Ethics In Human Service Workshop Presentation 2
CONFIDENTIALITY AND PRIVACY IN HEALTHCARE: ETHICS FOR A BETTER CARE
The core discussion of this workshop is privacy and confidentiality of patient data in healthcare.
The primary target audience includes patients, who share their private information to healthcare institutions.
Healthcare workers, including nurses, medical practitioners, physicians, social workers among others.
Healthcare Providers: All providers who electronically transmit healthcare information.
Healthcare clearing houses.
Health plans entails all the institutions that provide for or pay the cost of medical care. Healthcare clearing houses are entities that process nonstandard health information and convert it into standard information. Healthcare clearing houses can receive individually identifiable information to process it for a health plan or healthcare provider.
GOALS OF THE WORKSHOP
The workshop seeks to:
Make participants appreciate the need of ethics in healthcare, with a focus on privacy and confidentiality of private patient information.
Create awareness of HIPAA
Understand and instill ethical decision making skills and ethical quandaries’ problem solving skills.
For this workshop, it is vital for its participants to appreciate the role of ethics in the healthcare sector, with respect to confidentiality of patients’ private information.
CONTENT AND ACTIVITIES FOR THE WORKSHOP
The need of protecting private health information.
HIPAA and its role in privacy and confidentiality of patient private information.
Ethical decision making.
Introduction to the workshop-30 minutes.
Tea break-30 minutes
Practical ethical decision making discussions based on case studies-1 hour.
Lunch break-1 hour.
AN EXAMINATION OF HOW THE PRESENTED INFORMATION SHALL MEET THE WORKSHOP’S GOALS
The information to be presented in this workshop has been carefully selected to be in alignment with the overall workshop objectives.
The presentation of the importance of upholding privacy and confidentiality in healthcare contexts seeks to realize the workshops first objective; making participants to appreciate the need of ethics in healthcare, while focusing on privacy and confidentiality.
Hence, this information shall enable the workshop participants to gain insights into the benefits of ethics to patients, healthcare personnel and healthcare institutions.
A deliberate effort has been made to ensure that workshop presentation realizes the workshop core goals. Hence, the information presented in this workshop shall be related to a certain workshop goal, to ensure a productive workshop.
AN EXAMINATION OF HOW THE PRESENTED INFORMATION SHALL MEET THE WORKSHOP’S GOALS
The second goals of the workshop entails creating awareness on HIPAA
In this case, the presenter shall present information on HIPAA core objective, its Privacy Rule, HIPAA Security rule and the two rules importance in maintaining ethics of handling confidential patient data.
Therefore, the participants shall gain awareness into the existence of HIPAA and its implications in healthcare ethics.
The last goal of the workshop is to instill ethical decision making skills and healthcare dilemma problem solving skills.
These skills shall be learned through the group discussion case studies that shall be provided in the presentation.
INTRODUCTION: HEALTHCARE ETHICS
Social workers and other health professionals often face high stake ethical quandaries in their practice (Reamer, 2018).
Healthcare dilemmas require informed decision making to balance personal interests and the interest of the patient.
Social workers employ healthcare ethical principles to guide their decision-making process.
Healthcare ethics enable social workers to keep their moral obligations, while respecting the rule of law.
Such healthcare issues involve privacy and confidentiality aspects in medical care.
Quandaries are prevalent occurrences in healthcare contexts. These dilemmas present challenges to healthcare professionals as they have to balance between their personal values, and their moral and legal obligations.
PRIVACY AND CONFIDENTIALITY
The protection of confidential and private patient information is one of the most critical ethical and legal concerns in healthcare.
Conversations between patients and healthcare personnel are strictly confidential.
The same applies to information about an individuals medical condition.
Hence, healthcare personnel including social workers have the moral and legal obligations to maintain privacy and confidentiality of private patient information (Ceylan & Çetinkaya, 2020).
Healthcare professionals have the mandate to ensure that confidential patient information is safeguarded from unauthorized access. They should not share this information to third parties without the patient’s consent.
IMPORTANCE OF UPHOHOLDING PRIVACY AND CONFIDENTIALITY
In pursuit of effective care , patients disclose private and confidential information to healthcare personnel.
If doctors, nurses, social workers and other healthcare personnel breach the confidentiality, patients lose their trust.
