New York University Systems Engineering Management Paper Read Chapter 1 of the Electronic Test book that is supplied.Write a 5 page Technical understanding

New York University Systems Engineering Management Paper Read Chapter 1 of the Electronic Test book that is supplied.Write a 5 page Technical understanding of CH.1. (including reference list, no abstract needed)This paper should contain all tables, graphs and diagrams required for a detailed understanding of topic.Please make sure you review other documents to validate your ideas. Introduction
Systems Engineering Fundamentals
SYSTEMS
ENGINEERING
FUNDAMENTALS
January 2001
SUPPLEMENTARY TEXT
PREPARED BY THE
DEFENSE ACQUISITION UNIVERSITY PRESS
FORT BELVOIR, VIRGINIA 22060-5565
i
Systems Engineering Fundamentals
Introduction
ii
Introduction
Systems Engineering Fundamentals
TABLE OF
CONTENTS
PREFACE …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iv
PART 1. INTRODUCTION
Chapter 1.
Introduction to Systems Engineering Management ……………………………………… 3
Chapter 2.
Systems Engineering Management in DoD Acquisition ……………………………… 11
PART 2. THE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING PROCESS
Chapter 3.
Systems Engineering Process Overview …………………………………………………… 31
Chapter 4.
Requirements Analysis …………………………………………………………………………… 35
Chapter 5.
Functional Analysis and Allocation ………………………………………………………….. 45
Chapter 6.
Design Synthesis …………………………………………………………………………………… 57
Chapter 7.
Verification …………………………………………………………………………………………… 65
Chapter 8.
Systems Engineering Process Outputs ……………………………………………………… 73
PART 3. SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND CONTROL
Chapter 9.
Work Breakdown Structure …………………………………………………………………….. 85
Chapter 10. Configuration Management …………………………………………………………………….. 91
Chapter 11. Technical Reviews and Audits …………………………………………………………………. 99
Chapter 12. Trade Studies ………………………………………………………………………………………. 111
Chapter 13. Modeling and Simulation ……………………………………………………………………… 117
Chapter 14. Metrics ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 125
Chapter 15. Risk Management ………………………………………………………………………………… 133
PART 4. PLANNING, ORGANIZING, AND MANAGING
Chapter 16. Systems Engineering Planning ………………………………………………………………. 147
Chapter 17. Product Improvement Strategies ……………………………………………………………. 157
Chapter 18. Organizing and Integrating System Development …………………………………….. 171
Chapter 19. Contractual Considerations …………………………………………………………………… 185
Chapter 20. Management Considerations and Summary …………………………………………….. 201
GLOSSARY ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 209
iii
Systems Engineering Fundamentals
Introduction
PREFACE
This book provides a basic, conceptual-level description of engineering management disciplines that
relate to the development and life cycle management of a system. For the non-engineer it provides an
overview of how a system is developed. For the engineer and project manager it provides a basic framework
for planning and assessing system development.
Information in the book is from various sources, but a good portion is taken from lecture material developed for the two Systems Planning, Research, Development, and Engineering courses offered by the
Defense Acquisition University.
The book is divided into four parts: Introduction; Systems Engineering Process; Systems Analysis and
Control; and Planning, Organizing, and Managing. The first part introduces the basic concepts that
govern the systems engineering process and how those concepts fit the Department of Defense acquisition
process. Chapter 1 establishes the basic concept and introduces terms that will be used throughout the
book. The second chapter goes through a typical acquisition life cycle showing how systems engineering
supports acquisition decision making.
The second part introduces the systems engineering problem-solving process, and discusses in basic
terms some traditional techniques used in the process. An overview is given, and then the process of
requirements analysis, functional analysis and allocation, design synthesis, and verification is explained
in some detail. This part ends with a discussion of the documentation developed as the finished output of
the systems engineering process.
Part three discusses analysis and control tools that provide balance to the process. Key activities (such as
risk management, configuration management, and trade studies) that support and run parallel to the
system engineering process are identified and explained.
Part four discusses issues integral to the conduct of a systems engineering effort, from planning to
consideration of broader management issues.
In some chapters supplementary sections provide related material that shows common techniques or
policy-driven processes. These expand the basic conceptual discussion, but give the student a clearer
picture of what systems engineering means in a real acquisition environment.
iv
Chapter 1
Introduction to Systems Engineering
PART 1
INTRODUCTION
1
Systems Engineering Fundamentals
Chapter 1
2
Chapter 1
Introduction to Systems Engineering
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION TO
SYSTEMS ENGINEERING
MANAGEMENT
1.1 PURPOSE
499A, Engineering Management, 1 May 1974.
Now cancelled.)
The overall organization of this text is described
in the Preface. This chapter establishes some of
the basic premises that are expanded throughout
the book. Basic terms explained in this chapter are
the foundation for following definitions. Key systems engineering ideas and viewpoints are presented, starting with a definition of a system.
• An interdisciplinary approach that encompasses
the entire technical effort, and evolves into and
verifies an integrated and life cycle balanced
set of system people, products, and process solutions that satisfy customer needs. (EIA Standard
IS-632, Systems Engineering, December 1994.)
