Proposal – PowerPoint

| April 25, 2015

Order Details;

Chemical Thinking Project 6 v3.3 | 1
How do we design, prepare and evaluate materials?
You will be in charge of designing and implementing
the final two-session project for your general
chemistry lab. This investigation combines the
central topic of the last unit lecture, “chemical
reactions,” with material from Unit 3.
Paint is a complex mixture of different substances
each of which imparts desired properties to the
paint. These substances can be grouped into four
major categories: pigment, vehicle, solvent and
additives.
Pigments are usually granular solids that give color to the paint. By their nature pigments are intensely colored,
so only small amounts are present in the paint formulation. On the other hand, the vehicle (or binder) makes up
the bulk of paint. Vehicles are the film-forming component that controls much of the paint’s physical properties.
Polymers and various oils typically serve as vehicles. With polymers, the higher the molecular weight, the greater
the viscosity of the paint formulation. While, low molecular weight polymers in low concentration give thin
watercolor-like paints. The solvent (or diluent) is a volatile substance that helps solubilize the vehicle and
pigments. Solvents can adjust various physical attributes of the paint such as viscosity, stability and drying time.
Finally, some paint formulations employ additives, such as fillers or hiding (opaque) agents. Fillers, such as
talcum powder, can be used to increase volume and thicken the paint, and/or impart texture to the dried paint.
Hiding agents provide a neutral white “base” for the pigment and as the name implies, play a role in the hiding
or covering power of the paint. Titanium (IV) oxide is a common hiding agent.
The Problem
Assume you are a R&D chemist at Art Paint Inc., a specialty paint
manufacturing company. The company seeks to distinguish its brand by
offering artist paints with superior performance and/or novel
properties at competitive prices.
Your present assignment is to develop one or more paint formulations
that give improved performance and/or expand the range of possible
art applications. You have freedom to select what pigment to prepare
and the properties to explore – so long as the resulting paint has a
potential market and the projected material costs permit competitive
pricing. In two weeks you will give a presentation of your progress to
upper management.
Continued on Page 2
TUESDAY LABS
Chemical Thinking Project 6 v3.3 | 2
This study will involve:
a) Deciding on the properties to explore and how the formulation affects the properties.
b) Deciding on the inorganic pigment and synthesizing 1.0 g of pigment. This pigment will be used to prepare all of the paint formation samples. (You will work on a small-scale, so 1.0 g should be sufficient.)
c) Preparing small-scale “proof of concept” formulations that can be conveniently and economically tested.
d) Designing tests or a set of tests to evaluate your small scale paint formulations.
You want to identify a trend or trends that can be used to predict the behavior beyond the range of conditions tested. To accomplish this, you must put some thought into what variable or variables are relevant, how they can be explored, and the testing protocol. Note the fine interplay between design, preparation and evaluation. Use the trends to make an informed recommendation as to the best formulation that gives the desired properties.
Available Resources
Aside from the contents of your locker, you will also have hotplate stirrers, centrifuges, electronic scales, Go!Temp thermometers and one emission spectrometer (on the back bench) in the lab. Additional glassware, plastic-ware (vials, centrifuge tubes, HDPE bottles, etc.), mortar & pestles and set-ups (such as vacuum filtration gear) are available on a check-out basis from the prep-room. The following set of chemical substances will be in the lab: Inorganic Pigment Materials SrCl2,Strontium chloride (s) $287.00/kg AlCl3∙6H2O, Aluminum chloride hexahydrate (s) $115.80/kg ZnSO4∙7H2O, Zinc sulfate heptahydrate (s) $129.83/kg NH4Cl, Ammonium chloride (s) $72.40/kg Other Inorganic Solids (Additives) NH4OH, Ammonium hydroxide (l) $34.92/L Talc (talcum powder), Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 (s) $59.50/kg BaCl2·2H2O, Barium chloride dihydrate (s) $81.80/kg TiO2, Titanium (IV) oxide (s) $56.70/kg BaSO4, Barium sulfate (s) $150.00/kg Oils B(OH)3, Boric acid (s) $79.00/kg Linseed oil (l) $4.99/L