DEPARTMENT OF MEDIA & COMMUNICATION

| June 19, 2015

DEPARTMENT OF MEDIA & COMMUNICATION

Introduction
This module explores the connections between globalization, development and communications and their impact on social change. It aims to introduce students to key theories and encourage them to use this theoretical knowledge to explore the roles of different actors in development, their use of communications and technologies, and the impact of changes in these areas on the communities of developing nations. The module begins with a focus on core theories of development communications, before moving to a case-study approach in which students will be introduced to a range of topics led by active members of the Department’s research staff and will be encouraged to utilise their theoretical knowledge in examining these cases. The module covers a number of areas of development communication, including the roles of international organisations and NGOs, the place of gender and feminist theory within development, how to conceptualise technology in development, and how the media itself functions as an actor in a development context. The case studies covered incorporate both ‘top-down’ and ‘bottom-up’ perspectives on development communication.

Intended Learning Outcomes
At the end of this module students should have an awareness of the relationship between communication and development both in national and global contexts and be able to discuss critically several differing theoretical conceptualisations of this relationship and the theoretical and methodological approaches that have been adopted to studying it.

Teaching and Learning on the Module
There will be one lecture session each week for 10 weeks (Wednesdays 10am-12pm Bankfield House Lecture Theatre) which will consist of a more formal lecture. Additionally, each week, student groups will be asked to undertake e-discussions relating to an assignment they have been given which they will then post on a discussion board on Blackboard. Your lecturers will respond to your posted discussion by providing feedback and asking further questions. During these activities (both in class and outside of class time), you will be encouraged to participate actively in discussion. These discussions aim to help you develop your communications skills and should be based on a combination of reading theoretical material and digging out examples that you will use in your discussions. This is a formative exercise designed to give you constructive feedback on your critical thinking and writing skills and will be an important part of your preparation for assessed essays. In addition to the discussion activities, there is one piece of formally assessed work for this module, in the form of an essay. Questions for the essay are listed below.

PDP
The University has introduced a policy of maintenance of personal development plans (PDPs) for students at all levels. PDPs are personal development portfolios maintained by students themselves that reflect upon competencies and skills they have acquired during their studies. The idea is to establish reflective practice among students and their tutors to identify the range of generic knowledge, skills and abilities that have been acquired beyond the direct learning of the programmes of study students attend, that may be relevant to their future career development and prospects. Further information about PDP can be found in your Postgraduate Handbook.

Modes of Assessment (PDP A, B, C, D, E)
You are required to produce ONE piece of coursework for this module. The course work must be typed or word-processed. Essay titles are provided below. They must be between 3000 to 4000 words in length. Please refer to your Postgraduate Handbook for deadline dates for submission of your essays. Any questions or issues concerning the module should be addressed to your course tutors (see below for contact details). Please ensure that you speak to the relevant lecturer for each topic – the essay topics reflect the lecture schedule.

Submission of Assessed Essays
You must submit your assignment electronically to TurnitinUK via Blackboard under their relevant module on Blackboard eg MS7022 assignments should be submitted under the MS7022 module. You must complete an essay submission form to confirm that the work you have handed in is your own work and that you have acknowledged all your sources (Please read carefully the section below on ‘Referencing and Academic Honesty’). The submission forms for your assignments can be obtained from Blackboard under Media and Communication Postgraduates/Assignments. Please ensure that you include the submission form as the first page of your assignment when submitting your assignment to Blackboard. Additional information about the submission of assessed course work can be found in the Postgraduate Handbook.

Submission deadlines
Please refer to your Postgraduate Handbook and/or Blackboard for deadline dates for submission of your essays.

Essay Questions (please choose one)
1. What is development communication? Why is there still such widespread global inequality despite over six decades of research, foreign policy and development communication initiatives in the developing world? Discuss with reference to appropriate theories. 2. Critically consider the claim that the UN and some major NGOs promote Western capitalism and foreign values through their development communication programmes. 3. Critically consider the claim that the use of ICTs in development strengthens and further widens the divide between developed and developing countries. Do you agree or disagree, and why? 4. Why is a gendered perspective an important consideration in development communication theory and practice? 5. Why is it important to focus on global sexual politics? What do these debates contribute to contemporary perspectives on globalization?

