Definition And Scope Of Consequence Management From your readings offer your own definition of Consequence Management. Discuss who is responsible for Conse

Definition And Scope Of Consequence Management From your readings offer your own definition of Consequence Management. Discuss who is responsible for Consequence Management in the context of the management of the effects of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) on US soil and define what Essential Support Functions (ESF) are and how they might apply. 

Response must be 250 words or more, APA format with References. 

Let me know if you have any questions. 

Source #3 – https://www.fema.gov/txt/nims/nims_ics_position_paper.txt 1

wHat is terrorism?

Concern over terrorism has become a part of life in the twenty-first
century. Although terrorism is not new, the events of 9/11/2001
in the United States, the Madrid train bombings in 2004, the
London transport bombings in 2005, continuing suicide attacks
in Iraq and Israel/Palestine, and terrorist violence in many other
places has focused attention on these types of events. Terrorism,
of course, has occurred in many countries and in many contexts.
It is not new phenomenon even though events such as these have
made terrorism a more prominent concern in many countries. As a
result, it is very important to have a better understanding of what
terrorism is – why it occurs, who is responsible, what the terrorists
hope to accomplish, and what the future holds for terrorism. These
questions and others are basic to the topic of this book.

Although many people have a good idea of what terrorism is, it
is useful from the outset to have a working definition as to what can
be considered terrorism (and what cannot be considered terrorism).
It has frequently been stated that: “One person’s freedom fighter
is another person’s terrorist.” Basically this statement says that
terrorism, like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. People have a
tendency to brand those who use violence for purposes that they
disagree with as terrorists while they regard those using the same
kinds of violence in a “just cause” as freedom fighters. It is essential
to have a definition that will apply to violent activities regardless
of who is opposing or supporting the individuals involved or
who the targets are. The fact that terrorism includes all kinds of
groups should not blind us to the fact that what might be defined
as terrorism by virtually everyone, could be acceptable to others
in some circumstances. If Jews in Europe facing Hitler’s efforts to

Lutz, James, and Brenda J. Lutz. Terrorism: the Basics : The Basics, Taylor & Francis Group, 2011.
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Terrorism: The Basics2

exterminate them had resorted to terrorism in self-defense, such
actions would clearly have been justifiable.

DefInITIon of TeRRoRIsm
There are many definitions of terrorism that have been used.
Oftentimes the definitions are created to identify certain groups
as falling within the definition since the term terrorist has a very
negative association. If a group is labeled as a terrorist group, then
it is easier to mobilize public opinion against it. If supporters of the
group are considered to be freedom fighters or a national liberation
front, the likelihood that they will be able to generate more sympathy
is increased. Other definitions attempt to be more neutral, but it is
important to recognize that any definition will include groups that
some individuals would exclude because they agree with the goals
of the organizations. In other cases, the definition might exclude
groups that others think should be considered as terrorists. The
best approach, of course, is to first specify a definition and then to
determine whether or not a particular group fits the definition. Even
with the arguments over the definitions, there are some common
elements used by scholars, governments, and journalists.

There are a number of basic components necessary in order for
a group to be considered as a terrorist organization. The following
characteristics combine to provide a useful and usable definition of
terrorism.

Terrorism involves political aims and motives. It is violent or threatens
violence. It is designed to generate fear in a target audience that
extends beyond the immediate victims of the violence. The violence
is conducted by an identifiable organization. The violence involves a
non-state actor or actors as either the perpetrator, the victim of the
violence, or both. finally, the acts of violence are designed to create
power in situations in which power previously had been lacking (i.e.
the violence attempts to enhance the power base of the organization
undertaking the actions).

The key elements of the definition will be discussed in the
sections to follow. The importance of the various characteristics will

Lutz, James, and Brenda J. Lutz. Terrorism: the Basics : The Basics, Taylor & Francis Group, 2011.
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WhaT is Terrorism? 3

be obvious in many of the other chapters as well. This definition
will underlay much of the discussion in the following chapters and
will demonstrate why it is important and why it combines in a
useful way to describe the phenomenon that we know as terrorism.

