Louis Sullivan Chicago architect; contributed to development of skyscrapers; “form follows function”; helped make sky scrapers popular Walking Cities cities in which more people walked since in this era, there were other forms of transit (ex. Electric trolleys) that would allow mass transportation; leg-power was limited and transits gave more freedom to do more Departments Stores attracted urban middle class-shoppers and provided working-class jobs (many for women); consumerism and showed class division; examples are Macy’s and Marshall Field’s Tenements slums; an area in which many people lived together in small quarters Birds of Passage those who worked in America for a number of years and after earning a decent amount of money, they would travel back to their home country Padrone labor boss; met immigrants and secured jobs wherever there was a demand for industrial labor; could speak both Italian and English; often gave homes to newcomers Political Bosses gave assistance to immigrants by trading jobs and services for votes; provided jobs on city’s payroll, found housing for new arrivals, gave needy gifts of foods and clothing, etc. Social Gospel where the church take on social issues; science of society and that socialism would be the logical outcome of Christianity Jane Addams had a college education; used her talents to teach and do volunteer work, Hull house (American settlement home); condemned war and poverty; won Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 Hull House run by Jane Addams; American settlement home; located in a poor area but gave help to the poor in English; child-care, adjustment to big-city life, cultural activities Settlement houses helped immigrants get accustomed to life in a new place; center of women’s activism and social reform (ex. lobbied for antisweat shop law) Lillian Wald Henry Street Settlement in New York; founded a settlement house after following Addams’s example Florence Kelly fought for welfare of women, children, blacks and consumers; moved to Henry Street Settlement ; served 30 years as a general secretary of the National Consumer League Nativist people who were against foreigners Anglo-Saxon white people; more northern Europeans American Protective Association antiforeign organization; urged voting against Roman Catholic candidates for office and sponsored publication of lustful fantasies about runaway nuns Statue of Liberty built in 1886; located in New York harbor as a gift from France Dwight Lyman Moody urban revivalist; once a shoe salesman; spoke to audiences about forgiveness Cardinal Gibbons urban Catholic leader; devoted to American unity; popular with Roman Catholics and Protestants; used his liberal sympathy to help the American labor movement Salvation Army a new denomination of religion that came from England; gave out free soup Mary Baker Eddy founded the Church of Christ; wrote a book called Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures YMCA: Young Men’s and Women’s Christian Associations; established before Civil war and combined physical and other kinds of education with religious teachings. Charles Darwin English naturalists who wrote Origin of Species; thought higher forms of life evolved from lower forms through mutation and adaptation; came up with the theory of natural selection Origin of Species book written by Charles Darwin that talked about natural selection and explained his theories Fundamentalists those who rejected Darwin’s beliefs Modernists those who accepted Darwin’s beliefs as well as Christianity Colonel Robert G. Ingersoll skeptical about religion; an orator (And his name isn’t mentioned…) Normal Schools teacher-training schools Kindergarten a concept that came from Germany; younger children went to schools earlier in life Chautauqua made education available to adults Booker T. Washington ex-slave; worked hard to go to school; became the head of a normal and industrial school at Tuskegee, Alabama in a really crappy shack; taught useful trades (in order to gain self-respect and economic security); believed that one should make themselves useful in order to go against white supremacy Tuskegee Institute run by Booker T. Washington; taught blacks useful trades Accommodationists belief that one should make themselves equally useful in order to combat racism; did not directly challenge white supremacy; believed that blacks should remain in black communities and become economically independent from whites in order to achieve political stature and civil rights George Washington Carver taught at Tuskegee Institute; discovered hundreds of uses for the peanut and other agricultural items that helped the southern economy W.E.B. Du Bois disagreed with Booker T. Washinton; earned a Ph. D. at Harvard (the first blackish person to do so); demanded complete equality for blacks, both socially and economically; helped found the NAACP; demanded that the talented tenth of the black community be given full as well as immediate access to the mainstream of American life; died as a self-exile in Africa NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Color people; founded by W.E.B. Du Bois in order to achieve complete equality for blacks Vassar college for women Howard black institute in Washington D.C. Morrill Act passed in 1862; gave a generous grant of public land to states for education Land Grant Colleges most of the land given from the Morrill Act became these types of schools; usually state universities Hatch Act expanded on the Morrill Act; provided federal funds for the establishment of agricultural experiment stations with the land-grant colleges Williams James worked for 35 years on the Harvard faculty; used writings to influence many people; wrote Principles of Psychology — helped establish the modern discipline of behavioral psychology; The Will to Believe & Varieties of Religious Experience – explored philosophy and psychology of religion; Pragmatism (Most famous work) – described America’s greatest contribution to the history of philosophy [pragmatism: the thought that the truth of an idea should be tested by practical consequence] Joseph Pulitzer born in Hungary and nearly blind; leader in sensationalism; Colored comic supplements featured the “Yellow Kid” (became yellow journalism) William Randolph Hearst expelled from Harvard for a crude prank; had father’s California mine millions and began a power chain of newspaper (San Francisco Examiner); close competitor of Pulitzer; Yellow Journalism Journalism that exploits, distorts or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers Edwin L. Godkin launched the Nation, a liberal and intellectual journal; Irish born; critic; crusaded for civil-service reform; honest government and moderate tariff; believed that if he could reach the right amount of small people ideas could reach to many more people Henry George journalist-author; didn’t have much formal school but had much idealism and human kindness; wrote Progress and Poverty; said that the pressure of growing population on a fixed suplly of