonstersandwitchesremoved,they:
  7. becomelessaggressive
  8. becomemoretrustingoftheworld
  9. becomemoredisruptive
  10. loseinterestinthestories
  11. Adler’stheoryiscalled:
  12. psychoanalysis
  13. socialanalysis
  14. individualpsychology
  15. learningtheory
  16. AccordingtoAdler,peoplearemotivatedtomovefrom to                   .
  17. afeltminus;aplus
  18. Europe;America
  19. ruralareas;cities
  20. physicalneeds;psychologicalneeds
  21. Organinferiority,theaggressivedrive,masculineprotest,superioritystriving,andperfectionstrivingare:
  22. stagesthatoccur,oneaftertheother,inthedevelopmentofnormalpersonality
  23. stagesthatoccur,oneaftertheother,inthedevelopmentofunhealthypersonality
  24. processesinthedevelopmentofAdler’sthinkingaboutpersonality
  25. variousdiagnosticcategories
  26. WhichofthesequestionswouldAdleraskinordertounderstandaperson?
  27. “Atwhatagewereyoutoilettrained?”
  28. “Do you dreamin color orin black andwhite?”
  29. “Whatisyourearliestmemory?”
  30. “Whatdoesthisinkblotlooklike?”
  31. Accordingto Adler, aperson’s styleoflifeisdeterminedby:
  32. parents
  33. theperson’sowngoals
  34. fate
  35. biological factors
  36. Oldestchildren arebythearrivaloflaterchildren,accordingtoAdler.
  37. rewarded
  38. madehigherinstatus
  39. deprivedoftheirpacemaker
  40. dethroned
  41. Theeffectsofbirthorderare:
  42. consistentlyfound,byresearch,toconfirmAdler’s predictions
  43. universalacrossculturesandsocioeconomiclevels
  44. significantforachievement,supportingAdler’stheory,butnotforotheraspectsofpersonality
  45. oftensignificantinresearch,butwithvaryingeffectsindifferentstudies
  46. Peoplewhoscorehighinsocialinterestare
  47. mentallyhealthy
  48. satisfiedwiththeirwork
  49. healthierthanthosewhoscorelow
  50. Alloftheabove.

 

  1. IncontrasttoFreud’semphasisonsexuality,Eriksonemphasizedtheaspectsofpersonality.
  2. work-oriented
  3. anal
  4. oral
  5. social
  6. Inhisepigeneticprinciple,Eriksoncompareddevelopmentwith:
  7. themotionofobjectsasdescribedinphysics
  8. thebiologicaldevelopmentofafetus
  9. thespiritualdevelopmentofasoul
  10. anactororactresslearningascript
  11. Thetaskofinfancy,inErikson’sterminology,istodevelopasenseof:
  12. autonomy
  13. thebody
  14. trust
  15. attachmenttothemother
  16. AccordingtoErikson’stheory,asenseofinferiorityisparticularlylikelytodevelopduringthe

stageofdevelopment.

  1. second
  2. third
  3. fourth
  4. fifth
  5. Thecrisisof versusisolationoccursinearlyadulthood.
  6. generativity
  7. togetherness
  8. intimacy
  9. assertiveness
  10. Religion,accordingtoErikson,ismostrelevantto:

 