PolITIcAl oBjecTIves
The first key element of this definition is that the violence is
primarily undertaken for political reasons. The fact that the actions
are initiated to achieve political ends is a key element that separates
terrorist acts from other forms of violence. The political objectives
separate terrorism from violence that is launched for financial
reasons or because of personal issues. Kidnappings of prominent
political leaders or corporate executives to make political statements
are different from those kidnappings that serve as criminal ventures
to raise money for the abductors. The use of fear to extort money
from businesses (the protection rackets of American gangster
fame) is criminal, not political. Sometimes, of course, opposition
groups have used kidnapping or bank robberies to finance their
organizations, and they have been known to use violence or the
threat of violence to levy “revolutionary taxes” on groups that
could be forced to pay. In these cases, the goals are still generally
political because the money received is used to fund subsequent
political activities, including possibly more violence, rather than
leading to gains in personal wealth.

While political objectives are a key for defining terrorism,
the goals that are sought by terrorists can fall into a number of
categories. The terrorists may be seeking to have a change in
policies, or a change in leadership, or even a change in boundaries.
The attainment of these objectives may be ones that are seen by
the terrorists to be immediately possible or they may see them as
being the end points of a long struggle. Some groups have indeed
geared themselves for a long struggle to achieve these goals while
others may believe that a show of violence is all that is necessary to
topple the government in power or bring about the other changes
that they desire.

Lutz, James, and Brenda J. Lutz. Terrorism: the Basics : The Basics, Taylor & Francis Group, 2011.
ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/apus/detail.action?docID=668578.
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Terrorism: The Basics4

vIolence
The second element of a terrorist action is that the activity
involves violence or the threat of violence. Requests for changes,
demonstrations, and petitions are not terrorism, no matter how
disconcerting they may be to a government. Although massive
demonstrations may make a government apprehensive about the
future, there is no direct threat of violence. Actual violence is fairly
obvious when it occurs. Terrorism can also involve the credible
threat of violence. One situation in which the threat of violence
might be present would be one in which a group issues an ultimatum
requiring action; if the appropriate action does not occur, violence
will result. The threat of violence is only likely to be effective as a
technique, however, with a group that has already demonstrated
that it is able and willing to use violence. A political organization
that has never undertaken any type of political violence is unlikely
to be credible in its threats. Once violence has been used, however,
the threat of additional violence may generate the necessary fear
that the dissident group desires and lead the government to give in
to the specific demands of the group. Hoaxes can, as a consequence,
be part of a terrorist campaign, especially when they follow upon
actual earlier violent actions.

TARGeT AuDIence
For violence, and even political violence, to qualify as terrorism,
it must include a target audience beyond the immediate victims.
The violence is intended to influence the target audience or
audiences as part of the attempt to gain the political objectives of
the organization. If a political leader is assassinated with the goal
of removing that individual in order to permit the next in line
to move up, the death is political violence, but it has no target
audience and it is not terrorism. It is a practical effort to put
someone else in power. For an assassination to be a terrorist action,
it must involve parties beyond the assassin or assassins and the
immediate victim. If a political leader is assassinated in order to
send a message to other members of the political elite that they
need to change policies or make concessions in order to avoid a
similar fate, then that assassination is a terrorist act. Bombings

Lutz, James, and Brenda J. Lutz. Terrorism: the Basics : The Basics, Taylor & Francis Group, 2011.
ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/apus/detail.action?docID=668578.
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WhaT is Terrorism? 5

of buildings (with or without casualties) or car bombs in crowded
areas are often intended to show the general public that they are
vulnerable. The resulting fear may lead the public to put pressure
on the government to change policies or weaken public support for
the leaders in power who clearly are unable to protect the citizens
from dissidents. Frequently the victims of terrorist actions are
members of the target audience since that is the easiest way to
send a message to all the other members of the target audience.
One of the primary goals of the violence is to create fear in the
target audience. Thus, the immediate victims are usually not chosen
specifically, but are simply convenient targets. The target audience,
not the immediate victims of a terrorist act, is the key group that
terrorist organizations are attempting to influence, and the goal is
to generate fear in the target audience.