6. Discuss the politics and economics of media technology in post-Soviet region. What are the similarities/differences of this case as compared to a more developed country (such as the UK)? 7. Why does online activism rarely transpire into offline actions? Please discuss using the case of your own country/or other relevant case study. 8. How does community radio provide a platform for representing diversity? Identify at least two recognised characteristics of community radio practice and/or content in your answer. 9. “Television news reports about distant suffering further marginalize and dehumanize non-Western victims”. Critically discuss. 10. What are the general practices of post-humanitarian advertising? Why are they so controversial?

Module Topic Information
Week Week 1 (Wed 9 October) Week 2 (Wed 16 October) Week 3 (Wed 23 October) Week 4 (Wed 30 October) Week 5 (Wed 6 November) Week 6 (Wed 13 November) Week 7 (Wed 20 November) Week 8 (Wed 27 November) Week 9 (Wed 4 December) Week 10 (Wed 11 December) Topic Lecturer Theories of Development Dr Jessica Bain Communication NGOs and IOs Dr Jessica Bain Conceptualising Technology Dr Jessica Bain in Development Gender and Development Dr Jessica Bain Communication Sexuality and Globalization Dr Tracy Simmons Technology in development: the case of post-Soviet media Technology and nongovernmental activism in Russia Representing diversity on community radio Distant Suffering in the News Humanitarian Advertising Dr Galina Miazhevich Dr Galina Miazhevich Dr Katie Moylan Dr Jonathan Ong Dr Jonathan Ong

Weekly Discussion Activities
Each week, student will be divided into groups and will be asked to undertake discussions relating to an assignment they have been given which they will then post on a discussion board on Blackboard. Your lecturers will respond to your posted discussion by providing feedback and asking further questions. You must post your final ‘report’ to Blackboard by no later than 5pm on the Monday following each lecture. During these activities (both in class and outside of class time), you will be encouraged to participate actively in discussion. These discussions aim to help you develop your communications skills and should be based on a combination of reading theoretical material and digging out examples that you will use in your discussions.

This is a formative exercise designed to give you constructive feedback on your critical thinking and writing skills and will be an important part of your preparation for assessed essays. Week 1: Critical Reading Exercise. Read both excerpts (hand-outs in class) and as a team, write a short summary (no more than 600 words) which answers the following questions: • Summarise the 3-5 main points of both authors • What evidence do they provide for their arguments? Is it convincing? Why/why not? • What – if any – weaknesses do you think the readings have? • What are the main differences between the two arguments? • Do you have any questions/uncertainties about the authors’ arguments which you don’t think are fully addressed? What are these? Week 2: NGO Communication Strategy Your team are members of an international NGO operating in a developing country who are working in the area of rural development. Describe how you might employ the media and information technologies in a campaign to aid rural development in your country; and the challenges you are likely to face. You can focus on specific areas i.e. agriculture, health, education etc. Your team should write a brief outline (around 500 words) describing the campaign plan, how it will aid rural development, what evidence you have that it will be successful, what challenges you might face, and how you hope to overcome these. Be creative, and remember to keep in mind the theoretical arguments we have discussed in class! Week 3: Debate Exercise Read both articles (to be distributed in class) and then create an argument for or against the claim that the internet is essential to development and poverty eradication. Your team should write a brief (no more than 600 words) outline of your argument, detailing what your position is, why, and what evidence you have in support of your position. If possible, consider the alternative argument and how you would critically reject it. Week 4: NGO Campaign Strategy: The ‘Girl Effect’ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1e8xgF0JtVg Watch the ‘Girl Effect’ video (link above). The solution seems simple. But, how do you take the idea of protecting the health and education of girls and breaking the cycle of poverty, and turn it into a reality? Your team is an NGO working in India. How can you use media and communication tools to help create the ‘Girl Effect’ and prevent child-brides and the cycle of poverty the video outlines?

