Critical Thinking 2 – Joe 1.   You will answer the questions in the assigned section (250 words minimum). Your submission must be double-spaced with unifor

Critical Thinking 2 – Joe 1.   You will answer the questions in the assigned section (250 words minimum). Your submission must be double-spaced with uniform 1-inch margins and using 12-point Times New Roman font. 

Critical Thinking 2: pages 151-152 the attached text 

2.   You will answer the questions in the assigned section (250 words minimum). Your submission must be double-spaced with uniform 1-inch margins and using 12-point Times New Roman font. 

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Australia • Brazil • Mexico • Singapore • United Kingdom • United States

Business
Communication

Mary Ellen Guffey
Professor Emerita of Business

Los Angeles Pierce College

Dana Loewy
Business Communication Program
California State University, Fullerton

9th Edition

Process & Product

G U F F E Y & L O E W Y

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Printed in the United States of America
Print Number: 01 Print Year: 2016

© 2018, 2015 Cengage Learning®

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the
copyright herein may be reproduced or distributed in any form
or by any means, except as permitted by U.S. copyright law,
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Unless otherwise noted all items © Cengage Learning.

Library of Congress Control Number: 2016958170

ISBN: 978-1-305-95796-1

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Business Communication: Process &
Product, 9th Edition

Mary Ellen Guffey, Dana Loewy

Vice President, General Manager, Social
Science & Qualitative Business: Erin Joyner

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Business Communication:
Process & Product 9e

Dear Business Communication Student:

The Ninth Edition of Business Communication: Process &
Product prepares you for a career in a complex mobile, social,
and global workplace. To help you successfully navigate this vast
networked environment, we have substantially revised our award-
winning book. You will learn how social media networks and mobile
technology function in the workplace and how you can strengthen
your professional communication and critical thinking skills.

All of the features that have made this award-winning textbook
so successful for nearly three decades have been updated in this
edition. In addition to solid instruction in writing skills, which
employers continue to demand, the Ninth Edition brings you
numerous learning resources, a few of which are highlighted here:

▪ MindTap. This multimedia learning experience provides
chapter quizzes, downloadable documents to revise, flashcards, and unparalleled resources to achieve success
in the course.

▪ “How-To” videos. Helping you develop expert writing techniques, chapter how-to videos explain and
illustrate many Ninth Edition concepts and model documents including bad-news, claim, adjustment,
persuasive, and sales messages. These chapter-based videos build skills and develop confidence for both
face-to-face and remote learners.

▪ Integrated digital technologies. The professional use of social media networks and mobile technology
requires that you know best practices. This edition provides the latest advice to guide you in using these
digital technologies safely and effectively in the workplace. You’ll find best practices for texting, instant
messaging, blogging, collaborating with wikis, and networking with social media in business today.

▪ Latest trends in job searching. Chapter 15 presents the most current trends, technologies, and practices
affecting the job search, résumés, and cover letters in this digital age. You will learn how to build a personal
brand, how to network, and how to write customized résumés plus create an effective LinkedIn profile.

▪ Hottest trends in job interviewing. Chapter 16 provides countless tips on how to interview successfully in
today’s highly competitive job market, including one-way and two-way video interviewing.

▪ Etiquette IQ. New communication platforms and casual workplace environments have blurred the lines of
appropriateness, leaving workers wondering how to behave on the job. This edition delivers up-to-date guidance
on acceptable workplace attire, professional behavior, and business etiquette for today’s mobile and social work-
place. Each chapter also provides a “Test Your Etiquette IQ” quiz with authentic questions and answers.

We wish you well in your course! As always, we welcome your comments and suggestions as you use the No. 1
business communication book in this country and abroad.

Cordially,

Mary Ellen Guffey and Dana Loewy

Dr. Mary Ellen Guffey Dr. Dana Loewy
Emerita Professor of Business Business Communication Program
Los Angeles Pierce College California State University, Fullerton
m.e.guffey@cox.net dloewy@fullerton.edu

Dana Loewy and Mary Ellen Guffey

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Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203

This book and this course may well be the most important in your entire college
curriculum!

Why? This book and your course equip you with the skills you will most need in today’s
fast-paced information- and data-driven workplace.

