Criminology homework help

| March 28, 2020

Three are several different types of lighting available to the security professional. Each type comes with its own set of strengths and weaknesses, and therefore consideration should be given to when and where each type should be utilized. The four primary types of lighting are incandescent, florescent, high-intensity discharge (HID), and light-emitting diode (LED). Incandescent lighting simply applies an electric current across a filament to produce light. Incandescent lighting provides good color rendition but many of the other benefits cited by Atlas have become outdated when compared to newer LED systems (Atlas, 2008, p. 389). The weaknesses with incandescent systems are the high-heat output, and the high energy consumption. The assessments that my team conducts do not do a complete lighting study but we do a basic analysis and often recommend facilities have professional lighting studies conducted. Most facilities are either in the process or have fully converted their systems away from incandescent systems because of the cost of operating them, and some sites with LED systems will leave their systems on, even in daytime hours. Incandescent systems used to be a cost effective option with good color rendition, in locations that were easily reached due to their projected lifetime. With the proliferation of LED and compact florescent lighting this is no longer the case and we only see these systems in places that lack the funding to upgrade the entire lighting system. Compact fluorescent lighting has become the new norm for interior lighting systems. These are low-pressure mercury tubes that require a ballast, or pressure regulator, to operate properly. This adds another fail point for these systems. Compact bulbs have a ballast built in which should easily last the life of the bulb. These bulbs are efficient and are of relatively low cost, however they are susceptible to temperature variations (Atlas, 2008, p. 390). Fluorescent systems are best used where the temperatures are controlled or remain constant, such as within structures. HID systems have various modes of operation based on the internal compounds used. Most of these systems ail from long start and re-start times, while most are fairly efficient (Atlas, 2008, pp. 390-394). We find these systems commonly in warehouses or in other large covered structures. LED lighting systems require minimal energy while providing a lot of light. Our assessment team has found these systems to be a favorite across all industries that we come into contact with for exterior lighting. These systems have shown to significantly reduce costs even with a steep up-front cost to upgrade dozens to hundreds of lights, which is appealing to facilities that require an extensive amount of security/safety lighting.

Several CPTED based security countermeasures and factors should be considered when designing parking lots and structures. Designs that provide for a single way in and a single way out is consistent with CPTED principles of access control and natural surveillance (Atlas, 2008, p. 420). Circular pillars and open stairwells are architectural designs that further allow for better natural surveillance (Atlas, 2008, pp. 427, 430). Screening of the lower level adds to perimeter security and access control concepts and do not hinder natural surveillance (Atlas, 2008, p. 416). Landscaping concepts consistent with CPTED consist of low shrubs and intermittent trees (Atlas, 2008, p. 417).


Atlas, R. I. (2008). 21st Century Security and CPTED: Designing for Critical Infrastructure Protection and Crime Prevention. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.

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