Your team should write a brief outline (around 500 words) describing the campaign plan, how it will aid female empowerment, what evidence you have that it will be successful, what challenges you might face, and how you hope to overcome these. Be creative, and remember to keep in mind the theoretical arguments we have discussed in class! Week 5: Globalization and Sexuality Critical Reading Exercise All members of your group should read the following article (including the comments underneath). In your groups, discuss these questions and post your answers to them on Blackboard: ? What reasons (in the article but also reflected in the comments underneath) are given for some of the countries referred to for the anti-gay legislation? ? What evidence (measurements) in the article itself are given to determine whether a country has negative or positive gay rights? ? Should international organisations, human rights organisations, NGOs intervene and challenge countries that discriminate against non-heterosexual people? ? Should individual countries be able to determine their own ‘standards’ or legal frameworks regarding non-heterosexual people? Week 6: Women and Technology in Development Exercise As a member of a team sent by United Nations to a developing country (you can refer to any developing country with the context of which you are familiar) you are asked to write a report about how media technologies figure in practices of everyday life of women. Your task is to analyze how access of women to new media in developing countries affects their live (in/formal work, reproduction, liberation, etc.). Your team should write a brief report (around 600-700 words) describing what new technologies are available, affordable, etc. Please focus on what evidence you have that it enables women to be more successful, what challenges they face, and how you think the issues, which you have uncovered, might be resolved in future (i.e. recommendations). Week 7: Online Activism Research Exercise Read the material for the lecture and also conduct some research online in order to explain why there was no ‘Arab spring’ in the former Soviet Union countries. Please consider the national, cultural, political, economic and other factors when writing up your line of argumentation. You should refer to academic literature and mass media coverage of Arab spring and other relevant information to explain your position (no more than 750 words). Week 8: Community Radio Exercise In groups, decide upon a stand-alone radio programme topic which would reflect elements of diverse community experiences and stories. Your group should post a short summary (no more than 600 words) outlining firstly your proposed programme topic, and then an explanation of how it meets the brief.

Week 9: Crisis News Analysis Exercise Watch a sample of news reports of: 1) Hurricane Katrina, 2) 2004 Southeast Asian Tsunami, and 3) Sichuan Earthquake. Compare and contrast these reports in terms of: ? emotionality ? liveness ? agency of sufferers ? Western vs non-Western voices Your group should post the results of your comparison/discussion on Blackboard. Week 10: Humanitarian Communication Exercise Watch a sample of post-humanitarian communication such as: 1) No Food Diet, 2) Bullet, 3) Be Humankind, and 4) Angelina Jolie’s United Nations press conferences. Discuss their general features such as: ? Use of irony ? Erasing and silencing of sufferer ? Absence of discussion of moral cause ? Corporate strategies of branding ? Incorporation of confessional culture ? Ethics of utilitarianism ? Solutionism Your group should post the results of your comparison/discussion on Blackboard.

Reading
You are expected to read widely for this course, and should prepare for each class by reading at least 1-2 of the readings on each week’s list. Reading lists are divided into ‘core’ readings and ‘recommended’ readings, but you can choose to read anything o n the list as preparation. Some chapters have been digitised and are available via the Blackboard page for this module, others are electronic books available via the university library, and others are journal articles which are also available electronically through the university library’s databases.

Lecture 1: Theories of Development Communication
Core Readings: McPhail, T. (2009) Development Communication: Reframing the Role of the Media, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. “Chapters 1 and 2” Shah, H. (2011), The Production of Modernization : Daniel Lerner, mass media, and the passing of traditional society, Philadelphia : Temple University Press. E Book. “Chapter 1: Introduction – The Rise of Modernization Theory” Servaes, J. (ed). (2008), Communication for Development and Social Change, Sage: New Delhi. E Book. “Introduction” Recommended Readings: Colle, R. (2008), “Threads of Development Communication”, in J. Servaes (ed), Communication for Development and Social Change, pp. 96-157. Fair, J. E. & H. Shah (1997) “Continuities and discontinuities in communication and development research since 1958”, Journal of International Communication, 4:2, 3-23. Fraser, C. and S. Restrepo-Estrada (1998) Communicating for Development: human change for survival, London : I.B. Tauris. “Chapters 1 and 2”. Available online if you use Google. Gumucio-Dagron, A. (2008) “Vertical Minds versus Horizontal Cultures: An Overview of Participatory Process and Experiences”, in J. Servaes (ed), Communication for Development and Social Change, pp. 68-81. Mody, B. (1997) “Communication and development: beyond panaceas”, Journal of International Communication, 4:2, 1-2. Morris, N. (2005) “The Diffusion and Participatory Models. A Comparative Analysis” in O. Hermer & T. Tufte (eds), Glocal Change: Rethinking Communication for Development, Buenos Aires: CLASCO. Available at: glocal.pdf Schramm, W. (1979), Mass media and national development, 1979, Paris : UNESCO.

Lecture 2: NGOs and IOs
Core Readings: McPhail, T (2009), “Chapter 4: The Roles of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)” in McPhail, T. “Development Communication”.