CaCl2, Calcium chloride (s) $91.20/kg Vegetable oil (l) $1.27/L CoCl2∙6H2O, Cobalt (II) chloride hexahydrate (s) $517.00/kg Polymers Co(NO3)2∙6H2O, Cobalt nitrate hexahydrate (s) $476.00/kg Polyvinyl acetate(PVAc) 170 kDa $237.00/kg Cu(NO3)2∙2.5H2O, Copper (II) nitrate hydrate (s) $83.76/kg Polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) 500 kDa $245.00/kg Cu(SO4)∙5H2O, Copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate (s) $107.50/kg Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) 31-50 kDa $162.50/kg Fe(NO3)3∙9H2O, Iron (III) nitrate nonahydrate (s) $122.20/kg Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) 146-186 kDa $164.50/kg FeCl2∙4H2O, Iron (II) chloride tetrahydrate (s) $149.50/kg Poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (Aquazol) 5 kDa $172.25/kg FeCl3∙6H2O, Iron (III) chloride hexahydrate (s) $62.20/kg Poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (Aquazol) 50 kDa $198.50/kg FeSO4∙7H2O, Iron (II) sulfate heptahydrate (s) $120.10/kg Poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (Aquazol) 200 kDa $209.00/kg K2CO3, Potassium carbonate (s) $38.80/kg Poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (Aquazol) 500 kDa $239.00/kg KBr, Potassium bromide (s) $113.10/kg Sodium polyacrylate $89.98/kg K3Fe(CN)6, Potassium ferricyanide (s) $478.00/kg Solvents K4Fe(CN)6∙3H2O, Potassium ferrocyanide trihydrate (s) $465.00/kg Hexane (l) $53.30/L KI, Potassium iodide (s) $281.30/kg Ethyl acetate (l) $26.87/L LiCl, Lithium chloride (s) $160.50/kg Acetone (l) $11.38/L NaHCO3, Sodium bicarbonate (s) $26.43/kg Isopropanol (l) $37.30/L NaCl, Sodium chloride (s) $19.28/kg Ethanol (l) $37.17/L NaOH, Sodium hydroxide (s) $153.40/kg Methanol (l) $34.45/L NaOH, Sodium hydroxide (6 M solution) $36.82/L NANOpure™ water (ultrapure water) $0.89/L NaNO3, Sodium nitrate (s) $77.20/kg Low-Volatility Solvents Na3PO4·12H2O, Sodium phosphate dodecahydrate (s) $86.95/kg Ethylene glycol (1,2-ethanediol) (l) $72.62/L NaH2PO4·12H2O, Sodium phosphate monobasic (s) $163.00/kg Glycerol (1,2,3-propanetriol) (l) $187.88/L Na2SO4, Sodium sulfate (s) $22.40/kg Glow Sticks Na2S, Sodium sulfide (0.1 M solution) $19.60/L Grn, orange, red, yllw, wht (by request only, specify color) $2.85/stick
Note: Lead (Pb), mercury (Hg) and chromium (CrO42-, Cr2O72-) are NOT available and are NOT ALLOWED in the general chemistry teaching labs.
Chemical Thinking Project 6 v3.3 | 3
If you believe equipment and/or laboratory chemicals beyond those mentioned above will be needed, include these items in your project plan and discuss these specific needs with your TA. Household materials, such as egg yolk, gelatin, glue and varnish, may find use in the production of paints. You are expected to supply these resources if you plan to use them. Likewise for paint brushes and other expendables.
Research Proposals
Remember, this research project involves:
 Deciding on the properties to explore and how the formulation affects the properties.
 Deciding on the inorganic pigment and synthesizing at least 1.0 g of pigment. This pigment will be used to prepare all of the paint formation samples. You will work on a small-scale, so 1.0 g should be sufficient, however, if you are planning to prepare a large set of formulations, increasing the scale to 2 grams may be in order.
 Preparing small-scale “proof of concept” formulations that can be conveniently and economically tested.
 Designing tests or a set of tests to evaluate your small scale paint formulations.
You ABSOLUTELY MUST identify a trend or trends that can be used to predict the behavior beyond the conditions tested. To accomplish this:
 You should go quantitative, or if you are evaluating the formulations qualitatively, you must devise a scoring, relative scaling or ranking that permits building a graphical relationship.
 You need to identify the variable or variables that are relevant and how they can be explored while considering your testing protocol. Obviously, what you can test for restricts what you can study.
 You will need to prepare MANY small milli-scale formulations and devise tests that work on the milli-scale level to have any hope of building a graphical relationship that clearly reveals trend(s) and has good predictive power.
You will use the trends to make an informed recommendation as to the best formulation that gives the desired properties while also considering the cost. In other words, in your final presentation a cost analysis should be part of the recommendation for the best formation.