The need to reach a target audience is one reason why terrorist
groups seek publicity. If no one knows of a terrorist act, the goals
have not been achieved. If the deaths of government personnel are
ascribed to a plane crash rather than a bomb on the aircraft, the
target audience will draw the wrong conclusion about threats to the
state or to the safety of individuals. The need for publicity is a key
reason why some terrorist organizations have established pre-set
code words with the media so that they can authenticate the claims
of the organization when they provide a warning that a bomb is
about to detonate. Of course, it will not be necessary in all cases
for particular organizations to claim credit for particular terrorist
actions. If a terrorist group has been active in the past, violence
against the government or its supporters will be ascribed to the
group without any need for a pronouncement from the terrorist
group. The local situation and the target will often make it clear that
the cause of a particular group of dissidents is behind the activity.
If swastikas are painted on a Jewish synagogue, the anti-Semitic
message is obvious. If a car bomb goes off at the headquarters of the
ruling party, the general population is likely to know whether it is
a local minority group or whether it is the political opposition that
is behind the attack. Even if the source of the violence is obvious, it
will still be necessary for information about the action to reach the
target audience.

Lutz, James, and Brenda J. Lutz. Terrorism: the Basics : The Basics, Taylor & Francis Group, 2011.
ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/apus/detail.action?docID=668578.
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Terrorism: The Basics6

oRGAnIzATIon
For political violence to be terrorism there must be an identifiable
organization. A lone individual is unlikely to be able to carry out
the actions, reach the target audience, and present the political
demands for the changes that are necessary to end the violence. An
effective campaign to create change also requires enough actions
to be credible, an effort beyond a single individual over time. A
political assassination to change a leader can be very effective
even if the assassin is killed if the change in leadership results in a
desired change in the government. If the leader is simply replaced
by another person with the same program and policies, then
nothing has been accomplished and the solitary individual who
was seeking the change is likely to be killed or captured. Terrorist
actions almost inevitably lead to casualties or arrests among the
dissidents; thus, a single individual is very likely to be captured or
killed. Large organizations do not have to be as concerned about
casualties among the members, while smaller organizations have to
conserve scarce resources (members).

Theodore Kaczynski, the Unabomber in the United
States, is a classic example of the limitations inherent with
campaigns by one individual. Kaczynski sent package bombs to
a variety of individuals. He was essentially upset over the pace
of modernization and damaging changes that were occurring
in the environment. His bombings over the years inspired fear,
but the target audience was unclear, and it was not obvious what
actions the target audience was expected to take. The FBI and
other police agencies knew that the bombings were related due to
forensic analyses, but they were unable to establish the linkages
between the victims, and were they were unable to identify the
political agenda of the person behind them. Until Kaczynski had a
rambling manifesto published, his goals were unclear. Once they
were published, he was identified by his writing and arrested. His
activities demonstrate the need for a broader organization and the
need for publicity (as well as the dangers that may come with
greater publicity).

Organizational structures have changed in recent times with
improved communications and transportation that have resulted in

Lutz, James, and Brenda J. Lutz. Terrorism: the Basics : The Basics, Taylor & Francis Group, 2011.
ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/apus/detail.action?docID=668578.
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WhaT is Terrorism? 7

a smaller world. Organizations, such as Al Qaeda, can maintain
linkages with each other and even support or cooperate with
groups that are not a formal part of the organization. Al Qaeda,
for example, has supported actions by other groups that were not
part of the organization. It provided funding and technical support
for a number of attacks when it agreed with the goals and when
it thought there was a chance of successful actions. With mobile
phones, the internet, and other forms of communication, such
improvised or informal cooperative arrangements can extend the
reach of a formal organization and make it much more dangerous.
Basically terrorist groups set up a network operation. The network
does increase the dangers and at the same time often makes it more
difficult for the authorities to infiltrate informers or breakup the
groups involved.

Another form of organization that is present in the modern world
is what has come to be called leaderless resistance. Leaderless
resistance involves individuals or small groups that identify with
some larger cause acting to achieve the goals of a larger group.
There may be an organization that provides some direction to
those wishing to undertake such “lone wolf” attacks by indicating
appropriate targets or disseminating information on how to make
bombs or use other types of violence. The individuals who were
responsible for the London transport bombings in 2005 were not
formal members of Al Qaeda or any other formal group. They did
identify, however, with the goals of Al Qaeda and similar groups,
and they saw their action as part of the broader struggle of militant
Islam against activities of the West with which they disagreed.
These individual attacks do add to the strength of a group, and there
is an element of implied organization present. There has to be some
group that provides a central reference for the identification and
perhaps even to provide information on targets and techniques. The
individuals agree with the broader goals, and they clearly seek to
link themselves with the broader cause and to influence a target
audience. This kind of loosely coordinated activity thus exists in
addition to the more conventionally organized groups; they do not
replace them completely.