• An interdisciplinary, collaborative approach that
derives, evolves, and verifies a life-cycle balanced system solution which satisfies customer
expectations and meets public acceptability.
(IEEE P1220, Standard for Application and
Management of the Systems Engineering
Process, [Final Draft], 26 September 1994.)
1.2 DEFINITIONS
A System Is …
Simply stated, a system is an integrated composite
of people, products, and processes that provide a
capability to satisfy a stated need or objective.
In summary, systems engineering is an interdisciplinary engineering management process that
evolves and verifies an integrated, life-cycle balanced set of system solutions that satisfy customer
needs.
Systems Engineering Is…
Systems engineering consists of two significant
disciplines: the technical knowledge domain in
which the systems engineer operates, and systems
engineering management. This book focuses on
the process of systems engineering management.
Systems Engineering Management Is…
As illustrated by Figure 1-1, systems engineering
management is accomplished by integrating three
major activities:
Three commonly used definitions of systems
engineering are provided by the best known technical standards that apply to this subject. They all
have a common theme:
• Development phasing that controls the design
process and provides baselines that coordinate
design efforts,
• A logical sequence of activities and decisions
that transforms an operational need into a description of system performance parameters and
a preferred system configuration. (MIL-STD-
• A systems engineering process that provides
a structure for solving design problems and
3
Systems Engineering Fundamentals
Chapter 1
Development
Phasing
Baselines
Systems
Engineering
Management
Systems
Engineering
Process
Integrated
Teaming
Life Cycle
Planning
Life Cycle
Integration
Figure 1-1. Three Activities of Systems Engineering Management
The systems engineering process is the heart of
systems engineering management. Its purpose is
to provide a structured but flexible process that
transforms requirements into specifications, architectures, and configuration baselines. The discipline of this process provides the control and traceability to develop solutions that meet customer
needs. The systems engineering process may be
repeated one or more times during any phase of
the development process.
tracking requirements flow through the design
effort, and
• Life cycle integration that involves customers
in the design process and ensures that the system
developed is viable throughout its life.
Each one of these activities is necessary to achieve
proper management of a development effort. Phasing has two major purposes: it controls the design
effort and is the major connection between the technical management effort and the overall acquisition effort. It controls the design effort by developing design baselines that govern each level of
development. It interfaces with acquisition management by providing key events in the development process, where design viability can be assessed. The viability of the baselines developed is
a major input for acquisition management Milestone (MS) decisions. As a result, the timing and
coordination between technical development
phasing and the acquisition schedule is critical to
maintain a healthy acquisition program.
Life cycle integration is necessary to ensure that
the design solution is viable throughout the life of
the system. It includes the planning associated with
product and process development, as well as the
integration of multiple functional concerns into the
design and engineering process. In this manner,
product cycle-times can be reduced, and the need
for redesign and rework substantially reduced.
1.3 DEVELOPMENT PHASING
Development usually progresses through distinct
levels or stages:
4
Chapter 1
Introduction to Systems Engineering
descriptions, and the product baseline for the subsystem/component detail descriptions. Figure 1-2
shows the basic relationships between the baselines.
The triangles represent baseline control decision
points, and are usually referred to as technical reviews or audits.
• Concept level, which produces a system concept
description (usually described in a concept
study);
• System level, which produces a system description in performance requirement terms; and
Levels of Development Considerations
• Subsystem/Component level, which produces
first a set of subsystem and component product
performance descriptions, then a set of
corresponding detailed descriptions of the
products’ characteristics, essential for their
production.
Significant development at any given level in the
system hierarchy should not occur until the configuration baselines at the higher levels are considered complete, stable, and controlled. Reviews
and audits are used to ensure that the baselines are
ready for the next level of development. As will be
shown in the next chapter, this review and audit
process also provides the necessary assessment of
system maturity, which supports the DoD
Milestone decision process.
The systems engineering process is applied to each
level of system development, one level at a time,
to produce these descriptions commonly called
configuration baselines. This results in a series of
configuration baselines, one at each development
level. These baselines become more detailed with
each level.
1.4 THE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING
PROCESS
In the Department of Defense (DoD) the configuration baselines are called the functional baseline
for the system-level description, the allocated
baseline for the subsystem/ component performance
The systems engineering process is a top-down
comprehensive, iterative and recursive problem
Concept Studies
DESIGN DEFINITION
System Definiiton
(Functional Baseline)
DESIGN DEFINITION
DESIGN DEFINITION
Figure 1-2. Development Phasing
5
Preliminary Design
(Allocated Baseline)
Detail Design
(Product Baseline)
Systems Engineering Fundamentals
Chapter 1
solving process, applied sequentially through all
stages of development, that is used to:
During the systems engineering process architectures are generated to better describe and understand the system. The word “architecture” is used
in various contexts in the general field of engineering. It is used as a general description of how
the subsystems join together to form the system. It
can also be a detailed description of an aspect of a
system: for example, the Operational, System, and
Technical Architectures used in Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence,
Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR), and
software intensive developments. However, Systems Engineering Management as developed in
DoD recognizes three universally usable architectures that describe important aspects of the system:
functional, physical, and system architectures. This
book will focus on these architectures as necessary components of the systems engineering
process.