MEETING EMPLOYER EXPECTATIONS

Survey after survey reveals that employers are seeking new hires with these key skills:

• Written and oral communication skills
• Critical thinking and analytical reasoning
• Ethical decision making
• Teamwork skills
• Professionalism

Chapter 2 Professionalism: Team, Meeting, Listening, Nonverbal, and Etiquette Skills 71

• Be selective in sharing personal information. Avoid talking about health concerns,
personal relationships, or finances in the office.

• Don’t put people down. If you have a reputation for criticizing people, your coworkers
will begin to wonder what you are saying behind their backs.

• Respect coworkers’ space. Turn down the ringer on your business phone, minimize the
use of speakerphones, and turn your personal cell phone down or off during business
hours. Avoid wearing heavy perfumes or bringing strong-smelling food.

• Rise above others’ rudeness. Don’t use profanity or participate in questionable
joke-telling.

• Be considerate when sharing space and equipment with others. Clean up after
yourself.

• Choose the high road in conflict. Avoid letting discussions degenerate into shouting
matches. Keep a calm voice tone and focus on the work rather than on personality
differences.

• Disagree agreeably. You may not agree with everyone, but you should respect their
opinions.

Figure 2.13 The Six Dimensions of Professional Behavior

Dining etiquette

Good hygiene
and grooming

Attractive
business attire

Ability to
compromise

Fair treatment
of others

Self-control

TruthfulnessDependability

Helpfulness

Sincerity

Apologizing for errors

Giving and accepting
criticism graciously

Promptness

Showing up
prepared

Delivering high-
quality work

Honoring commitments
and keeping promises

Consistent
performance

Respecting others

Fair competition

Empathy

Appearance
Appeal

Tolerance
Tact

Honesty
Ethics

Reliability
Diligence

Collegiality
Sharing

Courtesy
Respect

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BUSINESS COMMUNICATION: PROCESS & PRODUCT, 9E

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No other college course gives you training in all of these skills at once!

Business Communication: Process and Product, 9e, covers the following topics you
will find indispensable in the digital-age workplace:

• Expert writing techniques geared to developing your writing skills plus
interactive Documents for Analysis, authentic model documents, and
engaging activities in which you apply your skills

• Presentation skills featuring contemporary examples including coverage
of smartphone best practices to prepare you for the realities of workplace
communication and technology

• Critical thinking questions and activities in every chapter to stimulate and
develop skills

• Ethics Checks in addition to guidance and tools provided through discussion
questions and ethical dilemma scenarios

• Teamwork skills with a heavy emphasis on professionalism and etiquette in
the workplace so that you will know how to meet employer expectations

• Two employment chapters that present the latest trends in job searching,
interviewing, and résumé writing, along with current, effective résumé
models, tips for mobile devices and apps, and LinkedIn advice and
illustrations

• Test Your Etiquette IQ, a recurring feature in each chapter, designed to shine
a light on often blurry ideas about appropriateness and professionalism in
the workplace.

PREMIUM ONLINE RESOURCES

• MindTap, Your Personalized, Fully Online Digital Learning Platform.
This comprehensive learning platform guides you through readings,
multimedia tools, and chapter-specific activities that increase learner
involvement and produce significant learning outcomes. By being
interactive, MindTap makes learning enjoyable and playful. You can deepen
your understanding of business communication concepts at your own pace.

• Aplia Homework. Aplia helps you comprehend and remember chapter
concepts in an engaging interactive format. You know immediately how well
you are doing with immediate feedback on each problem set. You may even
be able to repeat exercises to improve your score.

• Grammar Review. Grammar review exercises provide you with engaging
online practice, covering key grammar concepts with interactive exercises
that you can finish in your own time. Your unique needs are addressed
through diagnostic assessments, pinpointing your areas of strength and
potential remediation needs. A large and randomized pool of questions
provides multiple opportunities to master each concept.

BUSINESS COMMUNICATION: PROCESS & PRODUCT, 9E

BK-CHE-GUFFEY_BCPP_9E-160013-FM.indd 5 11/21/16 9:22 PM

Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203

• How-To Videos. Appealing to visual learners, this edition provides about 32 short vid-
eos that explain and illustrate many Ninth Edition concepts and model documents in-
cluding positive, bad-news, claim adjustment, persuasive, and sales messages. These
videos are especially helpful to distance learners who are not able to benefit from
in-class lectures.

