Project Management I have homework open for 20 minutes every week for 3 classes and I want someone to help me to answer 4 multiple-choice questions online

Project Management I have homework open for 20 minutes every week for 3 classes and I want someone to help me to answer 4 multiple-choice questions online

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Advanced_Project_Management

Risk_Management

Managing_People_and_Organizations Advanced Project Management APM

Prepared by Dr. Ahmad Al Ghamdi

PMG 506
Advanced Project Management (APM)

Advanced Project Management

Prepared by Dr. Ahmad Al Ghamdi

Lecture 1

PMG 506

Introduction

Advanced Project Management (APM)
PMG506

Projects in Contemporary Organizations
Lecture 1

Projects in Contemporary Organizations
Lecture 1

Project management provides an organization with powerful tools that improve its ability
to plan, implement, and control its activities as well as the ways in which it utilizes its
people and resources.

Project management has emerged because the characteristics of our contemporary
society demand the development of new methods of management. Of the many forces
involved, three are paramount:
(1) the exponential expansion of human knowledge;
(2) the growing demand for a broad range of complex, sophisticated, customized goods

and services
(3) the evolution of worldwide competitive markets for the production and consumption

of goods and services

Projects in Contemporary Organizations
Lecture 1

Forces Fostering Project Management:
First, the expansion of knowledge allows an increasing number of academic disciplines to
be used in solving problems associated with the development, production, and
distribution of goods and services.
Second, satisfying the continuing demand for more complex and customized products
and services depends on our ability to make product design an integrated and inherent
part of our production and distribution systems.
Third, worldwide markets force us to include cultural and environmental differences in
our managerial decisions about what, where, when, and how to produce and distribute
output.

Projects in Contemporary Organizations
Lecture 1

Three Project Objectives:
All undertakings have much in common, they are complex,
multidisciplinary, and have the same general objectives—
performance (or scope), time, and cost.
We refer to these as “direct” project objectives or goals.
The fourth dimension is the expectations of the client.
The expectations of client and project team should be aligned
and integrated throughout the entire project, but rarely are.

Projects in Contemporary Organizations
Lecture 1

The Project Manager:
The project manager (PM) is expected to integrate all aspects of the project, ensure that
the proper knowledge and resources are available when and where needed, and above
all, ensure that the expected results are produced in a timely, cost-effective manner.

The project manager’s job is not without problems.
• There is the ever-present frustration of being responsible for outcomes while lacking

full authority to command the requisite resources or personnel.
• There are the constant problems of dealing with the parties involved in any project—

senior management, client, project team, and public—all of whom seem to speak
different languages and have different objectives.

• There are the ceaseless organizational and technical “fires to be fought.”
• There are vendors who cannot seem to keep “lightning-strike-me-dead” promises

about delivery dates. This list of troubles only scratches the surface.

Projects in Contemporary Organizations
Lecture 1

Trends in Project Management:

• Achieving Strategic Goals
Projects that do not have clear ties to the strategy and mission are terminated and their resources
are redirected to those that do.
• Achieving Routine Goals
This is because lower level management has become aware that projects accomplish their
performance objectives within their budget and deadline, and hope to employ this new tool to
improve management of their functions.
• improving Project Effectiveness
The creation of a formal Project Management Office and the evaluation of an organization’s project
management “maturity”

Projects in Contemporary Organizations
Lecture 1

Trends in Project Management:

• Virtual Projects
Team members may never physically meet before the team is disbanded and another team
reconstituted
• Quasi-Projects
The final performance (or “scope”) requirements may not be understood, the time deadline
unknown, and/or the budget undetermined.

Projects in Contemporary Organizations
Lecture 1

1.1THE DEFINITION OF A “PROJECT”
A project is “A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or
result”

project, program, task, and work packages.
Program refer to an exceptionally large, long-range objective that is broken down into a
set of projects. These projects are divided further into tasks, which are, in turn, split into
work packages that are themselves composed of work units.

Projects in Contemporary Organizations
Lecture 1

Attributes that characterize projects:
• Importance
It must be important enough in the eyes of senior management to justify setting up a
special organizational unit outside the routine structure of the organization.
• Performance
A project is usually a one-time activity with a well-defi ned set of desired end results.
Often, the project itself must be coordinated with other projects being carried out by the
same parent organization
• Life Cycle with a Finite Due Date
From a slow beginning they progress to a build-up of size, then peak, begin a decline, and
finally must be terminated by some due date.
• Interdependencies
Projects often interact with other projects being carried out simultaneously by their
parent organization.

Projects in Contemporary Organizations
Lecture 1

Attributes that characterize projects:
• Uniqueness
Every project has some elements that are unique. No two construction or R & D projects
are precisely alike.
• Resources
The attempt to obtain additional resources (or any resources) leads to the next attribute
conflict.
• Conflict
The PM must be expert in conflict resolution, but we will see later that there are helpful
types of conflict. The PM must recognize the difference.

Projects in Contemporary Organizations
Lecture 1

Attributes that characterize projects:
• Nonprojects and Quasi-Projects
The use of a manufacturing line to produce a flow of standard products is a nonproject.
The production of weekly employment reports, the preparation of school lunches,
checking your e-mail. They are all routine
One common quasi-project in the information systems area is where the project includes
discovery of the scope or requirements of the task itself (and possibly also the budget
and deadline).

