Operations Management Productivity Problems Analysis ( Critical Thinking ) Operations Management and Factors Affecting Productivity (100 points)Maduro Cle

Operations Management Productivity Problems Analysis ( Critical Thinking ) Operations Management and Factors Affecting Productivity (100 points)Maduro Cleaning is a small organization that provides cleaning services to both residential and commercial clients. As a small organization, the owner assigns crews of two, three, or four employees to jobs each morning but the owner does not have a good method of determining a reasonable amount of time that each cleaning should take. The owner decided to keep data on job times and crew sizes in the hopes of developing a productivity measure. Address the following requirements:

Calculate which of the crew sizes has the best productivity per worker and explain your method. 
Evaluate your outcome and the possible reasons that would explain those results. 
Project what the productivity might be for a crew size of five and explain your reasoning. 

Crew Size Avg: Productivity per Crew

2: 3765 square meters per day
3: 4915 square meters per day
4: 6309 square meters per day

Directions:

Your assignment is required to be four to five pages in length, which does not include the title page and reference pages, which are never a part of the content minimum requirements.
Support your submission with course material concepts, principles, and theories from the textbook and at least three scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles.
Formatted according to APA 7th edition writing standards.

Review the grading rubric to see how you will be graded for this assignment. 
 
Required: 
Review Chapters 1 & 2 in Operations Management
Review Chapter 1 PowerPoint slides Module 2 Chapter 1 PowerPoint slides – Alternative Formats —Operations Management
Review Chapter 2 PowerPoint slides Module 2 Chapter 2 PowerPoint slides – Alternative Formats —Operations Management
Zhou, K., Bochtis, D., Jensen, A. L., Kateris, D., & Sørensen, C. G. (2020). Introduction of a new index of field operations efficiency. Applied Sciences, 10(1), 329.
Pilo, M. (2019). Dynamics of Agricultural Productivity and Technical Efficiency in Togo: The Role of Technological Change. African Development Review, 31(4), 462–475. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8268.12403
Zondo, R. (2020). The influence of inventory sequencing for the improvement of inventory control: Evidence from a South African automotive assembly organization. Acta Commercii, 20(1). Introduction to Operations Management
Chapter 1
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You should be able to:
LO 1.1 Define the terms operations management and supply chain
LO 1.2 Identify similarities and differences between production and service operations
LO 1.3 Explain the importance of learning about operations management
LO 1.4 Identify the three major functional areas of organizations and explain how they interrelate
LO 1.5 Summarize the two major aspects of process management
LO 1.6 Describe the operations function and the nature of the operations manager’s job
LO 1.7 Explain the key aspects of operations management decision making
LO 1.8 Briefly describe the historical evolution of operations management
LO 1.9 Describe the current issues in business that impact operations management
LO 1.10 Explain the need to manage the supply chain

Chapter 1: Learning Objectives
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Operations Management
What is operations?
The part of a business organization that is responsible for producing goods or services
How can we define operations management?
The management of systems or processes that create goods and/or provide services

LO 1.1
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Goods are physical items that include raw materials, parts, subassemblies, and final products.
Automobile
Computer
Oven
Shampoo
Services are activities that provide some combination of time, location, form or psychological value.
Air travel
Education
Haircut
Legal counsel

Good or Service?
LO 1.1
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Supply Chain
Suppliers’
suppliers
Direct
suppliers
Producer
Distributor
Final
customers

Supply chain – a sequence of activities and organizations involved in producing and delivering a good or service
LO 1.1
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The Transformation Process
Inputs
Land
Labor
Capital
Information
Outputs
Goods
Services
Transformation/
Conversion
Process

Control

Measurement
and Feedback
Measurement
and Feedback
Measurement
and Feedback
Value-Added
Feedback = Measurements taken at various points in the transformation process
Control = The comparison of feedback against previously established standards to determine if corrective action is needed

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LO 1.1

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Automobile Assembly, Steelmaking
Products are typically neither purely service- or purely goods-based.
Goods Services
Home Remodeling, Retail Sales
Computer Repair, Restaurant Meal
Songwriting, Software Development
Surgery, Teaching
Goods-service Continuum
LO 1.2
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Manufacturing vs. Service
Degree of customer contact
Uniformity of input
Labor content of jobs
Uniformity of output
Measurement of productivity
Production and delivery
Quality assurance
Amount of inventory
Evaluation of work
Ability to patent design
LO 1.2
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Every aspect of business affects or is affected by operations
Many service jobs are closely related to operations
Financial services
Marketing services
Accounting services
Information services
Through learning about operations and supply chains you will have a better understanding of:
The world you live in
The global dependencies of companies and nations
Reasons that companies succeed or fail
The importance of working with others
Why Study Operations Management?
LO 1.3
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Operations
Finance
Marketing
Organization