• Study Tools
◆ PowerPoint Lectures. Our totally new PowerPoint slides for the Ninth Edition re-

view chapter concepts and highlight important points with contemporary, colorful
images, and just enough animation.

◆ Interactive chapter quizzes at the Student Companion Website enable you to test
your knowledge of concepts with immediate feedback.

◆ Flashcards. You can study with existing flashcards and make your own.

SOCIAL MEDIA NETWORKS AND MOBILE TECHNOLOGY

Trusted authors Mary Ellen Guffey and Dana Loewy understand social and mobile! The
authors address workplace use of social media and communication technology in a
chapter solely dedicated to best practices on the job. Because these skills are fundamental
in the contemporary world of work, social media and communication technology are
integrated in each chapter.

Every chapter reflects the pervasive influence of communication technology on
business writing. This state-of-the-art coverage makes it clear that writing is more
important than ever in the digital world. Careers are made or thwarted based on one’s
online digital persona.

BUSINESS COMMUNICATION: PROCESS & PRODUCT, 9E

Chapter 1 Business Communication in the Digital Age 19

Even in more traditional offices, employees work in open-plan spaces with flexible
workstations, shared conference rooms, and boomerang-shaped desks that save space and
discourage territorial behavior while encouraging casual interactions as well as spontaneous
collaborations.

Information Flow and Media Choices
in Today’s Workplace
You may want to connect with friends and family for a specific reason or just for fun.
However, businesspeople almost always communicate strategically—that is, purposefully,
hoping to achieve a particular outcome. Business communication functions can be summa-
rized in three simple categories: (a) to inform, (b) to persuade, and/or (c) to promote goodwill.
Most business messages have one of these functions as their purpose. Informing or sharing
information is perhaps the most common communication function in all organizations
today. On the job you will have a dizzying array of media to help you share information and
stay connected both internally and externally. You will need to know which medium is most
suitable to accomplish your goal and be able to distinguish between formal and informal
channels.

The Networked Workplace in a
Hyperconnected World
Social media and other information technology coupled with flatter hierarchies have greatly
changed the way people communicate internally and externally at work. One major shift is away
from one-sided, slow forms of communication such as hard-copy memos and letters to inter-
active, instant, less paper-based communication. Speeding up the flow of communication in
organizations are e-mail, instant messaging (IM), texting, blogging, and interacting with social
media such as Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn. Figure 1.8 shows a side-by-side comparison
between the traditional one-directional business communication model and today’s hypercon-
nected, many-to-many social media communication model.

LEARNING
OUTCOME 4
Examine critically the
internal and external
flow of communication
in organizations through
formal and informal
channels, explain the
importance of effective
media choices, and
understand how to
overcome typical
barriers to organizational
communication.

Figure 1.8 Traditional vs. Social Media Communication Between Businesses and
Customers

TV, phone, mail, etc.
Traditional Channels

Traditional communication is
�eeting and opaque,
one-directional
from company to
customer and
customer to company,
one-to-many or
many-to-one

Social media
communication is
persistent and
transparent,
bidirectional,
many-to-manym

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Businesses

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Social Channels

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• New digital model documents throughout illustrate how social media
networks are shaping today’s communication and will help you understand
professional social media applications.

• New activities, identified with the Social Media and Communication
Technology icon, reflect the preeminence of writing in the digital workplace
and prompt you to develop your professional social networking skills.

Chapter 1 Business Communication in the Digital Age 37

Source: National Business Ethics Survey, Social Media Week.105

SOCIAL NETWORKS VS. OTHER U.S. WORKERS:
COMPARING ATTITUDES TOWARDS QUESTIONABLE BEHAVIOR

Do you feel it is acceptable to…?
Active Social
Networkers

Other U.S.
Workers

“Friend” a client/customer on a social network

Blog or tweet negatively about your company or colleagues

Buy personal items with your company credit card as long as you
pay it back

Do a little less work to compensate for cuts in benefits or pay

Keep a copy of confidential work documents in case you need
them in your next job

Use social networking to find out what my company’s competitors
are doing

Take a copy of work software home and use it on your personal
computer

59%

42%

42%

50%

46%

51%

54%

50%

28%

6%

8%

10%

15%

30%

7%

17%
Upload vacation pictures to the company network or server so
you can share them with co-workers

1.11 Ethical Dilemmas: Applying Tools for
Doing the Right Thing (L.O. 5)

Ethics Team

As a business communicator, you may face various ethical
dilemmas in your career. Many factors can determine your
choice of an action to take.

