NILD or Brain Research

| June 19, 2015

NILD or Brain Research

Paper instructions:
you are required to submit 1–2-page papers reviewing articles related to NILD or Brain ResearchSubmit.  Access the Liberty University Library Research Portal (

username  jfabien3 password : mememon73) to find peer-reviewed journals.  For each paper, choose one article that is scholarly, current (within last five years),

specifically related to learning disabilities, and selected from journals of special education.  Review the Article Review Grading Rubric and Article Review Sample to

improve the quality of your papers.

Apply the following guidelines as you write your reviews:

Open with a strong thesis statement.  [Do not begin “This article is about…”]
Include a summary of the author’s main points in the first paragraph.
Include a reflection on classroom accommodations related to the article.
Use third person perspective consistently throughout.
State your personal reaction to the article in the final paragraph (“This author agrees/disagrees…”).
Use a header and saved file name that includes your name, course #, article #, and topic.
Correctly cite the article at the end of the review.
Format the paper in APA style.

Consider using these special education journals to locate your articles:

American Journal on Mental Retardation
Behavior Disorders
Beyond Behavior

Criterion    Description    Points Earned    Points
Possible    Instructor’s Comments
Article Selection    Article is scholarly, current (last 5 years), specifically related to learning disabilities, selected from journals of special education, and

appropriate for the topic.        4
Thesis    The paper opens with a clear, strong thesis statement.        4
Article Summary    Summary is well organized, well written, and explicitly identifies the audience and the purpose.        8
Reflection    Reflection on classroom accommodations is clear, well written, and appropriate to the topic.        8
Reaction    The final paragraph clearly articulates the author of the paper’s reaction to the article, explaining why he/she agrees or disagrees with the article

with supporting evidence for the expressed opinion.        8
Mechanics and Length    The paper contains no spelling, grammar, or punctuation errors and meets the stated length requirement.        4
Citation    Article citation is formatted in flawless APA style.        4
Total        40

Sample Article Review
African American students are under diagnosed for specific learning disabilities (SLD) when using minimum intelligence quotient (IQ) scores and the simple difference

method.  African Americans typically score lower on IQ tests, approximately one standard deviation lower, which result in exclusion from the SLD diagnosis and over

diagnosis in the mental retardation category.  The authors recommend using a regression-based method for diagnosing SLD.  “This method, which controls for regression

of achievement scores to the mean IQ score, is considered more psychometrically sound”
(Warner, Dede, Garvan and Conway, 2002).  Studies have shown that fewer African Americans met the severe discrepancy criteria for SLD, when using the simple difference

method (a discrepancy formula using discrepancy between IQ score and achievement score) than when using the regression-based method.  However, for European Americans,

there was no significant difference in number of students who met the severe discrepancy criteria using either method.
Methods for determining the “severe discrepancy” criteria between intellectual ability and academic achievement vary from state to state.  As stated in the text in

chapter three, “The Assessment-Teaching Process,” most school districts use a discrepancy formula that calculates the difference between a student’s standard score on

an IQ test and standard score on an achievement test.  Lerner (2006) does discuss problems with the use of IQ – achievement discrepancy formulas and gives alternate

methods used to determine SLD.  The text also discusses the fact that researchers are finding problems with the IQ test.  Does the test truly measure intelligence?  Is

the test accurate for a student who has a disability?  Is it affected by a student’s culture and background experience?
Determining whether or not a student has a disability, and if so, determining the nature of the disability is critical to the education of the student.  This

assessment process should be done in a fair manner and be free of any bias (cultural, gender, or others).  This author feels that if there are questions about the IQ

test, another method that assesses the authentic academic abilities and problems of the child should be used.  This author suggests looking at methods discussed in the

chapter two of the text and recommends looking for discrepancies among academic skills and using more clinical judgments by professionals who work with the student.
Lerner, J.W. (2006) Learning disabilities and related disorders. (10th edition). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Warner, T., Dede, D., Garvan, C., & Conway, T. (2002). One size still does not fit all in
specific learning disability assessment across ethnic groups [Electronic version].
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35(6), 500-508.


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yoga: stress reduction and general well-being

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