NFL Injuries

| November 13, 2015

NFL Injuries
The purpose of the second draft is to build upon the first draft that you have already written and to move your drafting process forward so that you can add a body, conclusion, and abstract to the paper, making it a cohesive and whole academic paper. In this assignment, you will take Draft 1 (review of literature) and write an introduction to your final Research Paper that sets the context for your project, establishes your argument, asserts your thesis, and allows for an easy transition from your review of literature. Your introduction alone should be between 250-350 words. If the introduction alone is less than this word count, it is likely you have not fully developed your introduction, and this lack of development can severely impact your grade for this assignment. Your Draft 2 should include the elements listed below. 1. Cover page and APA formatting:
You should include an APA-style cover page for your Research Paper Draft 2. Your cover page should include the following: the title of your paper, your name, and the name of your university. The running head should include up to 50 characters from the title of the paper, along with a sequential page number in the upper right-hand corner.
2. Introduction:
Draft and revise an introduction between 250-350 words to come before your revised review of literature.
3. Review of literature:
Using the comments that you received on your Draft 1, revise your review of literature, and include it with Draft 2.
4. References:
Include a references list as the last page of the paper. See the example on pages 6, 7, and 21 of The CSU APA Guide (6th edition). All entries are those that have been cited in the text. No others are to be included. No textbooks should be included on the references list.
(See Draft 1 below)
NFL Injuries
Terry Hines
University
NFL Injuries
Concussions are an important problem to National Football League (NFL) Players. The health consequences of concussions are well illustrated by an article by Guskiewicz et’ al (2007). In the article Guskiewicz and colleagues recorded the outcome of a study on the effects of concussions on mental health among professional football players. The study sought to examine the impact of repeated concussions or traumatic brain injury on mental health outcomes especially in the development of depression. Guskiewicz et’ al surveyed 2552 retired professional football players. The study focused on two health outcomes, namely mild cognitive impairment and depression. Results from the study show that all participants recorded or reported cases of clinical depression. However, the number of cases increased with the number of concussions, suggesting that multiple concussions increased the risk of depression and mild cognitive impairment. Players who reported one or more concussion was more likely (1.5 times) to be diagnosed with depression. This particular article emphasizes the need for more research into the impact of concussions as well as the ways of treating them to avoid negative health outcomes in the future.
The negative effects of concussions are further illustrated by an article by Wohowiak (2015). In the article, Wohowiak noted that head injuries and their long-term effects are taking a forefront in sports discussions. According to the article, around 2.5 million hospital visits arise each as a result of either mild or severe traumatic brain trauma – these visits result in hospitalization or deaths. The article further noted that the cost of managing traumatic brain injuries is immense, amounting to over $221 billion according to 2009 estimates. Wohowiak, (2015) further pointed out that traumatic brain injuries may lead to negative health outcomes and conditions, including sadness, irritability and difficulty thinking clearly among others. Long term effects include depression, Alzheimer’s disease and epilepsy. These negative effects have pushed various stakeholders to adopt measures aimed at reducing the prevalence of concussions.
The potential negative impacts of concussions or mild brain injury could be the reason various institutions are devoting their resources to tackle the problem. An article by Rosenberg (2015) provides an overview of the actions taken by the University of California to tackle concussions. According to Rosenberg (2015) around 3.8 million people in the US suffer from concussions each year. While, most people recover from the concussion, those who suffer from it become more vulnerable to another concussion and poorer health outcomes as compared to those who do not. Rosenberg further noted that UC has devoted a lot of resources in the diagnosis and provision of care to those who suffer from concussions. Together with the NCAA and the Department of Defence, UC is conducting a three-year study on concussions so as to understand the effect, as well as, their pathophysiology. The study will also shed light on whether players who suffer from concussions should be allowed to play again in the league. Over the last seven years, UC has invested a lot of resources to study the condition. There are more than 100 investigators from the institution conducting more than 330 studies on concussions or traumatic brain injuries.
Lack of knowledge about concussions, their diagnosis and treatment can also be a contributing factor in the increase in interest among various stakeholders in the NFL. An article published in the Industry News provides an important overview of the scope of funding of research that seeks to improve diagnosis and treatment of mild traumatic brain injury. According to the article, six finalists were awarded a total of $60 million under the Head Health Challenge 1 program. The finalists include the University of Montana, University of California, Brain Scope Company, Banyan Biomarkers and Medical College of Wisconsin. The Head Heath Challenge, a four-year program, seeks to increase knowledge of diagnosis and treatment of head concussions across the globe. The program is sponsored by General Electric, NFL, Conn and Fairfield (CLP, 2015).
The focus of the finalist that include diagnosis and treatment provide a glimpse of the current knowledge on concussions, sentiments that are reflected by the articles by Rosenberg (2015) and Guskiewicz et’ al (2007). The two articles noted that there is no formal way of diagnosis concussions, and the existing ones are out-dated. Banyan Biomarkers and the University of Florida are trying to develop a point of care instruments that can diagnose moderate and mild brain trauma using biomarkers. On the other hand, University of Montana is developing a blood-based biomarkers to speed up the diagnosis of concussions. The studies have the potential to shed new light on concussions and their pathophysiology, as well as, the efficacy of new interventions in the management of concussions (CLP, 2015).
An article Armstrong (2015) further illustrates the problems associated with the diagnosis and management of brain injuries. According to Armstrong (2015), the existing methods of managing brain trauma are mostly invasive and may not be appropriate for patients with mild or minor trauma. The current standard procedures are invasive in nature and involve the insertion of a catheter into the skull of the patient. Due to the negative impact of the procedure including the increased probability of infections, Phillips and Massachusetts Institute of Technology have teamed up to develop a non-invasive method of managing brain injuries. The new method incorporates MIT’s physiological modelling technology and Phillips ultrasound technology. The new technology will allow physicians to estimate trauma and, therefore, enable the doctors to manage the condition. The new modality will allow doctors to manage concussions and other forms of brain trauma without increasing the risk of patients suffering from brain damage that may result from invasive techniques.

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