YOUR TASK Study the seven dilemmas appearing on page
28. Select four of them and apply the tools for doing the
right thing in Figure 1.15 on page 31 choosing an appro-
priate action. In a memo to your instructor or in a team
discussion, explain the action you would take for each
dilemma. Analyze your response to each question (Is the
action you are considering legal? How would you see the
problem if you were on the opposite side? and so forth).

New communication platforms and casual workplace environments have blurred the
lines of appropriateness, leaving workers wondering how to navigate uncharted waters.
Indicate whether the following statements are true or false. Then see if you agree with the
responses on p. R-1.

1. You’re enjoying your weekend when you receive an e-mail from your boss asking for
information. It’s not urgent, so the best plan is to respond early on Monday.

True False

Test Your Etiquette IQ

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BUSINESS COMMUNICATION: PROCESS & PRODUCT, 9E

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Chapter 1 Business Communication in the Digital Age 3

Nordstrom: A Fabulous
Shopping Experience Goes
Social
Nordstrom’s customer service is legendary. Like no other,
the upscale fashion retailer empowers its employees to
make their own decisions to best serve customers. Consider
the Anchorage location once accepting returned tires that the retailer doesn’t even sell. Another
true story relates that an employee raced to deliver a scatterbrained customer’s forgotten baggage
to the airport prior to her departure. Both anecdotes exemplify the century-old company’s motto: to
provide a fabulous customer experience by empowering customers and the employees who serve them.

But Nordstrom’s fabled devotion to customer service extends strategically into the virtual world to
meet customers where they are. The retailer has invested heavily in technology; for example, to inte-
grate its inventory management system with its website and the Nordstrom app—always with the clear
purpose to enhance the customer experience. As a result, the company’s online and offline worlds are
seamlessly linked, and customers can find what they want in one place. Salespeople can track customer
requests and needs online. This persistent effort to integrate digital capabilities has paid off. Nordstrom’s
revenue has grown by more than 50 percent in the last five years.1 Its shares have jumped 120 percent.2

A strong social media engagement is key to Nordstrom’s strategy to provide superb service and to
drive traffic to its e-commerce site. As one of America’s most connected companies,3 it relies on crowd-
sourcing to learn which items to stock, and it responds rapidly to queries, in Spanish when needed. At
currently 3.2 million likes, Nordstrom is a strong presence on Facebook. Pinterest, the popular online
bulletin board, is a particular success story for early-adopter Nordstrom, which currently has some 4.4
million followers.4

With such public engagement, it’s not surprising that Nordstrom has clearly defined social media
use guidelines. Approved employees may connect with customers during working hours and even after
hours, if allowed. They are admonished to use good judgment and abide by all corporate policies. They
are told to be respectful, responsible, and ethical. Furthermore, Nordstrom’s social media policy forbids
the sharing of confidential corporate information as well as employees’ and customers’ private and per-
sonal information. Conflicts of interest are to be avoided, and compensated endorsements must be dis-
closed. The policy ends with this cheerful invitation: “Above all, remember to have fun and be yourself!”5

Nordstrom’s digital strategy is making the company highly competitive. You will learn more about
Nordstrom and be asked to complete a relevant task at the end of this chapter.

Critical Thinking
• After reading this

case study, can you
put into perspective
the suggestion “have
fun and be yourself”?
What exactly does this
invitation mean?

• Why does Nordstrom
allow only certain
employees to connect
online with customers
and other members of the
public?

• Why do social media
guidelines emphasize
ethical behavior and
ethical communication?

Communicating in the Digital World
What kind of workplace will you enter when you graduate, and which skills will you need to be
successful in it? Expect a fast-paced, competitive, and highly connected digital environment.
Communication technology provides unmatched mobility and connects individuals anytime
and anywhere in the world. Today’s communicators interact using multiple electronic devices
and access information stored in remote locations, in the cloud.