Individual (Preliminary) Proposal
You will need to build an individual preliminary proposal. As implied by the name, this is an independent effort. This document should have three main sections:
Proposed Pigment Synthesis
The pigment procedure must involve TWO different reactants from the Inorganic Pigment Materials list and should have a reasonable chance of working. You should give a balanced chemical equation for the proposed pigment synthesis. Your pigment synthesis procedure must specify the masses (g) and volume (mL) of reagents and solvent (water), and the specified amounts should be reasonable to the synthesis scale. The procedure must be sufficiently detailed and well written so that someone with basic lab skills can successfully perform the pigment preparation. A procedure in outline form is acceptable. Finally, you should include a complete list of chemicals and equipment needed to synthesize the pigment.
Besides using the Internet to look up possible paint pigment preparations, you may want to check papers on the subject published in the Journal of Chemical Education. Papers in this journal tend to be written in a more accessible style and typically employ lab-ware common to teaching laboratories. Alternatively, you can design your own synthesis using the solubility table below:
Chemical Thinking Project 6 v3.3 | 4
Table P6-1 Aqueous (Water) Solubility Table for Common Inorganic Salts
Chloride Bromide Nitrate Acetate Hydroxide Oxide Carbonate Sulfide Sulfate Phosphate
Cl− Br− NO3− CHCOO- OH− O2− CO32− S2- SO42− PO43−
Li+
soluble
soluble
soluble
soluble
soluble ? Slightly Sol
soluble
soluble Insoluble Li+ Na+
soluble
soluble
soluble
soluble
soluble
soluble
soluble
soluble
soluble
soluble Na+ K+
soluble
soluble
soluble
soluble
soluble
soluble
soluble
soluble
soluble
soluble K+ NH4+
soluble
soluble
soluble
soluble
soluble ?
soluble
soluble
soluble
soluble NH4+ Mg2+
soluble
soluble
soluble
soluble Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble ?
soluble Insoluble Mg2+ Ca2+
soluble
soluble
soluble
soluble Slightly Sol Slightly Sol Insoluble ? Slightly Sol Insoluble Ca2+ Sr2+
soluble
soluble
soluble
soluble
soluble ? Insoluble ? I ? Sr2+ Ba2+
soluble
soluble
soluble
soluble
soluble
soluble Insoluble ? Insoluble Insoluble Ba2+ Zn2+
soluble
soluble
soluble
soluble Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble
soluble Insoluble Zn2+ Fe2+
soluble
soluble
soluble
soluble Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble
soluble Insoluble Fe2+ Cu2+
soluble
soluble
soluble
soluble Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble
soluble Insoluble Cu2+ Al3+
soluble
soluble
soluble Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble ? ?
soluble Insoluble Al3+ Fe3+
soluble
soluble
soluble
soluble Insoluble Insoluble ? ? Slightly Sol Insoluble Fe3+
Chloride Bromide Nitrate Acetate Hydroxide Oxide Carbonate Sulfide Sulfate Phosphate
Cl− Br− NO3− CHCOO- OH− O2− CO32− S2- SO42− PO43−
So how does this work? The idea is to take two water soluble salts, make concentrated solutions of each, then combined the solutions so they react to form an insoluble salt that precipitates out. The precipitated salt is then isolated by suction (vacuum) filtration. This isolated insoluble salt is your pigment. A few examples will illustrate.
Example 1 Looking at the table of insoluble salts (the yellow boxes), you see copper carbonate (CuCO3) at the intersection of the Cu2+ row with the carbonate (CO32-) column.
Continued on Page 5
Chemical Thinking Project 6 v3.3 | 5
A check on the internet indicates CuCO3 is an opaque pale green solid. So this certainly can serve as a pigment for a greenish-white paint. Working backward, you see there are many salts of copper (Cu2+) that are soluble in water:
The only two on the resource list are copper nitrate Cu(NO3)2 and copper sulfate CuSO4. Either will serve as the copper (Cu2+) source for the pigment. You decide to go for CuSO4. For carbonate (CO32-), only sodium (Na+), potassium (K+) and ammonium (NH4+) salts are soluble according to the table:
From the resource list, only potassium carbonate is available, hence potassium carbonate, K2CO3, will serve as the carbonate source. Now, your pigment synthesis will look like this:
CuSO4 + K2CO3 → CuCO3 + K2SO4
Here everything but CuCO3 is soluble in water, so if you combine concentrated aqueous (water) solutions of CuSO4 and K2CO3, copper carbonate should precipitate out leaving unreacted CuSO4 and K2CO3 and the side product K2SO4 in solution (notice that K2SO4 is soluble in water according to the table). Filtration should then isolate the solid pigment CuCO3.
