| April 8, 2015

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Question # 1. Discuss the leading cause of fires in the United States and in your state in the last year for which data is available? (5 points)


NFPA has announced its theme for 2013 Fire Prevention Week: Prevent Kitchen Fires. Cooking is the number one cause of home fires. Also, according to NFPA releases report on home fires “U.S. fire departments responded to an estimated annual average of 373,900 home structure fires from 2005-2009 according to new research from the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). According to the report, cooking fires remain the leading cause of home structure fires and home fire injuries and smoking materials continue to be the leading cause of home fire deaths. During the five-year period covered by the report, roughly one in every 310 households per year had a reported home fire. Each year, these fires caused an estimated average of 2,650 civilian deaths, 12,890 civilian injuries, and $7.1 billion in direct property damage. On average, seven people died in U.S. home fires every day.” However, the leading cause of fires in Kentucky is forest fires that according to United States Department of Agriculture website.


Question #2. Discuss the leading cause of fire fatalities in the United States and in your state in the last year for which data is available? (5 points)


Smoking is the leading cause of home fire deaths in the United States as stated in Also, according this website “Most fires caused by smoking material start on beds, furniture, or in the trash.” As a result, the smoking material is the main cause of death in the United States of American. Also, the smoking is the major cause of fatalities in Kentucky State. According” any fire related injuries and fire related deaths occur in Kentucky. Over 80% of fire deaths occur from fires in the home. Most of these deaths happen as the result of smoke inhalation or breathing of toxic gases released during a fire. Smoke and toxic gas exposure can also cause lung damage and or brain injuries to fire victims who are fortunate enough to survive. Of course survivors can also have significant burn injuries that can be horribly painful and require extensive medical treatment.”


Question #3. Discuss the fire cause that resulted in the greatest number of fire fatalities in the United States and in your state in the last year for which data is available? (5 points)

In the table (3.1.4) which in Fire Protection Handbook, shows the cause that resulted in the greatest number of fire fatalities in the United States as the fire and explosion due to terrorist attack on World Trade Center on Sep 11, 2001. In table 3.1.11 and Table 3.1.12, the greatest number of fatalities in the United States was in 2002. The causes was due to smoking materials, which rustled 28% of deaths (890) and 12% injures (2130).


Question #4. What fire prevention code is adopted in your jurisdiction? (5 points)

According to, the code currently adopted in Kentucky:
2007 Kentucky Building Code, Including all Referenced Standards–Adopted January 1, 2007, based on the 2006 International Building Code.  Used for all construction other than detached one and two dwellings.
2006 International Mechanical Code–Adopted by reference in the 2007 Kentucky Building Code.  Used for all mechanical installations other than one and two family dwelling which is regulated by the 2007 Kentucky Residential Code.
2009 NFPA National Fuel Gas Code
2003 ICC/ANSI A117.1–Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities
2007 Kentucky Standards of Safety
2009 International Energy Conservation Code–Buildings regulated by the building code
2009 International Energy Conservation Code–Buildings regulated by the residential code
2007 Kentucky Residential Code–Based on the 2006 International Residential Code
2007 Kentucky Building Code–Day Care Centers – see Section 420 for special requirements
2007 Kentucky Plumbing Code
2011 NFPA 70 National Electrical Code–
Effective September 1, 2009
2006 International Fire Code (IFC)–New construction projects, and only when specifically referenced by the body of KBC
2000 NFPA101-Life Safety Code–Health Care Facilities
2006 International Fire Code for Portable Extinguishers (Section 906)
2002 NFPA 13–Sprinkler Systems
2002 NFPA 13D–Sprinkler Systems (One/Two Family Dwelling)
2002 NFPA 13R–Sprinkler systems in Residential Occupancies
2003 NFPA 14–Standpipe, Hose Systems
2002 NFPA 72–Fire Alarm
State Boiler Codes & Regulations–KRS 236 and 815 Chapter 15 as currently filed with LRC
1989 or later edition ASME Boiler, Pressure Vessel and Pressure piping Codes
1989 or later edition of the National Board Inspection Code



Question #5. What is the process of adopting or modifying a fire code in your jurisdiction? (5 points)

“The Kentucky Building Code 2007 is a uniform statewide mandatory building code and applies to all buildings to be constructed, altered or remodeled with the exception of farm dwellings or farm buildings and manufactured houses. The following sample adoption ordinance addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordinance, including the information required for insertion into the code text.”




Question #6. What fire codes, if applied properly, would help reduce fatalities in your jurisdiction? (5 points)

In Kentucky State, 101 Life Safety code will reduce fatalities in my state. The 101 Life Safety code play a big part of National Fire Prevention. Also there are a lot of information that help to live safely. Those contain good guidelines of the Occupancy load, capacity, number and size of exit door and sign that help to reduce the number of fire and help to live a safe life.
Question #7. Explain what is meant by Systems Approach to Fire-Safe Building Design. (10 points).

It is the systems approach is the idea of making the best decision looking at the design of fire-safety as a whole in terms of a building (Association, 2008). The author John M. Watts, Jr. writes about systems approach and how designers, architects and city planners use the NFPA Safety Concepts Tree, which is a logical diagram that “covers all known methods of preventing fires” (Association, 2008).  It is simply the idea of looking at the problem of fire prevention from all possible positions and dealing with these the best you can.


Question #8. What causes humans to fail to prevent fires? (10 points)

It is looking at the problem of fire prevention from all possible positions and dealing with these the best you can. The author also shows a diagram, Figure 1.9.2 in 1-160 of the Fire Prevention Handbook, that lists: controlling heat energy sources, fuel interaction, fuels, prevention, managing fire, exposed and fire safety objectives (Association, 2008).“In any fire prevention program, the highest-risk groups tend to be the hardest to reach. The poor may not be able to afford safer products. Small rural communities that scattered to be reached efficiently by targeted means of communications. Preschool children are harder to reach with curriculum programs. Elderly people may resist changes products and practices. This means that a program with less than natural coverage is likely to miss disproportionate number of those most in need”.

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