Paper many questions for answers. Understanding the Supply Chain 1 PowerPoint presentation to accompany Chopra and Meindl Supply Chain Management, 5e 1

Paper many questions for answers. Understanding the Supply Chain

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PowerPoint presentation to accompany

Chopra and Meindl Supply Chain Management, 5e

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Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall.

Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall.

Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall.

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Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall.

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Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall.

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Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall.

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Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall.

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Learning Objectives

Discuss the goal of a supply chain and explain the impact of supply chain decisions on the success of a firm.

Identify the three key supply chain decision phases and explain the significance of each one.

Describe the cycle and push/pull views of a supply chain.

Classify the supply chain macro processes in a firm.

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What is a Supply Chain?

All stages involved, directly or indirectly, in fulfilling a customer request

Includes manufacturers, suppliers, transporters, warehouses, retailers, and customers

Within each company, the supply chain includes all functions involved in fulfilling a customer request (product development, marketing, operations, distribution, finance, customer service)

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What is a Supply Chain?

Customer is an integral part of the supply chain

Includes movement of products from suppliers to manufacturers to distributors and information, funds, and products in both directions

May be more accurate to use the term “supply network” or “supply web”

Typical supply chain stages: customers, retailers, distributors, manufacturers, suppliers

All stages may not be present in all supply chains (e.g., no retailer or distributor for Dell)

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What is a Supply Chain?

Figure 1-1

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Notes:

Supply chain involves everybody, from the customer all the way to the last supplier.

Key flows in the supply chain are – information, product, and cash. It is through these flows that a supply chain fills a customer order. The management of these flows is key to the success or failure of a firm. Give Dell & Compaq example, Amazon & Borders example to bring out the fact that all supply chain interaction is through these flows.

Flows in a Supply Chain

Figure 1-2

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The Objective of a Supply Chain

Maximize overall value created

Supply Chain Surplus

= Customer Value – Supply Chain Cost

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The Objective of a Supply Chain

Example: a customer purchases a wireless router from Best Buy for $60 (revenue)

Supply chain incurs costs (information, storage, transportation, components, assembly, etc.)

Difference between $60 and the sum of all of these costs is the supply chain profit

Supply chain profitability is total profit to be shared across all stages of the supply chain

Success should be measured by total supply chain profitability, not profits at an individual stage

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The Objective of a Supply Chain

Customer the only source of revenue

Sources of cost include flows of information, products, or funds between stages of the supply chain

Effective supply chain management is the management of flows between and among supply chain stages to maximize total supply chain surplus

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Importance of Supply Chain Decisions

Wal-Mart, $1 billion sales in 1980 to $408 billion in 2010

Seven-Eleven Japan, ¥1 billion sales in 1974 to ¥3 trillion in 2009

Webvan folded in two years

Borders, $4 billion in 2004 to $2.8 billion in 2009

Dell, $56 billion in 2006, adopted new supply chain strategies

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Decision Phases of a Supply Chain

Supply chain strategy or design

How to structure the supply chain over the next several years

Supply chain planning

Decisions over the next quarter or year

Supply chain operation

Daily or weekly operational decisions

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Supply Chain Strategy or Design

Decisions about the structure of the supply chain and what processes each stage will perform

Strategic supply chain decisions

Locations and capacities of facilities

Products to be made or stored at various locations

Modes of transportation

Information systems

Supply chain design must support strategic objectives

Supply chain design decisions are long-term and expensive to reverse – must take into account market uncertainty

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Supply Chain Planning

Definition of a set of policies that govern short-term operations

Fixed by the supply configuration from previous phase

Starts with a forecast of demand in the coming year

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Supply Chain Planning

Planning decisions:

Which markets will be supplied from which locations

Planned buildup of inventories

Subcontracting, backup locations

Inventory policies

Timing and size of market promotions

Must consider in planning decisions demand uncertainty, exchange rates, competition over the time horizon

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Supply Chain Operation

Time horizon is weekly or daily

Decisions regarding individual customer orders

Supply chain configuration is fixed and operating policies are determined

Goal is to implement the operating policies as effectively as possible

Allocate orders to inventory or production, set order due dates, generate pick lists at a warehouse, allocate an order to a particular shipment, set delivery schedules, place replenishment orders

Much less uncertainty (short time horizon)

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Process View of a Supply Chain

Cycle View: processes in a supply chain are divided into a series of cycles, each performed at the interfaces between two successive supply chain stages

Push/Pull View: processes in a supply chain are divided into two categories depending on whether they are executed in response to a customer order (pull) or in anticipation of a customer order (push)

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Cycle View of Supply Chain Processes

Figure 1-3

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The supply chain is a concatenation of cycles with each cycle at the interface of two successive stages in the supply chain. Each cycle involves the customer stage placing an order and receiving it after it has been supplied by the supplier stage.

