Childhood Obesity

| August 31, 2015

Executive Summary to the Government in the United State Subject: Is Childhood Obesity A Form of Abuse? use this as the subject please and Please go by the Executive Sample and the Subject: Is Childhood Obesity A Form of Abuse? Your task is to submit an executive summary to the Governor’s Office that provides both a summary of what your research has uncovered as well as a recommendation for further action. though executive summaries do not usually include citations (because they are contained in a larger report), for this assignment you are expected to include in-text citations and a reference list at the end of your report. In-text citations and references should follow APA format Statement of problem What is the problem and why should we care? What are the data and who is affected? How many are affected? Supportive evidence What do the important parenting theorists have to say about this issue? What do modern researchers have to say about this issue? Recommendation – Format – Tone Composition and Mechanics Citations and References Sample of the Executive please go by this sample Description of Managed Care Managed care is a healthcare strategy implemented to provide cost-effective, integrated care to enrollees. Managed care can take several forms. One includes a traditional fee-for-service reimbursement structure where insurance companies use utilization reviews to monitor costs and treatment needs. A second managed care option is the Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) which require enrollees to seek treatment from in-network providers. Consumers who object to in-network restrictions are increasingly enrolling in a third managed care option, Preferred Provider Organizations (PPO’s), which allow patients to seek out-of-network care, but at a higher cost to the patient. Payment to providers for HMO’s and PPO’s is made either directly to the provider (two-tiered system) or through administrative bodies that manage groups of physicians (three-tiered system). Providers are usually paid a capitated rate for each patient enrolled or a negotiated, discounted rate for services rendered. Stakeholder’s View – Policy Advocate In theory, managed care should provide excellent, integrated care that focuses on prevention and overall health. In reality, the US healthcare system has been criticized for being fragmented, inefficient and costly (Bodenheimer & Grumbach, 2009). Some of the blame lies in our overemphasis on specialization and hospitalization rather than primary care. In countries that require patients to see a primary care provider as the gatekeeper for all services, the majority of physicians are general practitioners trained to provide sustained and coordinated care. A multidisciplinary team ensures that patients receive integrated care. Research has consistently demonstrated that the care provided by general practitioners and primary care specialists yields higher patient satisfaction and compliance, better health outcomes, fewer hospitalizations, and significantly lowered costs (Bodenheimer & Grumbach, 2009). In the United States, the consumerist mentality has allowed patients to seek primary care from specialists who are not trained in important primary care skills. These providers are far more costly than general practitioners. Since the majority of health complaints can be effectively dealt with at the primary care level at substantially lower cost, the reliance on secondary and tertiary care providers is not justified. Further, the American insistence on choice over control has caused models of structured care like Kaiser Health to become less popular while less structured plans are increasing in enrollments (Bodenheimer & Grumbach, 2009). The movement towards less structured health care mechanisms has added a layer of complexity that has been addressed through the formation of intermediary groups like Independent Practice Associations (IPA’s) which have also added to the overall cost of healthcare. As the United States grapples with the problems of the high cost of healthcare and the great numbers of uninsured and underinsured, policy advocates need to make a compelling public case that a preponderance of evidence points to primary care as the best location for addressing almost all routine medical needs both in terms of cost savings and health outcomes. The savings generated by shifting our focus would allow us to reduce costs of care making insurance more accessible to the uninsured and underinsured. Unfortunately, this can only be done through widespread public education and political will. Conclusion Research has demonstrated that the problems associated with US healthcare can be resolved by relocating most care provision to the primary care level; however, forcing patients to seek a particular kind of provider runs contrary to the American ethic of independence and free will. The case must be made that primary care does not restrict freedom; rather, it promotes well-being and makes available resources that benefit the greater good. Ironically, by pointing consumers to primary care, healthcare at last becomes more consumer-oriented and less provider-driven. References Bodenheimer, T.S. & Grumbach, K. (2009). Understanding health policy: A clinical approach (5th Ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.

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childhood obesity: cause, effect and the solution
Childhood Obesity

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