Effectiveness of the United Nations in Maintaining World Peace

| January 4, 2016

Unit IV Research Paper Draft 1
In this assignment, you will build upon the summaries that you did for the Annotated Bibliography for Unit III. Unlike the Annotated Bibliography, however, the Draft 1 of your Research Paper is more than just a summary of sources. Instead, it is a conversation between sources wherein the student author places his or her sources into a conversation about topics surrounding the issue. You will need to review at least five academic sources for this assignment. You are not restricted to the sources used in the Annotated Bibliography, but that would be a good place to start. The length of the draft should be between 3-5 pages, not including the cover page or references page. Your Draft 1 grade is largely based on your inclusion of several elements and the overall quality of your writing. Your Draft 1 must contain the following elements.

1. Cover page and APA formatting: You will include an APA-style cover page for your Research Proposal. Your cover page should include the following: the title of your future Research Paper (this may be changed as your project develops), your name, and the name of your university (Columbia Southern University). The cover page must also include a running head which should include up to 50 characters from the title of the paper, along with a sequential page number in the upper right-hand corner.
• The entries should be ordered in alphabetical order according to the first substantive word in the reference list citation.
• The entire Annotated Bibliography should be double-spaced, with no additional spaces between entries.
• No reference list should be included with the Annotated Bibliography, as the entries themselves will contain the reference list citation information.
• The first line of each reference list citation should be flush left with the left-hand margin (no indentation), and the second and proceeding lines should be indented ½” from the left-hand margin (hanging indent of one-half inch).
• The summary paragraph begins on the line following the end of the reference. It lines up with the indented portion of the reference, with the exception that the first line is indented an additional one-half inch. (Look at the example to see how this formats.)

2. Review of literature

3. References

Project Proposal: Effectiveness of the United Nations in Maintaining World Peace
Garrick Williams
Columbia Southern University

Project Proposal: Effectiveness of the United Nations in Maintaining World Peace
The United Nations (UN) was formed in 1945 soon after the Second World War with an aim to maintain world peace. However, several wars have been fought under its governance. Such situation requires a serious discussion in this regard questioning whether the UN is effective in maintaining world peace, or is it just another organization whose worth is nothing but its name? The rationale of this research paper is based on the questionable effectiveness of the UN as the world’s chief peacekeeping entity. The results of this enquiry and the recommendations made thereafter will, hopefully, reveal the UN reasoning by which it is guided and possible changes that can be made towards the policy of this organ in order for it to become more efficient in its missions. This research project is meant primarily for diplomats, international relations experts and leaders of the various nations that make up the UN. The researcher of this paper intends to play both an investigative and advocative roles. For this, a meta-analysis of the outcomes of several UN peacekeeping missions will be conducted and evaluation will be made. Based on the findings, recommendations will be made as to how future peacekeeping should be conducted by the UN.
Statement of Qualification
Since its inception, the UN has been invaluable in fostering international cooperation among nations, brokering peace between feuding nations, fostering economic development in developing countries, and providing humanitarian assistance in the face of disaster. Additionally, the UN has been indispensable in upholding human rights.
The Israel-Iraq war and the Gulf wars are just two examples of a myriad of wars fought under the UN’s watch. Since the UN is funded by its constituent nations, they should therefore be interested to know whether the UN is effective in undertaking its core role of maintaining world peace.
This paper seeks to answer this question by investigating the role of the UN in some of the wars between nations since its inception. The paper will also investigate the role that the UN played in the termination of potentially explosive conflicts such as the Cuban Missile Crisis. In a series of literature reviews and the deep research, the paper will examine how the UN conducted itself in the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Gulf War, and the ongoing conflict between Israel and Iraq. The paper will also delve into the operations of the UN peacekeeping force and seek out its strengths and weaknesses.
Tentative Argument
While the UN has orchestrated some highly successful peacekeeping missions, there is no doubt that it has displayed some disturbing handicap in curbing violence in other areas. There have been claims that some of the veto powers of the UN are to blame for its apparent handicap in maintaining world peace. Wasi (2005) argues that the absence of sovereign equality is one of the greatest weaknesses of the UN. This paper will reconnoiter the role and conduct of the veto powers of the UN, especially with reference to the above mentioned conflicts.
This investigative paper hopes to emerge with a sound conclusion as to whether or not the UN has put in the effort necessary to curb violence and war. Moreover, the paper will highlight some of the strong and weak points of the UN, with the aim of alerting the public on which areas need improvement. Finally, based on the findings of the article, recommendations will be rolled out with the aim of providing suggestions on areas of improvement.