One difference is in size of order. Second difference is in predictability of orders – orders in the procurement cycle are predictable once manufacturing planning has been done.

This is the predominant view for ERP systems. It is a transaction level view and clearly defines each process and its owner.

Cycle View of Supply Chain Processes

Figure 1-4

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Push/Pull View of Supply Chains

Figure 1-5

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In this view processes are divided based on their timing relative to the timing of a customer order. Define push and pull processes.

They key difference is the uncertainty during the two phases.

Give examples at Amazon and Borders to illustrate the two views

Push/Pull View of Supply Chain Processes

Supply chain processes fall into one of two categories depending on the timing of their execution relative to customer demand

Pull: execution is initiated in response to a customer order (reactive)

Push: execution is initiated in anticipation of customer orders (speculative)

Push/pull boundary separates push processes from pull processes

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Push/Pull View of Supply Chain Processes

Useful in considering strategic decisions relating to supply chain design – more global view of how supply chain processes relate to customer orders

Can combine the push/pull and cycle views

L.L. Bean

Dell

The relative proportion of push and pull processes can have an impact on supply chain performance

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Push/Pull View of – L.L. Bean

Figure 1-6

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Push/Pull View – Dell

Figure 1-7

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Supply Chain Macro Processes

Supply chain processes discussed in the two views can be classified into

Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

Internal Supply Chain Management (ISCM)

Supplier Relationship Management (SRM)

Integration among the above three macro processes is critical for effective and successful supply chain management

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Supply Chain Macro Processes

Figure 1-8

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Examples of Supply Chains

Gateway and Apple

Zara

W.W. Grainger and McMaster-Carr

Toyota

Amazon

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Dell has three production sites worldwide and builds to order. Compaq does both. Consider some decisions involved – where to locate facilities? How to size them? Where is the push/pull boundary? What modes of transport to use? How much inventory to carry? In what form? Where to source from?

Gateway and Apple

Why did Gateway choose not to carry any finished-product inventory at its retail stores? Why did Apple choose to carry inventory at its stores?

Should a firm with an investment in retail stores carry any finished-goods inventory? What are the characteristics of products that are most suitable to be carried in finished-goods inventory? What characterizes products that are best manufactured to order?

How does product variety affect the level of inventory a retail store must carry?

Is a direct selling supply chain without retail stores always less expensive than a supply chain with retail stores?

What factors explain the success of Apple retail and the failure of Gateway country stores?

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Zara

What advantage does Zara gain against the competition by having a very responsive supply chain?

Why has Inditex chosen to have both in-house manufacturing and outsourced manufacturing? Why has Inditex maintained manufacturing capacity in Europe even though manufacturing in Asia is much cheaper?

Why does Zara source products with uncertain demand from local manufacturers and products with predictable demand from Asian manufacturers?

What advantage does Zara gain from replenishing its stores multiple times a week compared to a less frequent schedule? How does the frequency of replenishment affect the design of its distribution system?

Do you think Zara’s responsive replenishment infrastructure is better suited for online sales or retail sales?

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W.W. Grainger and McMaster-Carr

How many DCs should be built and where should they be located?

How should product stocking be managed at the DCs? Should all DCs carry all products?

What products should be carried in inventory and what products should be left with the supplier to be shipped directly in response to a customer order?

What products should W.W. Grainger carry at a store?

How should markets be allocated to DCs in terms of order fulfillment? What should be done if an order cannot be completely filled from a DC? Should there be specified backup locations? How should they be selected?

How should replenishment of inventory be managed at the various stocking locations?

How should Web orders be handled relative to the existing business? Is it better to integrate the Web business with the existing business or to set up separate distribution?

What transportation modes should be used for order fulfillment and stock replenishment?

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Toyota

Where should plants be located, what degree of flexibility should each have, and what capacity should each have?

Should plants be able to produce for all markets?

How should markets be allocated to plants?

What kind of flexibility should be built into the distribution system?

How should this flexible investment be valued?

What actions may be taken during product design to facilitate this flexibility?

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Amazon.com

Why is Amazon building more warehouses as it grows? How many warehouses should it have and where should they be located?

What advantages does selling books via the Internet provide over a traditional bookstore? Are there any disadvantages to selling via the Internet?

Should Amazon stock every product it sells?

What advantage can bricks-and-mortar players derive from setting up an online channel? How should they use the two channels to gain maximum advantage?

What advantages/disadvantages does the online channel enjoy in the sale of shoes (diapers) relative to a retail store?

For what products does the online channel offer the greater advantage relative to retail stores? What characterizes these products?

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Summary of Learning Objectives

Discuss the goal of a supply chain and explain the impact of supply chain decisions on the success of a firm.

Identify the three key supply chain decision phases and explain the significance of each one.

Describe the cycle and push/pull views of a supply chain.

Classify the supply chain macro processes in a firm.

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All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

Printed in the United States of America.

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