  1. initiative
  2. will
  3. hope
  4. fidelity
  5. Erikson’stheoryimpliesthatproblemswithtechnologyarerelevanttowhichstageofdevelopment?
  6. second
  7. fourth
  8. sixth
  9. seventh
  10. WhatsocialchangehadamajorimpactonHorney’slife?
  11. the rise ofNazi forces
  12. increasingreligiousconflict
  13. increasingopportunitiesforwomen
  14. thedecline of agriculture
  15. Apersonwhoadoptsthe“self-effacingsolution”is:
  16. mentallyhealthy
  17. “movingtoward”typeperson
  18. “movingaway”typeperson
  19. “movingagainst”typeperson
  20. Apersonwhoadoptsthe“resignationsolution”isa(n):
  21. movingtowardtypeperson
  22. movingagainsttypeperson
  23. movingawaytypeperson
  24. emotionallywellbalancedperson
  25. Theappealofloveisrelatedto:
  26. theself-effacing solution
  27. theexpansivesolution
  28. resignation(solution)
  29. Noneoftheabove.
  30. Thegrowthpotentialwithinapersonbelongstotheself(inHorney’stheory).
  31. actual
  32. idealized
  33. social
  34. real
  35. AccordingtoHorney,thefourmajoradjustmentstrategies:
  36. eliminateneurosis
  37. aresignsofpsychosis
  38. createtheappearanceofharmonywithoutsolvingtheneuroticproblem
  39. aremorecommonlyusedbywomenthanbymen
  40. Jerrythinksofhimselfascheerful,buttypicallyrespondsto“Howareyou?”withsome gloomyanswer.Heisusingthesecondaryadjustmenttechniquecalled:
  41. elusiveness
  42. blindspots
  43. compartmentalizing
  44. arbitraryrightness
  45. WhenAllportmetFreud,whathappened?
  46. FreudanalyzedAllport’sdreams.
  47. Freudexperiencedapowerfulcountertransference.
  48. AllportthoughtthatFreudmisunderstoodhim.
  49. AllportproposedthathedevelopatesttomeasureFreudiandefensemechanisms.
  50. AccordingtoAllport,heredityinfluences aspectsofpersonality.
  51. no
  52. afew
  53. many
  54. all
  55. AllportandOdbertidentified17,953traitnamesbystudying:
  56. collegefreshmen
  57. biographiesoffamouspeople
  58. lettersfromJenny
  59. thedictionary
  60. NearlyeveryonewhoknowsHarryagreesthatheisfriendly.“Friendly”isprobablya

traitforHarry.

  1. cardinal
  2. secondary
  3. central
  4. primary
  5. Whichofthe followingisnot listedbyAllport ascharacteristic ofanormal, matureadult?
  6. warmhumaninteractions
  7. emotionalsecurity
  8. realisticperceptions
  9. financialsuccess
  10. Inadulthood,apersonisinthestageofdevelopmentthatAllportcalled:
  11. ego-enhancement
  12. ego-extension
  13. theknower
  14. self-identity

 