Basic Functions of the Business Organization
LO 1.4
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Function Overlap
Finance & operations
Budgeting
Economic analysis of investment proposals
Provision of funds
Marketing & operations
Demand data
Product and service design
Competitor analysis
Lead time data

LO 1.4
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Operations manager
Supply chain manager
Production analyst
Schedule coordinator
Production manager
Industrial engineer
Purchasing manager
Inventory manager
Quality manager
OM and Supply Chain Career Opportunities
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APICS – The Association for Operations Management
American Society for Quality (ASQ)
Institute for Supply Management (ISM)
Institute for Operations Research and Management Science (INFORMS)
The Production and Operations Management Society (POMS)
The Project Management Institute (PMI)
Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP)
OM-Related Professional Societies
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Process Management
Process – one or more actions that transform inputs into outputs

Three Categories of Business Processes:

Upper-management processes These govern the operation of the entire organization.

Operational processes These are core processes that make up the value stream.

Supporting processes These support the core processes.

LO 1.5
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Supply & Demand

Supply
Demand
>

Supply
Demand
< Supply Demand = Wasteful Costly Opportunity Loss Customer Dissatisfaction Ideal Operations & Supply Chains Sales & Marketing LO 1.5 Copyright ©2018 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 1-‹#› Process Variation Four Sources of Variation: Variety of goods or services being offered The greater the variety of goods and services offered, the greater the variation in production or service requirements. Structural variation in demand These are generally predictable. They are important for capacity planning. Random variation Natural variation that is present in all processes. Generally, it cannot be influenced by managers. Assignable variation Variation that has identifiable sources. This type of variation can be reduced, or eliminated, by analysis and corrective action. Variations can be disruptive to operations and supply chain processes. They may result in additional costs, delays and shortages, poor quality, and inefficient work systems. LO 1.5 Copyright ©2018 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 1-‹#› Scope of Operations Management The operations function includes many interrelated activities such as: Forecasting Capacity planning Facilities and layout Scheduling Managing inventories Assuring quality Motivating employees Deciding where to locate facilities And more . . . The scope of operations management ranges across the organization. LO 1.6 Copyright ©2018 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 1-‹#› Role of the Operations Manager The Operations function consists of all activities directly related to producing goods or providing services. A primary function of the operations manager is to guide the system by decision making. System design decisions System operation decisions LO 1.6 Copyright ©2018 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 1-‹#› System Design Decisions System design Capacity Facility location Facility layout Product and service planning Acquisition and placement of equipment These are typically strategic decisions that usually require long-term commitment of resources determine parameters of system operation LO 1.6 Copyright ©2018 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 1-‹#› System Operation Decisions System operation These are generally tactical and operational decisions Management of personnel Inventory management and control Scheduling Project management Quality assurance Operations managers spend more time on system operation decision than any other decision area They still have a vital stake in system design LO 1.6 Copyright ©2018 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 1-‹#› Most operations decisions involve many alternatives that can have quite different impacts on costs or profits Typical operations decisions include: What: What resources are needed, and in what amounts? When: When will each resource be needed? When should the work be scheduled? When should materials and other supplies be ordered? Where: Where will the work be done? How: How will he product or service be designed? How will the work be done? How will resources be allocated? Who: Who will do the work? OM Decision Making LO 1.7 Copyright ©2018 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 1-‹#› General Approach to Decision Making Modeling is a key tool used by all decision makers Model - an abstraction of reality; a simplification of something. Common features of models: They are simplifications of real-life phenomena They omit unimportant details of the real-life systems they mimic so that attention can be focused on the most important aspects of the real-life system LO 1.7 Copyright ©2018 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 1-‹#› Understanding Models Keys to successfully using a model in decision making What is its purpose? How is it used to generate results? How are the results interpreted and used? What are the model’s assumptions and limitations? LO 1.7 Copyright ©2018 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 1-‹#› Models are generally easier to use and less expensive than dealing with the real system Require users to organize and sometimes quantify information Increase understanding of the problem Enable managers to analyze “What if?” questions Serve as a consistent tool for evaluation and provide a standardized format for analyzing a problem Enable users to bring the power of mathematics to bear on a problem. Benefits of Models LO 1.7 Copyright ©2018 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 1-‹#› Quantitative information may be emphasized at the expense of qualitative information Models may be incorrectly applied and the results misinterpreted This is a real risk with the widespread availability of sophisticated, computerized models are placed in the hands of uninformed users The use of models does