McPhail,T (2009), “Chapter 3: United Nations and Specialised Agencies”, in McPhail, T. “Development Communication”. Servaes, J. (2008), “Chapter 9: Approaches of Some Governmental and NonGovernmental Agencies”. In Servaes, J (ed). Communication for Development and Social Change. Recommended Readings: Held, D. et al. (eds) (1999) Global Transformations. Cambridge: Polity. Part 3. Krishan Kumar (2007) “Global Civil Society” European Journal of Sociology, 48, pp 413 434. Orgad, S. (2013) “Visualizers of solidarity: Organizational politics in humanitarian and international development NGOs”, Visual Communication, 12:3, pp. 295 – 314. Scholte, J. A. (2005) Globalization: A Critical Introduction. London: Macmillan. Chapter 6. Slater, D (2008), “Rethinking the Geopolitics of the Global: the case of North South Relations”, in Kofman, E. and Youngs, G. (eds) Globalization: Theory and Pract ice. New York: Continuum. Chapter 4. Townsend, J. G & A.R. Townsend (2004) “Accountability, motivation and practice: NGOs North and South”, Social & Cultural Geography, 5:2, 271-284. Warkentin, C. (2001) Reshaping world politics : NGOs, the Internet, and global civil society Lanham, MD/Plymouth : Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Weiss, T. (2009) What‘s Wrong with the United Nations and How to Fix it. Cambridge: Polity Press. Williams, M (2008) “Social Movements and Global Politics” in Kofman, E. and You ngs, G. (eds) Globalization: Theory and Practice. New York: Continuum. Chapter 6. World Development: Volume 15, Supplement 1, Pages 1-261 (Autumn 1987). Whole Issue

Lecture 3. Conceptualising Technology in Development
Core Reading: Houston, R. and M. Jackson (2009) “Chapter 6: A Framework for Conceptualising Technology in Development”, in McPhail, T. (ed). Development Communication. Recommended Reading:

Arunachalam, S., (2002), “Reaching the unreached: How can we use information and communication technologies to empower the rural poor in the developing world through enhanced access to relevant information?” Journal of information science, 28: 6, pp. 513-522. Chambers, R. (1983), Rural development : putting the last first, London: Longman. Granqvist, M. (2005), “Assessing ICT in Development: a Critical Perspective” in O. Hermer & T. Tufte (eds), Glocal Change: Rethinking Communication for Development, Buenos Aires: CLASCO. Available at: glocal.pdf Madanmohan, R. (2005), “The Information Society: Visions and Realities in Developing Countries” in O. Hermer & T. Tufte (eds), Glocal Change: Rethinking Communication for Development, Buenos Aires: CLASCO. Available at: glocal.pdf Mikkelsen, B. (2005 – 2nd Ed), Methods for development work and research : a new guide for practitioners, London : SAGE. Rice, M. (2009) “Chapter 7: The Global Digital Divide”, in McPhail, T. (ed). Devel opment Communication. Smith, M. and Yanacopulos, H. (2004), “The public faces of development: an introduction” Journal of International Development, 16: 657–664. Zelenika, I. (2013), “The Internet and other ICTs as tools and catalysts for sustainable development: Innovation for 21st century”, Information Development, 29:3, pp. 217232.

Lecture 4: Gender and Development Communication
Core Readings: Steans, J. “Gender Inequalities and feminist politics in a global perspective”, in Kofman, E. and Youngs, G. (eds) Globalization: Theory and Practice. New York: Continuum. Chapter 9. Wilkins, K. (2005), “Out of Focus: Gender Visibilities in Development”, in O. Hermer & T. Tufte (eds), Glocal Change: Rethinking Communication for Development, Buenos Aires: CLASCO. Available at: glocal.pdf Recommended Readings:

Cardinal, L., Costigan, A., and Heffernan, T. (1994) “Working towards a feminist vision of development”. In H. Dagenais and D. Piché (eds). (1994), Women, feminism, and development, Published for the Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women by McGill-Queen’s University Press, pp. 409-428. Chua, P., Bhavnani, K. and Foran, J. (2000) “Women, culture, development: A new paradigm for development studies?” Ethnic and Racial Studies, 23(5), pp. 820 -841. Dagenais, H. and D. Piché (eds). (1994), Women, feminism, and development, Published for the Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women by McGill-Queen’s University Press Ethnic and Racial Studies, 2000, Volume 23, Issue 5, Whole Issue Mohanty, C. T., Russo, A., and Torres, L. (eds.) (1991) Third world women and the politics of feminism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press Porras, L.E and H.L. Steeves (2009), “Feminism in a Post-Development Age”, in McPhail, Chapter 8. Scholte, “Chapter 10: Globalization and Inequality”. Wilkins, K. G. (1997) “Gender, Power and Development”, The Journal of International Communication 4(2), pp 102-120. Wilkins, K. G. (1999) “Development Discourse on Gender and Communication in Strategies for Social Change”, Journal of Communication 49(1), pp. 44- 64.