Consequently, patients become reluctant to share critical information, adversely impacting quality of medical care.
Additionally, privacy breaches have legal implications and hence healthcare personnel and providers have a legal obligation to maintain it.
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) mandates healthcare organizations to protect patient’s private information (Agris & Spandorfer, 2016).
A breach of information confidentiality destroys trust between the patient and the healthcare service provider. Trust is key in obtaining sensitive information that aids in delivering effective diagnosis and treatment.
This is a federal law that was enacted with the core objective of creating national standards in protecting patients’ sensitive health information without their consent.
The US Department of Health and Human Services implemented the HIPAA Privacy Rule to implement HIPAA provisions.
Additionally, the HIPAA Security guards a subset of private information covered in the HIPAA Privacy Rule.
The Privacy Rule stipulates the standards to be applied in use of protected health information.
The rule requires healthcare institutions to train its employees on policies and procedures of protecting PHI (Agris & Spandorfer, 2016).
The Privacy rule applies to covered entities which include healthcare providers, health plans, business associates and healthcare clearinghouses.
Unlike the HIPAA Privacy rule that protects PHI, the HIPAA Security Rule safeguards individually identifiable data held by the covered entities.
Healthcare personnel refer to the HIPAA to make informed ethical decisions.
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act was enacted on August 21, 1996. In keeping patient data secure, the HIPAA requires covered entities to address administrative, physical, and technical security.
ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING GROUP DISCUSSIONS
In this workshop, participants shall be expected to have facilitated group discussions in which they will use ethical decision-making frameworks to solve ethical dilemmas.
Members are required to have a logical healthcare rationale for their decisions.
Case Study 1
George, a New York resident, was hit by a bus and suffered brain damage 3 months ago. This injury resulted in George being fed using a feeding tube for a long time without any consciousness. Those situations force the doctor to request a do not resuscitate order for George parents started to consult the doctor about removing the feeding tube and letting George die signed by the parents. Although letting him die would not improve his quality of life.
What is the correct ethical decision and what are its implications?
Apply ethical obligations and decision making in resolving this ethical quandary.
Ethical decision-making frameworks (The Consequentialist Framework; The Duty Framework; and the Virtue Framework) shall be vital in the decision-making process
ETHICAL DECISION MAKING GROUP DISCUSSIONS
Case Study 2
Matt James has been admitted in Princeton hospital with a cardiac arrest. His family and friends are surrounding him, hoping that he gets the quality care he deserves to survive the myocardial infarction. Doctors rush him to the operating theatre. The doctors inform his family members that a one-hour operation shall save James’s life and he will be able to live a normal life after the surgery. However, James shocks everyone when he says that he should not be treated, and he accepts that it’s his time to die. He quotes the right to refuse treatment and declines any attempts from his family members to convince him to accept treatment.
Use the above case study to evaluate the difference between the personal perspective and the ethical obligations of the medial doctors.
The major cause of ethical quandaries are competing interests arising from personal values and beliefs, against the need of upholding ethical obligations.
Healthcare professionals often face complex decisions that require informed ethical thinking, emphasizing on the need of ethics in healthcare.
If not properly managed, these healthcare dilemmas can adversely impact the quality of care advanced to the patients.
Such as case is privacy and confidentiality of patient information.
Healthcare professionals have the mandate to protect patient’s private medical information.
However, other aspects such as the need to avoid harming the patient of harm to other people.
In this case, healthcare professionals use ethical decision making frameworks to guide their decision making process.
Additionally, healthcare professionals can use the HIPAA to guide their decision making.
The HIPAA offers national standards used to ensure protection of private medical information in the U.S.
Due to the importance of healthcare ethics, all healthcare professionals should strive to uphold their ethical and legal obligations, towards achieving patient-centered care.
Agris, J. L., & Spandorfer, J. M. (2016). HIPAA Compliance and Training: A Perfect Storm for Professionalism Education?. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 44(4), 652-656.
Ceylan, S. S., & Çetinkaya, B. (2020). Attitudes towards gossip and patient privacy among paediatric nurses. Nursing ethics, 27(1), 289-300.
Reamer, F. G. (2018). Ethical issues in integrated health care: Implications for social workers. Health & social work, 43(2), 118-124.