The anarchists were a group that operated in the late 1800s
and the early 1900s seeking to change political systems to provide

Lutz, James, and Brenda J. Lutz. Terrorism: the Basics : The Basics, Taylor & Francis Group, 2011.
ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/apus/detail.action?docID=668578.
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Terrorism: The Basics8

greater benefits for average citizens and the working class. The
anarchists first attempted to bring about political change through
education efforts designed to convince the political elite to extend
greater rights and freedom to the general population. When
these efforts failed, the anarchists decided to use violence in their
attempts to bring about change. The anarchists attacked political
leaders in many countries. The targets included reigning monarchs
and elected political leaders. Some were members of organized
groups, but in some cases individual anarchists would attempt to
assassinate prominent leaders as part of this broader struggle. The
anarchists thus provide one of the earlier examples of a form of
leaderless resistance.

AcToRs oTheR ThAn sTATes InvolveD
The actions of countries directed against other countries are
excluded in this definition of terrorism. Countries involved in wars
have always attempted to inspire terror in their enemies, but these
kinds of activities are part of international relations. Similarly, in
situations of tension between countries, their intelligence agencies
may engage in activities designed to spread fear or undermine their
opponents. The CIA (American Central Intelligence Agency) and
allies like Secret Intelligence Service (United Kingdom) as well
as the KGB (former Soviet intelligence service) engaged in many
kinds of activities designed to weaken the Soviet Union and its
allies or the United States and its allies respectively during the Cold
War between these countries. At least, at times, the activities of
these agencies were successful. The exclusion of activities between
states is not intended to dismiss the importance of their actions,
nor is it intended to deny that sometimes these activities can be
horrific and cause devastation. During World War II, for example,
both sides bombed cities in an effort to destroy the morale of the
civilian populations. The bombings culminated with the destruction
of Dresden and the dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and
Nagasaki, all of which resulted in the deaths of large numbers
of people. Massacres of civilians and similar types of activities
undertaken by government forces during wartime are clearly evil
as well. Actions such as these are not being dismissed and definitely

Lutz, James, and Brenda J. Lutz. Terrorism: the Basics : The Basics, Taylor & Francis Group, 2011.
ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/apus/detail.action?docID=668578.
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WhaT is Terrorism? 9

not accepted. They are simply part of another area of study and
analysis for political science and international relations.

There are three situations in which terrorism can occur within
this definition: first, dissidents may target a government or
governments; second, governments may target a group of their
own citizens or support groups that target a group of their own
citizens; or third, groups may target each other with such violence
independent of government. By far the most frequent form that
terrorism has taken is violence by dissident groups against their
own government or foreign governments. The groups involved
are using the violence as part of an effort to get the government
to change policies or to bring about other changes in a political
system. Governments may also tolerate situations in which local
groups use violence in an effort to create terror in some portion
of its own population that it fears or distrusts. Since governments
have police, security, and military forces to deal with what are
perceived to be domestic threats, this form of terrorism is less likely
to occur. If the targets of the violence are groups opposed to the
government, there may even be active support from the authorities.
Finally, groups may battle among themselves in efforts to end the
political activities of the opposing group or drive out another group.
In Turkey in the 1970s left-wing groups and right-wing groups
targeted each other with violence and terrorism as they competed
to bring about different types of changes. When India and Pakistan
were being formed out of the former British India in 1947, Hindus
and Muslims attacked each other, and Muslim refugees from India
and Hindu refugees from the new state of Pakistan fled in fear.

WeAPon of The WeAk
The last part of the definition depends on the fact that terrorist
actions are used to improve the power situation of the organization
that is using this form of political violence. While the specific
agendas of groups using terrorism are quite different, they all share
this characteristic. They are attempting to improve their power
situation – to increase their probability of being able to influence
political decisions. Terrorist campaigns are frequently mounted by
organizations that have failed to bring about their desired changes

Lutz, James, and Brenda J. Lutz. Terrorism: the Basics : The Basics, Taylor & Francis Group, 2011.
ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/apus/detail.action?docID=668578.
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Terrorism: The Basics10

by other means, i.e. they are politically weak. The groups have
failed in democratic elections to gain enough power to bring about
change. Governments have ignored peaceful protests and appeals,
or they have been met by government repression that prevents
further efforts at peaceful change.