Lecture 5: Sexuality and Globalization
Core Readings: Altman, D. (2001) Global Sex, (University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London). (See especially chapters 6 and 8). Binnie, J. (2004) The Globalization of Sexuality, (Sage, London). (See especially chapters 1and 3) Binnie, J. and Simmons, T. (2008) The Global Politics of Sexual Dissidence, Migration and Diaspora in Kofman, E and Youngs, G (eds) Globalization: Theory and Practice. 3rd ed. London: Continuum. Recommended Readings: Aggleton, P. (eds) (2012) Understanding global sexualities : new frontiers Routledge, Abingdon & New York. Altman, D. (1996) ‘Rupture or continuity: the internationalization of gay identities’, Social Text 14: 77-94.

Altman, D. (1997) ‘Global gaze/global gays’, GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 3: 417-436. Beger, N. (2004) Tensions in the Struggle for Sexual Minority Rights in Europe: Que(e)rying Political Practices, (Manchester University Press, Manchester). Bell, D. (1994) ‘In bed with the state: political geography and sexual politics’, Geoforum 25 : 445-52 . Bell, D. and Binnie, J. (2000) The Sexual Citizen, Queer Politics and Beyond, (Cambridge, Polity). Bell, M. (2002) Anti-Discrimination Law and the European Union, (Oxford, Oxford University Press). Berry, C., Martin, F. and Yue, A. (eds.) Mobile Cultures: New Media in Queer Asia, (Duke University Press, Durham, NC. and London). Chauncey, G. (1994) Gay New York (Basic Books, New York). Cooper, D. (2001) ‘Like Counting Stars?, Re-Structuring Equality and the Socio-Legal Space of Same-Sex Marriage’, in R. Wintemute and M. Andanaes (eds) Legal recognition of same-sex partnerships, a study of national European and international law, pp. 75-96 Oxford, Hart.. Eng, D. (1997) ‘Out Here and Over There: Queerness and Diaspora in Asian American Studies’, Social Text, 15, 3-4:31-52. Fortier, A.M. (2002) ‘Queer diaspora’, in D. Richardson and S. Siedman (eds) The Handbook of Lesbian and Gay Studies, pp.183-97. London, Sage. Gopinath, G. (1996) ‘Funny Boys and Girls: Notes on a Queer South Asian Planet’, Asian American Sexualities. Dimensions of the Gay and Lesbian Experience, pp.119-27. London and New York: Routledge. Hayes, J. (2000) Queer Nations: Marginal Sexualities in the Maghreb, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Kulpa, R (2011) De-centring western sexualities : Central and Eastern European perspectives Farnham: Ashgate. Manalansan IV, M.F. (2000) ‘Diasporic deviants/divas: how Filipino gay transmigrants “play with the world”, in C.Patton and B. Sanchez-Eppler (eds) Queer Disaporas, pp.183203.Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Markwell, K. (2002) ‘Mardi Gras tourism and the construction of Sydney as an international gay and lesbian city’, GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, 8(1 -2): 81-99.