  1. WhichofthefollowingisnotadescriptionofSonyaSotomayorbyindividualsthat demonstratethepersonalityfactorsofExtraversionandAgreeableness?
  2. warm
  3. generous
  4. ateamplayer
  5. ambitious
  6. Cattelldefinedpersonalityasthatwhichpermits:
  7. predictionofwhatapersonwilldoinagivensituation
  8. evaluationofthelevelofadjustmentofaperson
  9. selectionofanappropriatequestionnaire
  10. optimalassignmentofindividualstojobs
  11. Cattell classifiedprojective tests,such astheRorschach inkblottest, as:
  12. D-data
  13. L-data
  14. Q-data
  15. T-data
  16. Thesetofaperson’sscoresonall16factorsofthe16PF:
  17. iscalledthe“profile”
  18. musttotal100
  19. isameasureofadjustment
  20. isameasureofintelligence
  21. Neuroticstypicallyhavelowscoreson:
  22. intelligence
  23. egostrength
  24. introversion
  25. Alloftheabove.
  26. Researchershavefoundwhatkindofevidenceagainsttheinherited“innateability” interpretationoftheCultureFairIntelligence Test?
  27. educationdoesinfluencefluidintelligencescores
  28. zerocorrelationsbetweenparentsandchildrenonthismeasure
  29. failureofthemeasuretopredictschoolperformance
  30. highcorrelationsbetweenthistestandmeasuresofextraversion
  31. Imitatingothersismadepossiblebiologicallyby:
  32. mirrorneurons
  33. memorystrategies
  34. evolvedpsychologicalmechanisms
  35. temperament
  36. Evolvedpsychologicalmechanismsincludeallofthefollowingexcept:
  37. imitation
  38. sexualjealousy
  39. temperament
  40. sexualattractionbasedonphysicalappearance
  41. Studiesofratsdeprivedofmaternalcontactshowedthattheratsdevelopedpermanent deficitsinthehippocampus.Suchdeficits(inratsorhumans)couldmakethemmore vulnerableto:
  42. aggression
  43. depression
  44. introversion
  45. sexualpromiscuity
  46. Accordingtothetext,thecommunicationof makesociallivingpossible.
  47. socialnorms
  48. emotions
  49. altruism
  50. empathy
  51. Childrenwhocriedandclungtotheirmothers,in Kagan’sstudies,werecalled:
  52. inhibited
  53. neurotic
  54. difficultychildren
  55. uninhibited
  56. InKagan’smodel,childrenaremorelikelytodevelopanaggressive,antisocialpersonalityiftheyhavean:
  57. inhibitedtemperamentandreceiveoverprotection
  58. inhibitedtemperamentandareencouragedtoexploretheenvironment
  59. uninhibitedtemperamentandreceivestrictdiscipline
  60. uninhibitedtemperamentandreceivelaxdiscipline
  61. Freud’sconceptof“libido”correspondstoDollardandMiller’sconceptof:
  62. anxiety
  63. behaviorgradients
  64. cue
  65. drive
  66. Undesirableresponsescanbeeliminatedby:
  67. extinctionorpunishment
  68. punishmentorreward
  69. extinctionorspontaneousrecovery
  70. generalizationordiscrimination
  71. Inadditionto Freud’sfirstthreepsychosexualstages,DollardandMillerdescribedafourthstage,concernedwithconflictover:
  72. anger
  73. sexroles
  74. siblings
  75. playmates
  76. CharlieBrownwantstotalk tothelittlered-headed girl,butheis afraidshewillrejecthim. What typeofconflictis this?
  77. approach-approachconflict
  78. avoidance-avoidanceconflict
  79. approach-avoidanceconflict
  80. doubleapproach-avoidanceconflict
  81. DollardandMillerexplainedaggressionwiththeir hypothesis.
  82. aggressionformation
  83. anger-anxiety
  84. frustration-aggression
  85. libido
  86. Psychotherapy,asweknowittoday,involves:
  87. learningnewlabelsforexperience
  88. learningtoexpressunwantedthoughts
  89. expressingfearedmaterialwithoutreprimand
  90. Alloftheabove.
  91. Becausetheyboththoughtintermsofprivacyandpower,NixonandKissingercouldrelatewelltooneanother, accordingto Kelly’s Corollary.
  92. Choice
  93. Commonality
  94. Modulation
  95. Sociality
  96. Kellycalledhisphilosophicalassumption“ ”.
  97. logicalpositivism
  98. constructivealternativism
  99. physiologicaldeterminism
  100. humanisticscience
  101. InKelly’stheory,peoplearemorelikelytoexperimentwithnewconstructswhentheyare:
  102. threatened
  103. inlove
  104. notthreatened
  105. angry
  106. AccordingtoKelly,allconstructshave pole(s).
  107. 1
  108. 2
  109. 3
  110. many
  111. “Slot-movement”refersto:
  112. radicalchanges, such asfrom atheist to “born-againChristian”
  113. rolechanges,suchasmovingfrombeingastudenttobeinganemployee
  114. gambling
  115. amethodforscoringpersonalitytests
  116. Kellyunderstooddifferencesbetweenindividualsasdueto:
  117. differentearlyexperience
  118. differentpersonalconstructs
  119. heredity
  120. misunderstandingsbyresearchers
  121. Thetermconsistencyparadoxrefersto:
  122. thechallengeofunderstandinghowpeoplecandevelopacrossalifetimeyetstillremain consistent
  123. thediscrepancybetweenresearch,whichshowsthatpeopleactdifferentlyindifferent situations,andcommonsense,whichsaystheyareconsistent
  124. people’seffortstoseemconsistenttootherpeople
  125. theparadoxthatmostpersonalitytheoriesseemtobesayingthesamething,onlyin differentwords
  126. InMischel’sterminology,theofanextravertedpersonmightincludeknowinghowtobeginaconversationwithastrangerandthinkingofthingstosayinaconversation.
  127. competencies
  128. expectancies
  129. personvariables
  130. traits
  131. Adamdoesn’t knowwhether he willbe thanked orcriticized if hehelps cook dinner.He isuncertainabout:
  132. self-efficacyexpectancies
  133. competencies
  134. encodingstrategies
  135. behavior-outcome expectancies
  136. Mischelconducted research on the delay of gratificationin:
  137. rats
  138. employeesoflargecompanies
  139. children
  140. twins

 