not guarantee good decisions Model Limitations LO 1.7 Copyright ©2018 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 1-‹#› A decision-making approach that frequently seeks to obtain a mathematically optimal solution Supported by computer calculations Often work together with qualitative approaches Quantitative Approaches LO 1.7 Copyright ©2018 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 1-‹#› Performance metrics All managers use metrics to manage and control operations Profits Costs Quality Productivity Flexibility Inventories Schedules Forecast accuracy Metrics and Trade-Offs Analysis of trade-offs A trade-off is giving up one thing in return for something else Carrying more inventory (an expense) in order to achieve a greater level of customer service LO 1.7 Copyright ©2018 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 1-‹#› System - a set of interrelated parts that must work together The business organization is a system composed of subsystems Marketing subsystem Operations subsystem Finance subsystem The systems approach Emphasizes interrelationships among subsystems Main theme is that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts The output and objectives of the organization take precedence over those of any one subsystem Systems Approach LO 1.7 Copyright ©2018 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 1-‹#› In nearly all cases, certain issues or items are more important than others Recognizing this allows managers to focus their attention to those efforts that will do the most good Pareto Phenomenon - a few factors account for a high percentage of occurrence of some event(s) The critical few factors should receive the highest priority This is a concept that is appropriately applied to all areas and levels of management Establishing Priorities LO 1.7 Copyright ©2018 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 1-‹#› Historical Evolution of OM Industrial Revolution Scientific management Human relations movement Decision models and management science Influence of Japanese manufacturers LO 1.8 Copyright ©2018 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 1-‹#› Pre-Industrial Revolution Craft production - System in which highly skilled workers use simple, flexible tools to produce small quantities of customized goods Some key elements of the industrial revolution Began in England in the 1770s Division of labor - Adam Smith, 1776 Application of the “rotative” steam engine, 1780s Cotton gin and interchangeable parts - Eli Whitney, 1792 Management theory and practice did not advance appreciably during this period Industrial Revolution LO 1.8 Copyright ©2018 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 1-‹#› . Movement was led by efficiency engineer, Frederick Winslow Taylor Believed in a “science of management” based on observation, measurement, analysis and improvement of work methods, and economic incentives Management is responsible for planning, carefully selecting and training workers, finding the best way to perform each job, achieving cooperation between management and workers, and separating management activities from work activities Emphasis was on maximizing output Scientific Management LO 1.8 Copyright ©2018 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 1-‹#› The human relations movement emphasized the importance of the human element in job design Lillian Gilbreth – applications of psychology Elton Mayo – Hawthorne studies on worker motivation, 1930 Abraham Maslow – motivation theory, 1940s; hierarchy of needs, 1954 Frederick Hertzberg – Two Factor Theory, 1959 Douglas McGregor – Theory X and Theory Y, 1960s William Ouchi – Theory Z, 1981 Human Relations Movement LO 1.8 Copyright ©2018 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 1-‹#› Decision Models & Management Science F.W. Harris – mathematical model for inventory management, 1915 Dodge, Romig, and Shewart – statistical procedures for sampling and quality control, 1930s Tippett – statistical sampling theory, 1935 Operations Research (OR) Groups – OR applications in warfare George Dantzig – linear programming, 1947 LO 1.8 Copyright ©2018 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 1-‹#› Influence of Japanese Manufacturers Refined and developed management practices that increased productivity Credited with fueling the “quality revolution” Just-in-Time production LO 1.8 Copyright ©2018 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 1-‹#› Economic conditions Innovating Quality problems Risk management Competing in a global economy Key Issues for Operations Managers Today LO 1.9 Copyright ©2018 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 1-‹#› Environmental Concerns Sustainability Using resources in ways that do not harm ecological systems that support human existence Sustainability measures often go beyond traditional environmental and economic measures to include measures that incorporate social criteria in decision making All areas of business will be affected Product and service design Consumer education programs Disaster preparation and response Supply chain waste management Outsourcing decisions LO 1.9 Copyright ©2018 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 1-‹#› Ethical Issues in Operations Ethical issues that may arise in many aspects of operations management: Financial statements Worker safety Product safety Quality The environment The community Hiring and firing workers Closing facilities Workers’ rights LO 1.9 Copyright ©2018 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 1-‹#› The Need for Supply Chain Management In the past, organizations did little to manage the supply chain beyond their own operations and immediate suppliers which led to numerous problems: Oscillating inventory levels Inventory stockouts Late deliveries Quality problems LO 1.10 Copyright ©2018 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 1-‹#› Supply Chain Issues The need to improve operations Increasing levels of outsourcing Increasing transportation costs Competitive pressures Increasing globalization Increasing importance of e-business The complexity of supply chains The need to manage inventories LO 1.10 Copyright ©2018 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 1-‹#›

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