Several closing comments are in order. First, you may have to look up some of the chemical formulas on the internet: Google copper carbonate and you will find CuCO3. Second, writing balance chemical equations such as that given above has not been covered in lecture yet – please consult with your TA for assistance. Third, you will have to figure out what concentration to prepare of the starting (reactant) soluble salts. The higher the concentration, the more complete the precipitation reaction – but there is a limit, ALL of the starting salts
Chemical Thinking Project 6 v3.3 | 6
must be in solution, otherwise your pigment will be contaminated with reactant material(s). You will likely need to look up the aqueous solubility of the starting salts.
Example 2 Looking at the table of insoluble salts (the yellow boxes), you see calcium phosphate, Ca3(PO4)2 , at the intersection of the Ca2+ row with the phosphate (PO43-) column. A check on the internet indicates Ca3(PO4)2 is an opaque white solid; so this can serve as a pigment for white paint. Working backwards, you see there are many salts of calcium (Ca2+) that are water soluble. The only one on the resource list is calcium chloride, CaCl2. This will serve as the calcium (Ca2+) source for the pigment. For phosphate (PO43-), only sodium (Na+), potassium (K+) and ammonium (NH4+) salts are soluble according to the table. From the resource list, only sodium phosphate is available, hence sodium phosphate, Na3(PO4), will serve as the phosphate source. The pigment synthesis can now be written as:
3 CaCl2 + 2 Na3PO4 → Ca3(PO4)2 + 6 NaCl
Here everything but Ca3(PO4)2 is water soluble, so if you combine aqueous solutions of CaCl2 and Na3PO4, Ca3(PO4)2 should precipitate out leaving unreacted CaCl2 and Na3(PO4) and the side product NaCl in solution. Filtration should then isolate the solid Ca3(PO4)2 pigment.
Proposed Paint Formulations – Study Design Part 1
In this part of the study design, you are to state the different paint formulations you intend to prepare and how you will prepare them. First of all, you need to clearly indicate what property or properties are being studied, because the amount and type of vehicle, solvent and additives directly follows from the properties you are planning to investigate. Remember your objective is to find trends from which predictions can be made. To do this, your proposed studies should vary only ONE variable at a time; that is, your study design should have a reasonable chance of holding all other variables constant. Furthermore you will need to make fine, controlled graduations in that one variable.
Your formulation preparation must specify the amount and type of vehicle. The vehicle can be from the Oils and Polymers list, or household item such as egg, glue, varnish, etcetera that you are providing. Remember, the vehicle will make up the bulk of your paint and is the film-forming component that controls much of the paint’s physical properties such as mechanical strength, adhesion to various surfaces, texture, etc. If you are going after a thin, watercolor-like paint, then clearly the amount and type vehicle will be important. On the other hand, thick, heavily textured stucco-like paints require an entirely different vehicle choice and amount.
Aside from the vehicle, you will likely find the amount and type of solvent (from Solvent and Low-Volatility Solvents list) has a great deal of influence on the drying time, flow, run-resistance, etcetera of your paint. With some artist paints, you may want a long working times (slow drying), with others a very short drying time is desirable. You need to decide what properties are important for your paint.
Additives can enhance or impart further properties. From the opening paragraphs you know fillers, such as talcum powder, can be used to increase volume and thicken the paint, and/or give texture to the dried paint, and that hiding agents provide a neutral white “base” for the pigment and as the name implies, play a role in the hiding or covering power of the paint. Again you must decide what to go after.
When proposing formulations make sure your vehicle and solvent are compatible (vehicle must dissolve in the solvent) and that the solvent or solvent combination has a reasonable chance of dissolving the inorganic pigment, unless you decide to go with a suspension (were the solid pigment is finely dispersed in the vehicle).
Chemical Thinking Project 6 v3.3 | 7
Your proposed formulations must be on the milli-scale level, with MANY small-scale “proof of concept” formulations so that trends can be revealed and predications made.
Finally, you should prepare a complete list of chemicals and equipment needed to prepare the formulations.