Oswin, N. (2006) ‘Decentering queer globalization; diffusion and the ‘global gay’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 24: 777-790. Patton, C and Sanchez-Eppler, B. (eds) (2000) Queer diasporas, Durham, NC,Duke University Press. Petzen, J. (2004) ‘Home or Homelike’, Space and Culture, 7(1):20-32. Phelan, S. (2001) Sexual Strangers, Gays, Lesbians and Dilemmas of Citizenship, Philadelphia, Temple University Press. Puar, J. (1998) ‘Transnational Sexualities: South Asian (Trans)nation(alism)s and Queer Diasporas’, in D. Eng and A. Hom (eds) Q and A: Queer in Asian America, pp.405-22. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. Puar, J. (2006) ‘Mapping US homonormativities’, Gender, Place and Culture 13: 67 -88. Rofel, L. (1999) ‘Qualities of desire: imagining gay identities in China’, GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 5: 451-74. Stychin, C. (2003) Governing Sexuality: The Changing Politics of Citizenship and Law Reform, (Hart: Oxford). Stychin, C. (2004) ‘Same-sex Sexualities and the Globalization of Human Rights Discourse’, McGill Law Journal 49, 951-968. Stychin, C. (2006) ‘Las Vegas Is Not Where We Are’: Queer Readings of the Civil Partnership’, Political Geography 25(8):899-920. Waitt, G. (2005) ‘The Sydney 2002 Gay Games and querying Australian national space’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 23: 435 – 452. Wintemute, R. (1995) Sexual orientation and Human Rights, Oxford, Clarendon Press. Wintemute, R and M. Andanaes (eds) (2001) Legal recognition of same-sex partnerships: a study of national European and international law, pp.713-732. Oxford: Hart. Websites
http://ilga.org/

Lecture 6: Technology in development: the case of post-Soviet media
Core Readings: Ryabinska N. (2011) The Media Market and Media Ownership in Post-Communist Ukraine Impact on Media Independence and Pluralism, Problems of Post-Communism,

58 (6), pp.3-20. Available online: 0/g0 Nordenstreng K., Pietiläinen J. (2010) Media as a mirror of change, in Witnessing Change in Contemporary Russia, (eds) T. Huttunen amd M. Ylikangas, Aleksanteri Institute, pp. 136-158. Available online: http://tampub.uta.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/66231/media_as_a_mirror_2010.pdf?se quence=12076xh8278242r.pdf

Recommended Readings: Beumers B., Hutchings S., and N. Rulyova (2012) The Post-Soviet Russian Media: Conflicting Signals, London: Routledge. Johnson E. and B. E. Kolko (2010) E-government and Transparency in Authoritarian Regimes: Comparison of National- and City-Level E-government Web Sites in Central Asia, Digital Icons. Available online: Koltsova O. (2006) News Media and Power in Russia. London: Routledge. Parmelee J.H. (2009) Media pluralism by default: The case of Moldova, Central European Journal of Communication, pp. 279-293. Available online: Tsetsura K. (2011) Media Map Project. Ukraine: A Case Study on Donor Support to Independent Media, 1990-2010. Available online: http://www.mediamapresource.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/Ukraine.pdf

Lecture 7: Technology and non-governmental activism in Russia
Core Reading: Nikiporets-Takigawa G. (2013) Tweeting the Russian Protests, Digital Icons. Available online: http://www.digitalicons.org/issue09/galina-nikiporets/ Recommended Readings: Fossato F., Lloyd J. with Alexander Verkhovsky (2010): The Web that Failed: How opposition politics and independent initiatives are failing on the internet in Russia, the Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism

Morozov E. (2012) The Net Delusion: How Not to Liberate The World, Penguin (Chapter 6 in particular).

Lecture 8: Representing diversity on community radio
Core Reading: Couldry, N (2010) Chapter 1, from Why Voice Matters: Culture and Politics after Neoliberalism. London: Sage, 1 – 13. Recommended Readings: Back, L. and Bull, M. (eds) (2004) The Auditory Culture Reader. New York: Berg Press. Bourdieu, P. (1993) The Field of Cultural Production. New York: Columbia University Press. Bourdieu, P. (1998) On Television and Journalism. London: Pluto Press. Brecht, B. (1930) ‘The Radio as an Apparatus of Communication’, in Willett, J. (ed., trans.), Brecht on Theatre. New York: Hill and Wang. Couldry, N. (2009) ‘Rethinking the Politics of Voice’, Continuum: Journal of Media an d Cultural Studies, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 579–82. http://www.tandfonline.com.ezproxy4.lib.le.ac.uk/doi/pdf/10.1080/10304310903026 594 Couldry, N. (2010) Why Voice Matters: Culture and Politics after Neoliberalism. London: Sage. Dunbar-Hester, C. (2010) ‘The History and Future of Hyper -Local Radio’, The Atlantic. http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2010/10/the-history-and-future-ofhyper-local-radio/64058/ Frith, S. (2002) ‘Music and Everyday Life’, Critical Quarterly, ISSN 0011-1562, 04/2002, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp. 35 – 48, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezproxy4.lib.le.ac.uk/doi/10.1111/14678705.00399/pdf Frith, S. (2008) ‘Why Music Matters’, Critical Quarterly, Volume 50, Issue 1-2, pages 165–179, Spring/Summer 2008 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezproxy4.lib.le.ac.uk/doi/10.1111/j.14678705.2008.00811.x/pdf

