Period: This follows a declarative sentence Period: This follows accepted abbreviations Period: This follows an indirect question Period: A series of these indicates omission in quoted material Comma: Introductory words, such as yes and no, are set apart by these Comma: Used to separate quoted expresions Quoted expresions: He said, “I will be ready on time.” Dash: This indicates an interruption or an abrupt change of ideas in a sentence Quotation marks: These are used to enclose titles of chapters, articles, short poems or stories, song and essays Quotation marks: Used to enclose slang words, technical terms or other expressions that are unusual Parentheses: These are used to enclose supplementary or explanatory material which interrupts the main sentence Question mark: Used after a direct question Hyphen: Used to divide a word that won’t fit on same line Hyphen: Used with compound numbers Hyphen: Used to form new words beginning with self, ex, all, trans and great Asexual reproduction: method of reproducing from one parent by means of mitosis Atomic Number: Number of protons in nucleus Atrophy: Reduction in size or wasting away of organ or cell from disease or lack of use Axon: neuron process that carries impulses away from nerve cell body Bactericidal: able to kill bacteria Basal metabolic rate: Rate at which energy is expended by the body per unit of time under controlled conditions Beta Particle: An electron emitted from a nucleus in one type of radioactivity Synonym: different words with identical meanings Onomatopoeia: A word that imitates the source of the sound it describes Simile: A figure of speech comparing two unlike things using like or as Hyperbole: A figure of speech in which statements are exaggerated Hyperbole: These books weight a ton. Simile: He is as fast as a speeding bullet. Onomatopoeia: Moo. Synonym: student and pupil Metaphor: Using two nouns and compare or contrast them. Metaphor: I am a rainbow. Acetylcholine (ACH): Chemical transmitter substance released by some nerve endings Acid: A compound the yields H+ ions in solution Acid-base balance: pH of blood is maintained between 7.35 and 7.45 Actinides: The row of elements below the periodic table Action Potential: a large transient depolarization event, including polarity reversal, that is conducted along the membrane of a muscle cell or a nerve fiber Active Transport: Membrane transport processes for which ATP is provided Adaptation: Receive, interpret and respond to internal and external stimuli via the nervous system Adhesion: Molecular attraction between dissimilar molecules. Example of adhesion: Attraction between water molecules and molecules that make up the inside of a xylem tube Adrenergic fibers: Any of the fibers that transmit impulses to other nerve cells, smooth muscle, or gland cells by norepinephrine Aerobic: In the presence of oxygen Afferent Nerve: A sensory nerve that contains processes of sensory neurons and carries nerve impulses to the CNS Agglutination: Clumping of foreign cells; induced by corsslinking of antigen-antibody complexes Agonist: Muscle that bears the major responsibilty for effecting a particular movement; a prime mover Alkali metals: The colum of elements from lithium to francium Allele: any of the alternative forms of a gene Allergy (hypersensitivity): overzealous immune response to an otherwise harmless antigen Alpha Particle: A cluster of 2 protons and 2 neurtons emitted from a nucleus in one type of radioactivity Amnion: Fetal membrane that forms a fluid-filled sac around the embryo Anabolism: Energy required during building phase of metabolism in which simipler substances are combined to form more complex substances Anaerobic: Without the presence of oxygen Anion: Atom or molecule with negative charge Anode: The negative electrode at which oxidation occurs Antibody: a protein molecule that is released by a plasma cell and binds specifically to an antigen; an immunoglobulin Aqueous: A solution with water as the solvent Arteries: Blood vessels that conduct blood flow away from the heart and into circulation Articulation (joint): the junction of two or more bones Pi: 3.14 or 22/7 Circumference of a circle: C=2 x Pi x r Area of a Circle: A= Pi x r ^2 Radius of a circle: is the line segment connecting the center of the circle to any point on the circle Circumference of a circle: The total distance around the circle Diameter of a circle: A line that passes through the center of the circle, connecting any two points Perimeter of a triangle: P=a+b+c Area of a triangle; A=1/2 b x h Pythagorean Theorem: a^2 + B^2 = C^2 Hypotenuse is denoted by letter C Perimeter of a rectangle: P=2L x 2W Area of rectangle: A = L x W Perimeter of a square: P= 4 x s Area of square: A = S^2 Volume of a cube or Prism: V= L x W x H or S^3 Volume of a circular cylinder: V= Pi x r^2 x H Ratio: Comparison of two numbers by division Proportion: Two equal ratios Fraction to decimal: Divide numerator by denominator Interest formula: Principal x rate x time Avogadro’s Law: Equal volumes of gases contain the same number of molecules Boyle’s Law: The volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure Bronchioles: Branching air passageways inside the lungs Calorie: Unit of energy equal to 4.184 joules Cathode: The positive electrode at which reduction occurs Charles’ Law: The volume of a gas varies directly with temperature Chlorophyll: Green plant pigment found in chloroplast; necessary for pothosysthesis Chloroplast: Plant cell structures containing light-sensitive chlorophyll Bowman’s Capsule: A network of capillaries encased in a membrane in the kidney for the purpose of filtration Circulation: Transporting oxygen and other nutrients to the tissues via cardiovascular system Coenzyme: Nonprotein substance associated with activating an enzyme, typically a vitamin Cohesion: Attraction between similar molecules Colloid: Suspension that does not separate on standing Colony: A group of bacteria cells Complemental air: Amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled Corticosteroids: Steroid hormones released by the adrenal cortex Cotyledon: Seed leaf that stores food for a plant embryo of seed plants Covalent bond: atoms linked together by sharing valence electrons Cranial nerves: The 12 nerve pairs that arise from the brain Culture medium: Specially prepared nutritious substance used to grow experimental organisms Dendrite: Branching neurons that transmit the nerve impulse toward the cell body Disaccharide: Sugar formed by the combination of two simple sugar molecules Corticosteroids: Used medically as an anit-inflammatory agent Deoxyribonucleic acid: A nucleic acid found in all living cells which carries the organism’s hereditary information Dominant traits: Occurs when one allele masks or suppresses the expression of its partner Electrode: A conducting substance that connects an electrolyte to an external circuit Electrolyte: An ionic substance that has high electrical conductivity Embryo: Early development of an animal or plant after fertilization Emulsion: Suspension of two liquids which are incapable of mixing or attaining homogeneity Endocrine glands: Ductless glands that empty their hormonal products directly into the blood Enzyme: A protein catalyst Protein catalyst: A chemical that changes the rate of a chemical reaction in living tissue without itself being chemically altered Erythrocytes: Red blood cells Estrogen: Hormones that stimulate female secondary sex characteristics Expiration: The process of breathing out Fascia: Layers of fibrous tissue covering and separating muscle Fermentation: Release of energy from sugar without the use of oxygen; anaerobic respiration Fetus: developmental stage 9 weeks to birth Fibrinogen: A blood protein that is converted to fibrin during blood clotting Fibrin: a white, insoluble protein Filtrate: Liquid that passes through the pores in a filter Follicle: Ovarian structure consisting of a developing egg surrounded by one or more layers of follicle cells; colloid-containing structure of the thyroid gland Free energy: The thermodynamic quantity measuring the tendency of a reaction to proceed Fulcrum: The fixed point on which a lever moves when a force is applied to it Gamete: Sex or germ cell Genetic code: Amino acid sequences Amino acid sequence: Rules by which the base sequence of a DNA gene is translated into protein structures.