Proposed Paint Formulation Tests – Study Design Part 2
This part of your study design requires you to devise testing procedures for the paint properties you’re interested in optimizing. Of course you must clearly state all the proposed testing and give the testing procedures. The testing procedure can be in outline form but should be sufficiently detailed that someone with basic lab skills can successfully perform the test(s). The testing design must be quantitative, or if qualitative, a means of scoring, scaling, or ranking should be specified to permit the discovery of trends that have predictive power. All test designs should be capable of generating the desired data in a controlled (reproducible) manner. Further, they must be time efficient, cost-effective and on a milli-scale level.
Finally, you should prepare a complete list of chemicals and equipment needed to perform the test(s).
Your individual (preliminary) proposal is due on March 10th
Your instructor will evaluate your individual proposal and provide feedback. You will then meet with your group to build the group (final) proposal.
Group (Final) Proposal
Based on the different individual proposals generated by the members of your group, and your instructor’s feedback, you are expected to collectively design a group proposal that will guide your work in the laboratory setting. It is up to the group to decide what part if any of the individual proposals will be used to construct the final group proposal. This final proposal should have the same three sections discussed above for the individual proposal. It is expected that the quality of the group proposal will be high, given that each member is contributing their original individual proposal efforts and the instructor feedback on those efforts. The same grading rubric used in evaluating the individual proposal will be used to grade the group (final) proposal. Your instructor will review this group (final) proposal and evaluate it for suitability. Your group will be required to rework and resubmit the proposal if it is deemed inadequate or unsuitable.
The group (final) proposal is due on March 31st

Chemical Thinking P6 Individual Proposal Grading Rubric | 1
Project 6 Individual (Preliminary) Proposal
Grading Rubric
V2.1
Pigment (4.0 points total)
CODE Points Item
P1 (0.5) Gives a balanced chemical equation for the pigment synthesis.
P2 (0.5) Reaction involves TWO different reactants from the Inorganic Pigment Materials list.
P3 (0.5) Reaction has a reasonable chance of working.
P4 (0.5) Procedure for the pigment synthesis present – can be an outline.
P5 (0.5) Procedure for the pigment synthesis gives masses (g) and volume (mL) of reagents and solvent (water). The specified amounts must be reasonable to the synthesis scale.
P6 (0.5) Procedure for the pigment synthesis is sufficiently detailed so that someone with basic lab skills can successfully perform the preparation.
P7 (0.5) Complete list of chemicals needed to synthesize the pigment.
P8 (0.5) Complete list of equipment needed to prepare the pigment.
Proposed Paint Formulations – Study Design Part 1 (8.0 points total)
CODE Points Item
F1 (1.0) Property or properties under study clearly stated.
F2 (1.0) Proposed studies vary only ONE variable at a time (has a reasonable chance of holding all other variables constant).
F3 (1.0) Formulation preparation; amount and type of vehicle (from Oils and Polymers list, or if a household item such as egg, glue, varnish, etc.) specified.
F4 (1.0) Formulation preparation; amount and type of solvent (from Solvent and Low-Volatility Solvents list) and any additives (if part of the proposed study) are specified.
F5 (1.0) Formulation preparation; vehicle and solvent are compatible (vehicle will dissolve in solvent) and solvent or solvent combination has a reasonable chance of dissolving the inorganic pigment.
F6 (2.0) Proposed studies are on the milli-scale level, with MANY small-scale “proof of concept” formulations so that trends can be revealed and predications made.
F7 (0.5) Complete list of chemicals needed to prepare the formulations.
F8 (0.5) Complete list of equipment needed to prepare the formulations.
Proposed Paint Formulation Tests – Study Design Part 2 (8.0 points total)
CODE Points Item
T1 (1.0) All proposed testing clearly stated.
T2 (0.5) Procedure for the proposed testing present – can be an outline.
T3 (1.0) Procedure for the proposed testing is sufficiently detailed so that someone with basic lab skills can successfully perform the test(s).
T4 (2.0) Testing design is quantitative, or if qualitative, a means of scoring, scaling, or ranking is specified to permit the discovery of trends that have predictive power.
T5 (1.0) Test designs are solid – there is a good chance of producing the desired data in a controlled (reproducible) manner.
T6 (1.0) Test designs are on a milli-scale level.
T7 (0.5) Test designs are time efficient and cost-effective.
T8 (0.5) Complete list of supplies needed to perform the test(s).
T9 (0.5) Complete list of equipment needed to perform the test(s).
Grand Total:
20 points

Get a 5 % discount on an order above $ 150
Use the following coupon code :
2018DISC

Tags:

Category: Essays

Our Services:
Order a customized paper today!