Hendy, D. (2000) Radio in the Global Age. Cambridge: Polity Press. Robins, K. (2006) ‘Transnational Media, Cultural Diversity and New Public Cultures’, Research Position Paper 7, in Robins, K. (ed.), The Challenge of Transcultural Diversities: Transversal Study on the Theme of Cultural Policy and Cultural Diversity. Culture and Cultural Heritage Department: Council of Europe Publishing. From: http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=iMVwcOop5yIC&oi=fnd&pg=PA 5&dq=Robins,+K.+(2006)+%E2%80%98Transnational+Media,+Cultural+Diversi ty+and+New+Public+Cultures%E2%80%99,&ots=LRo6aIp0ct&sig=0IWH0KPTDb jR4MFVEMe3PHyqMVs&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false Scannell, P. (1992) ‘Public Service Broadcasting and Modern Public Life’, in Scannell, P., Schlesinger, P. and Sparks, C. (eds), Culture and Power: A Media, Culture & Society Reader. London: Sage. Seidler, V. (2004) ‘Diasporic Sounds: Dis/located Sounds’, The Auditory Culture Reader. New York: Sage.

Lecture 9: Distant Suffering in the News
Core Reading: Chouliaraki, L. (2010). “Ordinary Witnessing in Post-Television News: Towards a New Moral Imagination.” Critical Discourse Studies 7(4): 305-319. Recommended Readings: Chouliaraki, L. (2012). The Ironic Spectator. Cambridge: Polity. (Chapter: News) Cottle, S. (2009). Global Crisis Reporting. Milton Keynes: Open University Press. Cottle, S. (2006). Mediatized Conflict. Milton Keynes: Open University Press. Dickinson, R., Matthews, J. & Saltzis, K. “Studying Journalists in Changing Times: Understanding News Work as Socially Situated Practice.” International Communication Gazette 75(1): 3-18). Moeller, S. (1999). Compassion Fatigue: How the Media Sell Disease, Famine, War and Death. London: Routledge. Ong, J.C. (2012). “’Witnessing’ or ‘Mediating’ Distant Suffering? Ethical Questions Across Moments of Text, Production and Reception”. Television & New Media. Online First 24 August 2012.

Ong, J.C. (2009). “The Cosmopolitan Continuum: Locating Cosmopolitanism in Media and Cultural Studies.” Media Culture & Society. Silverstone, R. (2007). Media and Morality. Cambridge: Polity. Tait, S. (2011). “Bearing Witness, Journalism, and Moral Responsibility”. Media Culture & Society 33(8): 1220-1235.

Lecture 10: Humanitarian Advertising
Core Reading: Chouliaraki, L. (2011). “Improper Distance: Towards a Critical Account of Solidarity as Irony.” International Journal of Cultural Studies 14(4): 363-381. Recommended Readings: Chouliaraki, L. (2012). The Ironic Spectator. Cambridge: Polity. (Chapters: Appeals and Celebrity) Cohen, S. (2001). States of Denial: Knowing about Atrocities and Suffering. Cambridge: Polity. Curtis, P. & McCarthy, T. (2012, March 8). “Kony 2012: What’s the Real Story?” The Guardian. Gladwell, M. (2010, 4 Oct). “Small Change: Why the Revolution Will Not Be Tweeted”. The New Yorker. http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2010/10/04/101004fa_fact_gladwell?currentP age=all Madianou, M. (2012) “Humanitarian Campaigns in Social Media: Network Architectures and Polymedia Events.” Journalism Studies. iFirst 17 Sept 2012. Ong, J.C. (2013) “Book Review of The Ironic Spectator by Lilie Chouliaraki”. Journal of Communication 63(3), E1-E5. Ong, J.C. (2012). “’Witnessing’ or ‘Mediating’ Distant Suffering? Ethical Questions Across Moments of Text, Production and Reception”. Television & New Media. Online First 24 August 2012. Scott, M. (2013). “Book Review of The Ironic Spectator by Lilie Chouliaraki.”. Critical Discourse Studies, Online First 7 May 2013.

White, M. (2010, 8 Oct). “Why Gladwell Is Wrong: Clicktivism Is Activism Degraded Into Advertising.” Adbusters.

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