land pushed up property values and gave unearned profits on owners of land; a one time, 100 % tax on those profits would get rid of unfair inequalities and stimulate economic growth Edward Bellamy from Massachusetts; journalist-reformer; published socialistic novel: Looking Backward in which the main character ‘looks back’ and sees that the government has become ideal in the year 2000 and big business became nationalized to serve public interest; clubs formed under his name and heavily influenced American reform movement at the end of the century Dime novels short paperback novels about the West Horatio Alger “Holy Horatio”; born a Puritan and interested in New York newsboys; formula: virtue, honesty, and industry are rewarded by success, wealth and honor (survival of the purest – nonsmokers, nondrinkers, nonswearers, and nonliars) Walt Whitman poet; wrote Leaves of Grass; inspired by Lincoln’s death to write “O Captain! My Captain!” and “When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom’d.” Emily Dickinson poet; poetry wasn’t published when she was alive (only two were and those were without her consent); wrote over a thousand short lyrics on scarps of paper Kate Chopin feminist author; wrote The Awakening (about adultery, suicide, and women’s ambitions); ignored in her day but rediscovered by later readers Mark Twain wrote The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County, The Innocents Abroad, and The Gilded Age; hardly had any formal schooling in Missouri; real name Samuel Langhorne Clemens; also wrote The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn; captured frontier realism and humor with American dialect Bret Harte author from the west; wrote gold-rush stories like “The Luck of Roaring Camp” and “The Outcasts of Poker Flat”; never matched up to his pervious fame William Dean Howells the son of a printer from Ohio; had little school; became editor in chief of the Atlantic Monthly; presented honorary degrees from six universities (including Oxford!); wrote about ordinary people and contemporary/controversial social themes (ex. A Modern Instance – about divorce; The Rise of Silas Lapham – trials of a paint manufacturer in caste system of Brahmin Boston; A Hazard of New Fortunes – reformers, strikers, and socialists in the Gilded Age New York Stephen Crane 14th son of a Methodist minister; wrote about underside of urban, industrial life America (Maggie: A Girl of the Streets – story of a poor prostitute who ended up committing suicide [Didn’t find a publisher for this story and was published privately]; The Red Badge of Courage – Civil War Recruit under fire); died of tuberculosis Henry James grandson of John Quincy Adams and great grandson of John Adams; wrote History of the United States During the Administrations of Jefferson and Madison; defended his heritage; also wrote Monti-Stain-Michel and Chartres and a autobiography of his education and the account of his failures; for his novels, he made women his central characters; called a master of “psychological” ;The Bostonians was the first book about the rising feminist movement Jack London famous for nature writing; wrote Call of the Wild and The Iron Heel Frank Norris wrote The Octopus – saga of the stranglehold of the railroad and corrupt politician on California wheat rancher; its sequel, The Pit, dealt with the making and breaking of speculators on the Chicago wheat exchange Paul Laurence Dunbar black writer; poet; wrote Lyrics of Lowly Life; brought a new kind of realism Charles W. Chestnut black writer; fiction writer; wrote short stories in Atlantic Monthly and The Conjure Women; used black dialect and folklore to capture richness of southern black culture Theodore Dreiser “social novelist”; from Indiana; wrote Sister Carrie (poor working girl in Chicago and New York, becomes mistress, elopes with someone else, makes an acting career) Victoria Woodhull believed in free love; divorcee, occasional stockbroker, feminist propagandist; with her sister she published Woodhull and Claflin’s Weekly; journal charged that Henry Ward Beecher (famous preacher of the time) that he was having an adulterous affair Anthony Cornstock crusader against immoral; defender of sexual purity; drove 15 people to suicide Carrie Chapman Catt pragmatic and businesslike reformer for women’s rights; women didn’t not emphasized as much that they deserved the vote as a right since there were equals of men; stressed that women should be allowed to vote because they were responsible for health of the family and education of the kids National Women Suffrage Association fought for white woman’s right to vote; excluded black women since it would be pushing their luck and gave limited membership to whites Ida B. Wells journalist and teacher; inspired black women to start a nationwide antilynching crusade; helped launch black women’s club movement – National Association of Colored Women Women’s Christian Temperance Union group of women that fought for temperance Carrie Nation “Kansas Cyclone”; 1st husband died of alchoholism and so she took a hatchet and single-handedly destroyed saloons Anti-Saloon League a group that wanted prohibition 18th Amendment passed in 1919; prohibition amendment Clara Barton launched the Red Cross James Whistler artist from Massachusetts who did much of his work in England; known for a portrait of his mother; dropped out of West Point after failing chemistry John Singer Sargent American painter in England; drew flattering but superficial likeness to British nobility that made him “highly prized” Mary Cassatt American painter in Paris; painted sensitive portrayals of women and children – earned a place among French impressionist painters George Inness self taught; became America’s leading landscapist Thomas Eakins got a high degree of realism in his paintings (meaning portrait sitters got their flaws in pictures) Winslow Horner painter who was resistant against foreign influences and brought rugged realism and boldness of conception; known for paintings of the sea Augustus Saint-Gaudens born to an Irish mother and French father; adopted American; most gifted American sculptor one of his most moving works is the Robert Gould Shaw memorial Metropolitan Opera House 1883; brought European music to elite American audiences; “Diamond Horseshoe” Henry H. Richardson born in Louisiana and educated at Harvard and Paris; architect, distinctive, ornamental style; style called Richardsonian; high vaulted arches; Marshall Fields in Chicago Colombian Exposition held in 1893 in Chicago; honored 400th anniversary of Columbus’s first voyage; revival of classical architecture in order to celebrate Vaudeville jokes and acrobats; shows for entertainments P.T. Barnum master showman who jointed with Bailey to have the “Greatest Show on Earth” – a circus Buffalo Bill Cody most popular of the Wild-West shows; the troupe included Indians, live buffalo, and marksmen Annie Oakley part of the Buffalo Bill Cody show; an extremely good shooter James Naismith invented basketball in 1888.