Discussion post replies Instructions: The response is a substantive interaction that builds on the ideas of others, delving deeper into the discussion que

Discussion post replies Instructions: The response is a substantive interaction that builds on the ideas of others, delving deeper into the discussion question and course content in response to a colleague. The response includes one reference from a professional peer-reviewed scholarly journal.

Topic being discussed: Social determinants affect access to health care, foster or interfere with the ability to practice health behaviors, affect physiology through influences on stress hormones, and result in ecological/epidemiological changes that can affect multiple generations. Culture and lifespan have a profound effect on designing a health promotion program.
· Discuss how health disparities can be reduced through the application health promotion research in a specific culture or population aggregate (such as an Ethnic Group, low socioeconomic community, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Questioning or any population that has health disparities).
· What are the advantages of using logic models when planning and evaluating health promotion programs?

Reply to Consuelo

Reducing Health Disparities

The main aim of public health is to reduce health disparity. We can define health disparities as differences in health outcomes and their causes among groups of individuals. There are various interventions or strategies to reduce health disparities by ethnicity group, disability, geographical location, socioeconomic status, and sexual orientation across a wide range of conditions. In order to reduce health disparity in the low socioeconomic community, it is essential to address the social determinants of health within the community.
The first social determinant of health is education. Enhancing access to high-quality education improves health. Early childhood education and prenatal programs help reduce health disparity, since they help address socioeconomic disadvantage in the community (Catalyst, 2017).  Another way to reduce health disparity in low socioeconomic communities is through urban planning and community development. Changes in physical activity, nutrition, and safety within the low socioeconomic community can be attained through urban planning and community development, as well as improving health behaviors. Another way is to ensure quality and safe housing. Additionally, Improving air quality reduces childhood poisoning and asthma morbidity among the low socioeconomic community. Lastly, another approach to reducing health disparity is through employment. Employment for the low-socioeconomic community, especially women, helps reduce health disparity. Employment improves the quality of life, social support, and finances. Moreover, through employment, people with low socioeconomic status can access healthy foods.
The advantage of using logic models when planning and evaluating health promotion programs is that it helps healthcare providers gain more knowledge on how programs work out and understand healthcare providers’ responsibility towards the desired goal (Rohwer et al., 2017). Furthermore, the model attributes the output of health programs by partially revealing the program’s activities and outcomes.


NEJM Catalyst. (2017). Social determinants of health (SDOH), 3(6). https:// doi.org/10.1056/CAT.17.0312
Rohwer, A., Pfadenhauer, L., Burns, J., Brereton, L., Gerhardus, A., Booth, A., … & Rehfuess, E. (2017). Logic models help make sense of complexity in systematic reviews and health technology assessments. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 83(37-47). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2016.06.012

Reply to Sheika
African American are often faced with health disparities because of lack access to quality healthcare, nutritious foods, and physical inactivity (Pullins et al., 2018). African Americans are usually part of a spiritual congregation, and they trust their leaders; therefore, a faith-based health conference would be a great way to enhance health literacy. According to Pullins et al. (2018), Pew Forum US Religious Landscape Survey found that 87% of African Americans was part of a religious group. Because the black church has been the social and spiritual pillars for many people of colors, the Balm in Gilead, Incorporated (Inc) joined forces with several African American faith-based organizations to foster health and wellness through culturally relevant program (Pullins et al., 2018). For instance, this nonprofit organization raised community awareness about HIV through HIV prevention and screening. In 2014, they extended their effort to the establishment of Healthy Churches 2020 National Conferences (Pullins et al., 2018). “This conference serves as a national platform for health ministries to learn and share best practices in healthy lifestyle promotion within the African American faith community” (Pullins et al., 2018, p.2159). This conference creates a medical and social melting pot environment where clergy, health ministry leaders, public health experts combine, exchange, and share knowledge with its attending audience. It was found that people who attended the health focused conference demonstrated a greater degree of optimal health behaviors than the communities they served (Pullins et al., 2018).
     It is fundamental to use logic model when planning and evaluating theory because it created a roadmap of focus which guide intervention. Raigruber, (2017) wrote about the importance of possessing a theorical understanding of the reason behind people behavior for a nurse to proper intervene. Theories help rationalize why interventions are necessary, how to intervene an evaluate its success. For example, how will it benefit an education session about living an active lifestyle for children when the closest park to the community is not safe? The nurse in question will have to take everything into account, and using a theorical framework will produce reliable outcome.


Pullins, C. T., Penheiter, S., Buras, M. R., Brewer, L. C., Seele, P. C., White, R. O., Willis, F. B., Poole, K., Albertie, M. L., Chamie, C., Allen, A. M., & Kelly, M.
     (2018). Health behaviors and preventive healthcare utilization among African American attendees at a faith-based public health conference: healthy
     churches 2020. Journal of Religion & Health, 57(6), 2538–2551. 
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-018-0667-2 (Links to an external site.)

Raingruber, B. (2017). Contemporary health promotion: In nursing practice (2nd ed.).
     Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Reply to Jenny
Cardiovascular disease affects 47.3% of African American women, they have the highest rates of hypertension, stroke, heart failure, and coronary artery disease observed among women in the United States. Health disparities exist across a wide range of sociodemographic positions in African American women. Cardiovascular disease rates are related to systemic disadvantages from discrimination, exclusion from health trials, inequities in access to health care resources, and social determinants of health (Ebong & Breathett, 2020). Interventions aimed at promoting cardiovascular health in African American women must collectively address the social and environmental challenges that face this population. To successfully combat the cardiovascular disease epidemic in African American women, health promotion programs must simultaneously address multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors that are frequently coexisting in this population. Health care providers must be educated on how to adapt their practices to accommodate vulnerable populations (Ebong & Breathett, 2020).
Logic models have been widely used in the context of health as an action-oriented tool for program planning, implementation, performance management, quality improvement, and evaluation. Logic models provide systematic structure and necessary direction in how communities can start to address their identified health needs ( Becker, 2017).
Ebong, I., & Breathett, K. (2020). The cardiovascular disease epidemic in African American Women: Recognizing and tackling a persistent problem. Journal of Women’s Health (15409996), 29(7), 891–893. 
https://doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2019.8125 (Links to an external site.)

Becker, K. L. (2017). Dance your heart out: A community’s approach to addressing cardiovascular health by using a logic model. Family & Community Health, 40(3), 212–220. 

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