This mobility and instant access explain why increasing numbers of workers must be avail-
able practically around the clock and respond quickly. Nordstrom and other technology-savvy
businesses have recognized the power of social media networks and seek to engage their
customers and other stakeholders where they meet online. Communication no longer flows one
way; rather, electronic media have empowered the public to participate and be heard.

In this increasingly complex, networked, and mobile environment, communication skills
matter more than ever.6 Such skills are particularly significant when competition is keen. Job
candidates with exceptional communication skills immediately stand out. In this chapter you
will learn about communication skills in the digital era and about the contemporary world
of work. Later you will study tools to help you negotiate ethical minefields and do the right
thing. Each section covers the latest information about communicating in business while also
providing tips to help you function effectively and ethically in today’s fast-paced, informa-
tion-driven workplace.

LEARNING
OUTCOME 1
Explain how
communication skills
fuel career success, and
understand why writing
skills are vital in a digital,
mobile, and social-media-
driven workplace.

Zooming In
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Opening scenarios in each chapter illustrate social media and technology use, teamwork,
meetings, persuasion, and more by companies that you know and interact with, such
as Starbucks, Lyft, Walmart, Taco Bell, Sony, Royal Caribbean, olloclip, Pew Research,
and JetBlue.

BUSINESS COMMUNICATION: PROCESS & PRODUCT, 9E

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Brief Contents
Unit 1 Communication Foundations 1

1 Business Communication in the Digital Age 2
2 Professionalism: Team, Meeting, Listening, Nonverbal, and Etiquette Skills 42
3 Intercultural Communication 84

Unit 2 The Writing Process in the Digital Era 125
4 Planning Business Messages 126
5 Organizing and Drafting Business Messages 158
6 Revising Business Messages 186

Unit 3 Workplace Communication 213

Unit 4 Reports, Proposals, and Presentations 387

Unit 5 Employment Communication 563

Appendixes

End Matter

Brief Contents ix

7 Short Workplace Messages and Digital Media 214
8 Positive Messages 252
9 Negative Messages 294
10 Persuasive and Sales Messages 338

11 Reporting in the Digital Age Workplace 388
12 Informal Business Reports 436
13 Proposals, Business Plans, and Formal Business Reports 482
14 Business Presentations 520

15 The Job Search, Résumés, and Cover Letters in the Digital Age 564
16 Interviewing and Following Up 612

Key to Grammar and Mechanics Key-1
Etiquette IQ Responses R-1
Glossary (Available online only at www.cengagebrain.com)
Index I-1

A Document Format Guide A-1
B Documentation Formats B-1
C Correction Symbols and Proofreading Marks C-1
D Grammar and Mechanics Guide D-1

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Contents

Contents xi

UNIT

1 CommunicationFoundations
Zooming In: Nordstrom: A Fabulous Shopping

Experience Goes Social 3
Communicating in the Digital World 3
The Digital Revolution and You: Tools for Success in the

21st-Century Workplace 6
How Your Education Drives Your Income 10
Trends and Challenges in the Information

Age Workplace 10
Information Flow and Media Choices in Today’s

Workplace 19
Ethics in the Workplace Needed More Than Ever 26
Zooming In: Your Turn: Applying Your Skills at

Nordstrom 31

Summary of Learning Outcomes 32
Critical Thinking 33
Activities 33
Test Your Etiquette IQ 37
Chat About It 38
Grammar and Mechanics 38
References 39

Chapter 1
Business Communication
in the Digital Age 2

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Zooming In: Lyft Epitomizes the Sharing Economy and
Teamwork 43
Adding Value to Professional Teams 43
Checklist: Developing Team Effectiveness 50
Planning and Participating in Face-to-Face and

Virtual Meetings 51
Checklist: Planning and Participating in Productive

Meetings 58
Listening in the Workplace 59
Checklist: Improving Listening 64
Communicating Nonverbally 64
Checklist: Building Strong Nonverbal Communication
Skills in the Workplace 68
Developing Professionalism and Business Etiquette Skills

at the Office and Online 69
Zooming In: Your Turn: Applying Your Skills at Lyft 72

Summary of Learning Outcomes 72
Critical Thinking 74
Activities 74
Test Your Etiquette IQ 79

Chapter 2
Professionalism:
Team, Meeting, Listening,
Nonverbal, and Etiquette
Skills 42

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xii …

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