• Transform needs and requirements into a set of
system product and process descriptions (adding value and more detail with each level of
development),
• Generate information for decision makers, and
• Provide input for the next level of development.
As illustrated by Figure 1-3, the fundamental systems engineering activities are Requirements
Analysis, Functional Analysis and Allocation, and
Design Synthesis—all balanced by techniques and
tools collectively called System Analysis and Control. Systems engineering controls are used to track
decisions and requirements, maintain technical
baselines, manage interfaces, manage risks, track
cost and schedule, track technical performance,
verify requirements are met, and review/audit the
progress.
P
R
O
C
E
S
S
I
N
P
U
T
The Functional Architecture identifies and structures the allocated functional and performance
requirements. The Physical Architecture depicts the
System Analysis
and Control
(Balance)
Requirements
Analysis
Requirements
Loop
Functional Analysis
and Allocation
Design
Loop
Verification
Design Synthesis
PROCESS OUTPUT
Figure 1-3. The Systems Engineering Process
6
Chapter 1
Introduction to Systems Engineering
system product by showing how it is broken down
into subsystems and components. The System
Architecture identifies all the products (including
enabling products) that are necessary to support
the system and, by implication, the processes
necessary for development, production/construction, deployment, operations, support, disposal,
training, and verification.
• Technical specialty areas, such as safety, risk
management, quality, etc., or
• When appropriate, business areas such as
finance, cost/budget analysis, and contracting.
Life Cycle Functions
Life cycle functions are the characteristic actions
associated with the system life cycle. As illustrated
by Figure 1-4, they are development, production
and construction, deployment (fielding), operation, support, disposal, training, and verification.
These activities cover the “cradle to grave” life
cycle process and are associated with major functional groups that provide essential support to the
life cycle process. These key life cycle functions
are commonly referred to as the eight primary
functions of systems engineering.
Life Cycle Integration
Life cycle integration is achieved through integrated development—that is, concurrent consideration of all life cycle needs during the development process. DoD policy requires integrated
development, called Integrated Product and Product Development (IPPD) in DoD, to be practiced
at all levels in the acquisition chain of command
as will be explained in the chapter on IPPD. Concurrent consideration of all life cycle needs can be
greatly enhanced through the use of interdisciplinary teams. These teams are often referred to as
Integrated Product Teams (IPTs).
The customers of the systems engineer perform
the life-cycle functions. The system user’s needs
are emphasized because their needs generate the
requirement for the system, but it must be remembered that all of the life-cycle functional areas
generate requirements for the systems engineering process once the user has established the basic
need. Those that perform the primary functions
also provide life-cycle representation in designlevel integrated teams.
The objective of an Integrated Product Team is to:
• Produce a design solution that satisfies initially
defined requirements, and
• Communicate that design solution clearly,
effectively, and in a timely manner.
Primary Function Definitions
Multi-functional, integrated teams:
Development includes the activities required to
evolve the system from customer needs to product
or process solutions.
• Place balanced emphasis on product and process
development, and
• Require early involvement of all disciplines
appropriate to the team task.
Manufacturing/Production/Construction includes the fabrication of engineering test models
and “brass boards,” low rate initial production,
full-rate production of systems and end items, or
the construction of large or unique systems or subsystems.
Design-level IPT members are chosen to meet the
team objectives and generally have distinctive competence in:
• Technical management (systems engineering),
Deployment (Fielding) includes the activities necessary to initially deliver, transport, receive, process, assemble, install, checkout, train, operate,
house, store, or field the system to achieve full
operational capability.
• Life cycle functional areas (eight primary
functions),
7
Systems Engineering Fundamentals
Disposal
Chapter 1
Training
Verification
Operation
Support
8 Primary
Life Cycle
Functions
Development
Deployment
Manufacturing/Production/
Construction
Figure 1-4. Primary Life Cycle Functions
Systems Engineering Considerations
Operation is the user function and includes
activities necessary to satisfy defined operational
objectives and tasks in peacetime and wartime
environments.
Systems engineering is a standardized, disciplined
management process for development of system
solutions that provides a constant approach to
system development in an environment of change
and uncertainty. It also provides for simultaneous
product and process development, as well as a
common basis for communication.
Support includes the activities necessary to provide operations support, maintenance, logistics,
and material management.
Disposal includes the activities necessary to ensure
that the disposal of decommissioned, destroyed,
or irreparable system components meets all
applicable regulations and directives.
Systems engineering ensures that the correct
technical tasks get done during development
through planning, tracking, and coordinating.
Responsibilities of systems engineers include:
Training includes the activities necessary to
achieve and maintain the knowledge and skill levels
necessary to efficiently and effectively perform
operations and support functions.
• Development of a total system design solution
that balances cost, schedule, performance, and
risk,
• Development and tracking of technical
information needed for decision making,
Verification includes the activities necessary to
evaluate progress and effectiveness of evolving
system products and processes, and to measure
specification compliance.
• Verification that technical solutions satisfy
customer requirements,
8
Chapter 1
Introduction to Systems Engineering
• Development of a system th…
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