Projects in Contemporary Organizations
Lecture 1

1.2 WHY PROJECT MANAGEMENT?
The basic purpose for initiating a project is to accomplish specific goals. The reason for
organizing the task as a project is to focus the responsibility and authority for the
attainment of the goals on an individual or small group.
The project form of organization allows the manager to be responsive to:

(1) the client and the environment,
(2) identify and correct problems at an early date,
(3) make timely decisions about trade-offs between conflicting project goals,
(4) ensure that managers of the separate tasks that comprise the project do not
optimize the performance of their individual tasks at the expense of the total
project—that is, that they do not suboptimize.

Projects in Contemporary Organizations
Lecture 1

1.2 WHY PROJECT MANAGEMENT?

Advantages of using Project Management
• Better control
• Better customer relations
• Increase in their return on investment
• Shorter development times
• Lower costs
• Higher quality and reliability
• Higher profit margins
• Sharper orientation toward results
• Better interdepartmental coordination
• Higher worker morale

Projects in Contemporary Organizations
Lecture 1

1.2 WHY PROJECT MANAGEMENT?

Disadvantages of using Project Management
• Greater organizational complexity
• Organizational policy violation
• Higher costs,
• More management difficulties
• Low personnel utilization

The disadvantages seem to be the price one pays for the advantages. On the whole, the
balance weighs in favor of project organization if the work to be done is appropriate for a
project.

Projects in Contemporary Organizations
Lecture 1

1.3 THE PROJECT LIFE CYCLE
Most projects go through similar stages on the path from origin to completion, these
stages are the project’s life cycle.

Projects in Contemporary Organizations
Lecture 1

There is a strong correlation between the life-cycle progress curve of Figure 1-3 and the
effort curve of Figure 1-4 because effort usually results in corresponding progress.

For the S-shaped life cycle in Figure 1-3, percentage
of project completion is closely correlated with cost,
or the use of resources.
However, for the exponential progress curve in
Figure 1-5, the expenditure of resources has little
correlation with progress, at least in terms of final
benefit.

Projects in Contemporary Organizations
Lecture 1

Risk During the Life Cycle:
There may be considerable uncertainty about our ability to meet project goals
(performance, time, and cost). The crosshatched portion of Figure 1-6 illustrates that
uncertainty.

Projects in Contemporary Organizations
Lecture 1

Figure 1-7 shows how the uncertainty decreases as the project moves toward
completion. From project start time, t0, the band of uncertainty grows until it is quite
wide by the estimated end of the project. As the project actually develops, the degree of
uncertainty about the final outcome is reduced. (See the estimate made at t1, for
example.) A later forecast, made at t2, reduces the uncertainty further. It is common to
make new forecasts about project performance, time, and cost either at fixed intervals in
the life of the project or when specific technological milestones are reached.

Projects in Contemporary Organizations
Lecture 1

1.4 THE STRUCTURE OF THIS TEXT
This approach is consistent with our belief that it is helpful to understand the entire
process of project management in order to understand and manage its parts.

Projects in Contemporary Organizations
Lecture 1

Projects in Contemporary Organizations
Lecture 1

Important takeaways
• This chapter introduced the subject of project management and discussed its

importance in our society. It defined what we mean by a “project,” discussed the need
for project management, and described the project life cycle.

• The three primary forces behind project management are (1) the growing demand for
complex, customized goods and services; (2) the exponential expansion of human
knowledge; and (3) the global production– consumption environment.

• The three prime objectives of project management are to meet specified performance
within cost and on schedule.

• Our terminology follows in this order: program, project, task, work package, work unit.
• Projects are characterized by their importance, specific end results, a definite life

cycle, complex interdependencies, some or all unique elements, limited resources,
and an environment of conflict.

Projects in Contemporary Organizations
Lecture 1

Important takeaways
• Project management, though not problem-free, is the best way to accomplish certain

goals.
• Projects often start slowly, build up speed while using considerable resources, and

then slow down as completion nears.

Projects in Contemporary Organizations
Lecture 1

Glossary
Deliverables The desired elements of value, outcomes, or results that must be delivered
for a project to be considered complete.
Interdependencies Relations between organizational functions where one function or
task is dependent on others.
Life Cycle A standard concept of a product or project wherein it goes through a start-up
phase, a building phase, a maturing phase, and a termination phase.
Parties-at-Interest Individuals or groups (the stakeholders) with a special interest in a
project, usually the project team, client, senior management, and specific public interest
groups.
Program Often not distinguished from a project, but frequently meant to encompass a
group of similar projects oriented toward a specific goal.
Project Management The means, techniques, and concepts used to run a project and
achieve its objectives.

Projects in Contemporary Organizations
Lecture 1

Glossary
Risk The chance that project processes or outcomes will not occur as planned.
Suboptimize Doing the best within a function or area but at a cost to the larger whole.
Task A subset of a project, consisting of work packages.
Technology The means for accomplishing a task.
Trade-off Taking less on one measure, such as performance, in order to do better on
another, such as schedule or cost.
Uncertainty Having only partial or no information about the situation or outcomes, often
due to ambiguity or complexity.
Work Package A subelement of a task at the lowest level in the Work Breakdown
Structure, used to assign costs and values.

Projects in Contemporary Organizations
Lecture 1

Thank you

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