(Please answer every quetsion in a paragraph (ex. 1a in aparagraph, 1b in a paragraph…) and give detailed explanation)
(Use study guide instruction to help answer)
1) explain the following concepts in Kantianism
A) The notion of duty, and how it contrasts with inclination
B) The categorical imperative, and how it contrasts with the hypothetical imperative
C) The notion of objective ends and subjective ends
D) The notion of autonomy, and how it contrasts with heteronomy
E) The Formula of the End in Itself, what Timmons also calls the ‘Humanity as an End in Itself’
F) The notion of morality as the realm of freedom
Study guides: Timmons, pp. 151-171; Onora O’Neill, ‘Kantian Approaches to Some Famine Problems’; first class review power point presentation; class notes (attached); Kant’s Groundwork, chapters 1 and 2.
2) explain the following concepts in Utilitarianism
A) The notion of a value-based theory
B) Why utilitarianism is a value-based theory
C) How utilitarianism as a value-based theory contrasts with value perfectionism and moral perfectionism
D) How utilitarianism is a consequentialist, welfarist, universalist and impartialist moral theory
E) Be able to give at least three criticisms of utilitarianism.
Study guides: Timmons, pp. 103-111 and pp. 131-136 ESPECIALLY. You would also benefit from studying pp. 111-117, pp. 121-129. First part of the second class review power point presentation.
3)For the Contemporary Moral Theory section, you should be able to explain the following:
A) Kantian notions of duties of justice and duties of charity.
B) The deontological concepts of duties of non-maleficence and beneficence
C) The Acts and Omissions Doctrine (define)
D) The utilitarian rejection of the deontological distinction between duties of justice and duties of charity. This includes being able to explain why Peter Singer rejects the distinction between duties of justice and duties of charity, as he argues in his ‘Famine, Affluence and Morality’ article.
Study guides: The second half of the second class review power point presentation has the definitions that you need here. We discussed duties of justice and duties of charity extensively in class, so you should have those in your notes. Look at Kant if you can’t remember. O’Neill’s article is helpful here, as she explains the difference between duties of justice and duties of charity (what she calls beneficence) on p. 540. Also Glover, Jonathan, ‘Not Striving to Keep Alive’ (class handout) talks about the acts and omissions doctrine and the utilitarian rejection of it. And of course here is where you need to study Singer’s ‘Famine, Affluence and Morality’ article.
4) do the following.
A) If you want to do voluntary euthanasia: be able to explain utilitarian reasons for and against euthanasia. Study guide: Peter Singer’s Practical Ethics, chapters 6 and 7.