Charles Darwin many wealthy Americans of the late 1800s defended wipe-open capitalism by relying on his “survival-of-the-fittest” theories Stephen Crane he was the 14th son of a Methodist minister who wrote about the seamy underside of life in urban, industrial America. His Maggie: Girl Of the Streets was published in 1893 Booker T. Washington the ex-slave and foremost champion of black education who was called in 1881 to head Tuskegee Institute Horatio Alger this Puritan-reared New England ex-pastor began his literary career in 1866, during which he wrote more than 100 books of juvenile fiction in which virtue, honesty, and industry were rewarded with success, wealth, and honor Clara Barton the five-foot “angel” of the Civil War battlefields who was a leading spirit in the formation of the American Red Cross in 1881 Anthony Comstock he made a lifelong war on the “immoral.” Armed with a federal law named after him in 1873, this self-appointed defender of sexual purity boasted that he had confiscated no fewer than 202,679 “obscene pictures” William Randolph Hearst though he was expelled from Harvard, he was able to draw on his father’s mining millions to build a newspaper empire at the turn of the century which was used to practice yellow journalism and sensationalism Dime Novels post-Civil War Americans devoured millions of paperbacks depicting paint-daubed Indians and quick-triggered gunmen. This nickname was given to this literature frowned upon by parents, but secretly read by children P.T. Barnum & James A. Bailey in 1881, these two men began the “Greatest Show on Earth” Christian Science the religious sect originating in the US in the late 1800s that believed in healing through prayer Mary Baker Eddy the author of Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures in 1875 who founded a new religion based on Christian healing Henry George he undertook to explain the association of progress with poverty. He believed this was attributable to rent and that a single tax on land was the cure. He wrote the classic treatise Progress and Poverty in 1879 Dr. W.E.B. Du Bois the black leader who opposed Booker T. Washington’s approach for helping blacks, helped found the NAACP in 1910, and was the first black to earn a Ph. D. at Harvard Washington Gladden the 1880s pastor of a Congregationalist Church in Columbus, Ohio, who insisted that the church tackle the burning social and economic injustices of the day Emily Dickinson this woman, one of America’s most gifted lyric poets, did not emerge until 1886 when she died and her poems were discovered Frank Norris this author published The Octopus, an earth saga of the stranglehold of the railroad and corrupt politicians of California wheat ranchers, in 1901 Bret Harte the late 1800s author who wrote of the West and authored The Outcast of Poker Flat American Protective Association the nativist group formed in 1887 that had among its goals a policy urging its members to vote against Roman Catholic candidates for office Winslow Homer his canvases of the sea and fisherfolk were masterly, and probably no American artist had excelled him in portraying the awesome power of the ocean Henry James this author took as his dominant theme the confrontation of innocent Americans with subtle Europeans. In The Bostonians, published in 1886, he wrote on the of the first novels about the rising feminist movement Dr. Charles W. Elliot the young chemist who became president of Harvard College and launched a program of electives to better meet the practical demands of an industrial society Wild West Shows these colorful shows, headed by William F. Cody, began in 1883 and were distinctively American Women’s Christian Temperance Union in 1874 militant ladies entered the alcoholic arena by forming this organization William James acclaimed as one of the most brilliant philosophers yet produced in America, he served for 35 years on the Harvard faculty and was the proponent of the philosophical concept known as pragmatism Jack London the turn-of-the-century author of the book The Call of the Wild John Hopkins the university opened in 1876 that maintained the nation’s first high-grade graduate school and ably carried on the Germanic tradition of profusely footnoted tomes Edward Bellamy he was a quiet Massachusetts Yankee and a journalist reformer. In 1888 he published the socialistic novel Looking Backward that appealed to many of the reform-minded of the time Chautauqua movement the education movement launched in New York in 1874 that featured public lectures and home study courses Sidney Lanier this tragic southerner, oppressed by poverty and ill health, was torn between flute playing and poetry. He died young in 1881, but not before writing “The Marshes of Glynn” Morrill Act of 1862 “land-grant colleges” resulted from this 1860s legislation that provided a generous grant of public lands to the states for the support of education Theodore Dreiser among the turn-of-the-century “social novelists” was the author of Sister Carrie (1900), a graphically realistic narrative of a poor working girl in Chicago and New York Lewis Wallace Ben Hur: A Tale of the Christ was published in 1880 by this Civil War soldier, lawyer, and author seeking to combat Darwinian skepticism of the time National American Women’s Suffrage Association Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony helped other militant suffragists from this organization in 1890 Joseph Pulitzer the Hungarian-born journalistic tycoon who at the turn of the century became a leader in the techniques of sensationalism while at the helm of the New York World Susan B. Anthony the radical Quaker spitfire who had courted jail by trying to vote in the 1872 presidential election Augustus Saint-Gaudens he was the most gifted sculptor yet produced by America, whose works include the “Shaw Monument” Columbia Exposition the 1893 Chicago gathering that attracted 27 million people and was seen as a setback for realism and a revival of classic architectural forms Salvation Army this religious denomination was a newcomer to America in the late 1800s. They were band-playing soldiers without swords George Washington Carver he became a faculty member of the Tuskegee Institute in 1896 and became an internationally famous agricultural chemist who discovered hundreds of uses for the peanut, sweet potato, and soy bean Carrie Nation with her hatchet, she boldly smashed saloon bottles and bars. Her violent crusade in the late 1800s brought disrepute to the prohibition movement Mark Twain he typed a new breed of American authors in revolt against the elegant refinements of the old New England school of writing. He leapt to fame in 1867 with The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County James Whistler this quarrelsome and eccentric Massachusetts painter had failed at West Point earlier in life. This late 19th century artist was famous for a portrait of his mother Walter Rauschenbusch the 1880s pastor of a German Baptist Church in New York City who sought to apply the Christian religion to the slums and factories Walt Whitman the poet inspired by the assassination of Lincoln to write “O Captain! My Captain!” Frances E. Willard the woman who was a champion of Planned Parenthood and the leading spirit in the formation in 1874 of the Women’s Christian Temperance Movement Fundamentalists the term for conservative 19th century church people who believed in the scripture as the inspired and infallible word of God.