  1. Delayofgratificationiseasierifthe:
  2. rewardsarevisible
  3. childthinksabouthowgoodtherewardis
  4. childseesmodelswhodelaytheirowngratification
  5. Alloftheabove.
  6. AccordingtoMischelandhiscolleagues,theeffectoftraitsonbehaviordependsuponthe:
  7. person
  8. timeofday
  9. situation
  10. observer
  11. “IfIaskJanetogotothemovies,willshego,orrejectme?”Thisisaquestionof:
  12. reciprocaldeterminism
  13. stimulus-outcomeexpectancies
  14. behavior-outcome expectancies
  15. self-efficacyexpectancies
  16. Bandurarecommendsthatself-efficacyshouldbemeasured:
  17. globally
  18. separatelyforeachareaofbehavior
  19. byprojectivetests
  20. byaninterview
  21. Researchshowsthatwearemorelikelytostrivetowardgoalsif:
  22. weconcentrateonthedistantgoal,notimmediateshort-termgoals
  23. nooneelsehassucceeded
  24. weareworkingalone
  25. weexpecttobeabletoreachthem
  26. “Attentionalprocesses”referstowhatwe:
  27. observeorpayattentionto
  28. remember
  29. aremotivatedtodo
  30. areabletodo
  31. Banduraexpandedlearningtheorybyhisworkontheimportanceof:
  32. extinction
  33. generalization
  34. modeling
  35. punishment
  36. Banduraandcolleaguesdemonstratedthatchildrencanlearnthroughmodeling.
  37. aggression
  38. performancestandards
  39. arbitraryplayfulbehaviors
  40. Alloftheabove.
  41. AccordingtoBandura’sresearch,childrenwhohaveobservedaggressivemodelsmaynotbehaveaggressively,eveniftheyhavelearnedtodoso,iftheylack:
  42. incentives
  43. courage
  44. anaudience
  45. toys
  46. Rogersregardedthefundamentalmotivationtobe:
  47. theactualizingtendency
  48. theneedforsecurity
  49. interpersonalneeds
  50. sexualneeds
  51. Thebestguidetohealthygrowth,accordingtoRogers,is:
  52. aprofessionalpsychotherapist
  53. a religiousphilosophyof life
  54. theorganismicvaluingprocess
  55. carefulreasoning
  56. Rogersrecommendedthatpsychologistsshouldinvestigatesubjectiveexperiencewhenitwas

.

  1. spiritual
  2. valuebased
  3. mystical
  4. Alloftheabove.
  5. “Me?Angry?Never!”saysLou.Thisstatementillustrates .
  6. self-actualization
  7. incongruence
  8. theformativeprocess
  9. empathicunderstanding
  10. Conditionalpositiveregardcausesapersontolosetouchwiththe self.
  11. ideal
  12. real
  13. social
  14. Alloftheabove.
  15. Adolescentswhoarecreativearelikelytohavehadparentswho:
  16. encouragedtheirchildren’scuriosityinearlylife
  17. encouragedtheirchildrentocontroltheiremotions
  18. werecriticalofthem
  19. helpedtheirchildrenwiththeirwork
  20. Maslow’stheoryissometimescalled:
  21. individualpsychology
  22. person-centeredtheory
  23. thirdforcepsychology
  24. behavioralpsychology
  25. Inorderoftheiremergence,theneedsinMaslow’shierarchyare:
  26. physiological,safety,esteem,love,self-actualization
  27. physiological,esteem,safety,love,self-actualization
  28. physiological,safety,love,esteem,self-actualization
  29. safety,physiological,love,esteem,self-actualization
  30. Aftersafetyandphysiologicalneedsareadequatelymet,thenextleveltomotivatepeopleis:
  31. sex
  32. esteem
  33. loveandbelongingness
  34. self-actualization
  35. WhichofthefollowingillustratesB-motivation?
  36. jealousy
  37. beauty,truth,andjustice
  38. focusedattention
  39. business
  40. WhichhypothesisispredictedbyMaslow’stheory?
  41. Peoplewouldratherstarvethaneatfoodforbiddenbytheirreligion.
  42. Greatsoldierswouldratherdiethanactcowardly.
  43. Starvingartistsandmusiciansproducethebestworksofart.
  44. Noneoftheabove.
  45. Whichofthefollowingis characteristicofself-actualizedpeople,according toMaslow?
  46. firm belief in the values of their society
  47. asensethatlifeishighlypredictable
  48. rejectionofsexualneeds
  49. spontaneity
  50. WhichofthefollowingisNOToneoftheFourNobleTruthsofBuddhism?
  51. suffering
  52. attachment
  53. detachment
  54. retachment
  55. Buddhismtracesitsrootsbackabout years.
a. 1000
b. 1500
c. 2500
d. 5000

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