A group that can influence the military to undertake a coup
in their country to take over the government to bring about the
changes that are desired will not have to rely on terrorism. Groups
in the past that could organize a rebellion and mobilize sufficient
troops to march on the capital and attempt to defeat the government
did not have to rely on terrorism since they have more powerful
sources. When civil wars break out, both sides have sufficient forces
to engage in such a conflict. While one or both sides in a civil war
may rely on terror techniques much as countries do during wartime,
these activities are not central to the conflict. Terrorism remains a
tool to be used by groups that lack the possibility of these kinds
of peaceful or violent protests against a current government. Since
they are relatively powerless in the conventional political setting of
their own society due to limited electoral appeal or limited support
in the face of government repression, they resort to unconventional
means (terrorism) in an effort to improve their power base. When
governments turn to supporting terrorist groups against their own
citizens it is because they cannot be sure that they will be successful
in relying on conventional police techniques or forms of repression.
Thus, their reliance on terrorism is also a reflection of weakness.

ATTAckInG cIvIlIAns
Some definitions of terrorism include the specification that the targets
of terrorist violence are civilians. The insurgent attacks on military
personnel in Iraq, for example, are not normally considered terrorist
attacks. Civilians are often the targets for terrorism because the
target population consists mainly of civilians and terrorists usually
attack members of the target audience. Adding this component to
a definition of terrorism, however, adds complexity. Are off-duty
police, reserve military personnel, or civilians acceptable targets?
What about civilian employees working on military bases?
When attacks result in the deaths of both civilians and military

Lutz, James, and Brenda J. Lutz. Terrorism: the Basics : The Basics, Taylor & Francis Group, 2011.
ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/apus/detail.action?docID=668578.
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WhaT is Terrorism? 11

personnel, are the civilians considered the targets or acceptable
collateral damage? To include this component in the definition also
may require knowledge of the intentions of those launching the
attacks. As a consequence, it does not seem necessary to include the
targeting of civilians as a key component of the definition, but it is
useful to recognize that civilian populations are often the intended
targets of terrorist attacks, if for no other reason than to increase
the resulting fear among a target population as noted.

TeRRoRIsm As PsycholoGIcAl WARfARe
Terrorism is ultimately a form of psychological warfare. The goal of
the terrorist group is to spread fear in the target population in order
to bring about some kind of change. The goals of the terrorists have
been met when the greatest amount of fear has been caused by the
terrorist attack. The most effective terrorist actions are those that
reach the largest number of people. The attacks on the World Trade
Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001 in the United
States generated immense amounts of fear because of the death
toll and the symbolism involved. The 2005 transport bombings
in London did not kill as many people but indicated to many in
the United Kingdom that they could be at risk. The anthrax scare
in the United States coming so soon after the attacks of 9/11 in
October of 2001 generated a great deal of fear while resulting in
the deaths of less than a dozen people. The hope of the terrorists is
that the attacks will undermine confidence in the public or the elite
and lead to the desired changes or to the weakening of a state, which
in turn makes it more vulnerable to continued terrorism or other
forms of violence.

One of the things that can heighten the fear that occurs with
terrorism is the idea that the violence is random. In actuality,
terrorism is seldom random by intent; in fact, it has to be distinctly

Fear in a target audience is one of the key goals of campaigns of
terrorism. Terrorism is ultimately a form of psychological warfare
that is directed against this target audience. (Wilkinson 1975: 81)

Lutz, James, and Brenda J. Lutz. Terrorism: the Basics : The Basics, Taylor & Francis Group, 2011.
ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/apus/detail.action?docID=668578.
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Terrorism: The Basics12

non-random in order to be successful. The targets of terrorist attacks,
whether they are people or objects, are chosen from among a similar
group of targets. One member of the group is interchangeable with
another. The randomness occurs in the sense that any individual
member of a group can become the target for the violence to send
the message to others. While the victims of a lethal attack are likely
to be random in the sense of being victims, they become victims
because they are members of a specific group. The appearance of
complete randomness in the choice of targets, however, can …

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