Wasi, N. (2005). Pakistan and the United Nations. Pakistan Horizon, 89-100.
Effectiveness of the United Nations in Maintaining World Peace

Effectiveness of the United Nations in Maintaining World Peace
Doyle, M. W., & Sambanis, N. (2006). Making war and building peace: United Nations peace operations. Princeton University Press.
The authors of this book are an international relations scholar (Doyle) and a political science professor (Sambanis). Their book scrutinizes the effectiveness of UN peace-keeping missions especially with regard to civil wars. In the book, Doyle and Sambanis refer to most of the civil wars that occurred after the Second World War and make a statistical analysis of the issue. The authors also make recommendations concerning the preventive measures for civil war. Their book is instrumental in this topic as the scholars investigate how well the UN has been able to perform its peace-keeping role and point out areas where the UN could manage the situation better.
Graham, K., & Felício, T. (2006). Regional security and global governance: A study of interaction between regional agencies and the UN security council with a proposal for a regional-global security mechanism. Brussels: VB Brussels University Press.
Graham is a New Zealand politician and member of Parliament while Felício is an author working with the United Nations University. Their book explores the mechanisms through which regional agencies have worked with the United Nations peacekeeping forces to foster peace in war-torn regions. The book also examines how regional peace is related to governance on a global scale. This work is particularly germane as it provides recommendations for the smoothening of UN peace-keeping missions. The authors not only examine how the UN will work with regional bodies but also offer proposals on how the UN can enhance its own peace-keeping operations. J
Lipson, M. (2007). Peacekeeping: organized hypocrisy? European Journal of International Relations, 13(1), 5-34.
The author of the article is a political scientist working at Concordia University and is a prolific contributor to the European Journal of International Relations working on a wide variety of subjects. This particular paper theorizes that the peacekeeping is nothing more than organized hypocrisy, tailored more to meet legitimacy standards than to build peace. With a fine toothcomb, Lipson analyzes the criteria that the UN peacekeeping is required to meet. The author’s work is relevant to this article as it analyzes the peacekeeping missions of the UN in a critical way, and this is necessary when picking out the faults of the UN in certain failed peacekeeping missions.
Voeten, E. (2005). The political origins of the UN Security Council’s ability to legitimize the use of force. International Organization, 59(03), 527-557.
The author of the article is a professor of geopolitics, who is also a prolific contributor to the topic of war and the role of the UN in this regard. In this paper, the author argues that the use of force by the Security Council of the UN is legitimized by the forecasted political consequences such an action would engender. Voeten’s work is particularly relevant to this article since it gives an insight into the operations of the UN peacekeeping forces and provides the proper reasoning behind such operations. Importantly, the article reveals the interests of the UN Security Council in any war, which can be significant in finding out whether the UN is capable of upholding world peace in the long run.
Wasi, N. (2005). Pakistan and the United Nations. Pakistan Horizon, 89-100.
Nausheen Wasi, the author of this article, was a lecturer in International Relations at the University of Karachi at the time the article was written. The paper explores the principles, objectives, and reasons on which Pakistan grounds its relationship with the UN. It also explores the stance of Pakistan on different issues affecting the UN, the country’s major achievements at the UN, and the benefits that membership at the UN has conferred upon the country. It is relevant that in the paper the author enlists some of the challenges that such countries as Pakistan face in their relation with the UN. Greatest among them, Wasi enlightens the reader, is the absence of sovereign equality.

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