Case Study 2 Read the attached case study and analyze the case scenario/research by answering the series of questions.  No abstract is required for the Ca

Case Study 2 Read the attached case study and analyze the case scenario/research by answering the series of questions. 

No abstract is required for the Case Study Assignment nor are an introduction or conclusion; simply type the questions as an APA style heading and respond. Ensure the following are met:

Must be supported with at least 4 scholarly (peer reviewed) research articles in your response. 

Must be at least 700 words (the word count does not include the question text, cover page, or reference page)

Use proper grammar, current APA format and submit in MS Word format Business Research Methods, 14e/Schindler



Eric Lipp started the Open Doors Organization (ODO) to help travelers with disabilities. In
order to get the attention of the travel and hospitality industries, and to effect changes
desired by people with disabilities, ODO undertook a major research project to estimate the
expenditures of persons with disabilities and the accommodations that would be necessary
to get them to travel more. Harris Interactive was chosen to field the multimethod survey.
This case describes the methodology and the effects of the first round of a multiphase


>The Scenario
In the last decade, companies have expended training dollars to address numerous social
issues, including sexual harassment and diversity. In the hospitality industry, firms have been
less than enthusiastic about allocating budgets for training and other initiatives designed to
make adults with disabilities feel comfortable or welcomed. Providing the incentive for airlines,
hotels, cruise lines, and restaurants to take notice of this underappreciated and often invisible
market segment was one of the motivations behind the Adults with Disabilities: Travel and
Hospitality Study1 funded and coordinated by Open Doors Organization (ODO),2 a disability
access advocacy organization.

Eric Lipp, executive director of ODO, shares that the population of adults with disabilities
is growing. “Assuming incident rates by age remain as they are now3 , by 2030 nearly 24
percent of the total U.S. population will have a disability (and more than 15 percent will be
severely disabled).”4 Other studies contribute to our understanding of increasing disability
incidence as age of a population increases. As the U.S. population ages, more seniors are likely
to develop disabilities that limit or restrict movement or pose travel hurdles. Stroke caused by
cerebrovascular disease is the leading cause of disability among adults. Incidence of stroke in
the United States is estimated at 700,000 new cases per year.5

Little research had been done by companies on the disability travel market segment before
the ODO study. “We believe that fear [of the sensitivity of the issue],” explains Lipp, “keeps
companies from exploring the opportunities. But to get them to hear the opportunity, we’d have
to show them the numbers.” Francie Turk, volunteer study consultant and principal with
Consumer Connections, Inc., concludes, “The travel industry was interested, but they thought
it was politically incorrect to ask. But people, especially those who feel they haven’t been
heard, appreciate being asked for their ideas.” 6

“We wanted to provide evidence that it was a good financial investment to market to
adults with disabilities,” explains Lipp. “Only if companies understand the financial implications
will they invest in disability initiatives.” The ODO study had four objectives:

• Estimate the economic impact of the disability community on the travel industry.
• Measure the travel behaviors of adults with disabilities, including how often they

travel and with whom, how much they spend, and the sources of information on which
they rely.

• Determine how well the needs of adults with disabilities are being met by the travel
industry (including airlines, cruise lines, restaurants, and hotels).

• Quantify what services and products would encourage adults with disabilities to travel

Open Doors: Extending Hospitality
to Travelers with Disabilities

Used with
permission of
Pamela S. Schindler
© 2004.

Business Research Methods, 14e/Schindler

Open Doors: Extending Hospitality to Travelers with DisabilitiesDoors

>The Research
“We decided to do a dual-modality survey and my responsibility was to find an organization

to assist ODO, as well as guide the process,” explains Turk. Using her network of contacts,
Turk narrowed the field of suppliers to three, eventually awarding the research contract to
Harris Interactive.7 “While Strategic Marketing, Inc. and Market Facts (now Synovate) are also
well-regarded research firms, Harris Interactive had experience surveying adults with disabilities;
that tipped the scale.”

To understand the disability community’s travel frustrations and experiences, ODO first
turned to adults with disabilities. “Many on the ODO staff have disabilities,” explains Lipp.
“From personal experience, we know that those with disabilities often stay home rather than
face the obstacles of restaurants, hotel rooms, and airplanes.” But Lipp also knew that while
ODO could be the voice for people with disabilities, the organization might not have the full
picture. Using the research expertise of volunteer Turk,8 ODO conducted its own focus groups.
Thirteen participants, all with disabilities, were involved in two group sessions held at ODO
headquarters. “We needed to flesh out the critical issues,” explains Turk. “But we also needed
to be sure we understood the right language to clarify those issues.”

ODO wanted buy-in from those organizations that already address disability issues and
those that could benefit from knowing the study’s findings, so it recruited representatives to
influence the questionnaire design. Lipp and Turk spoke with numerous executives from airlines,
hotels, and travel destinations like Disney to find out what they needed and wanted to know.
Then they formed a team to help develop the survey questions; it included Laura Light from
Harris Interactive, adults with disabilities, and individuals representing businesses in the
hospitality industry.

Through a series of conference calls and meetings, the survey was crafted. “At the
beginning we had far too many questions. The survey would have been far too long,” describes
Lipp. “Our focus was too broad,” contributes Turk. So they narrowed the focus to primarily
airlines and hotels, giving only cursory attention to restaurants and cruises. The resulting
edited questionnaire, after the initial draft by Harris Interactive and five revisions, would take
21 minutes to administer.9 (See Exhibit ODO-1.)

In terms of sampling, ODO narrowed its definition of an adult with a disability. “We wanted
the disability to be permanent, and we wanted to cover the full range of physically limiting
disabilities,” shares Turk. “But we didn’t want to include those with mental or emotional
disorders.” Harris Interactive identified an ‘adult with a disability’ participant by using a variation
of the 2000 U.S. Census questions. In the U.S. Census, a disability was defined as ‘blindness,
deafness, or a condition that substantially limits one or more basic physical activities such as
walking, climbing stairs, reaching, lifting, or carrying.’ (see Exhibit ODO-2).

In total, 1037 surveys were completed between September 23, 2002, and October 9, 2002;
534 were conducted online using the Harris Interactive online database and screening for
adults with disabilities, while 503 interviews were conducted by telephone. Some of the telephone
participants had previously participated in Harris Interactive studies and agreed to participate
in future polls related to disability issues.10 Harris Interactive regularly uses a hybrid
methodology involving phone and online participants. “People with disabilities are not all
reachable by phone or online; the nature of their disability will sometimes exclude one method
or another. It was important to use both to achieve a representative sample,” shares Laura
Light, research director at Harris Interactive on the ODO study.11 During analysis, Harris
Interactive addresses the dual methodologies by weighting the data using a proprietary weighting
process. “All Harris Interactive polls are weighted by demographics to ensure the sample is
representative. But with online studies, we use propensity weighting as well,” explains Light.
Online participants tend to be better-informed, so Harris Interactive uses responses to attitudinal
and behavioral questions to weight online participants’ responses compared to those of persons
they speak with by phone. Propensity weighting12 adjusts responses of an individual online
participant based on national data about that individual’s likelihood to be online.

Business Research Methods, 14e/Schindler


Open Doors: Extending Hospitality to Travelers with Disabilities

Exhibit ODO-2: Census 2000 Questions on Disability Status

Census 2000 Questions

16. Does this person have any of the following long-lasting conditions:
a. Blindness, deafness, or a severe vision or hearing impairment?
b. A condition that substantially limits one or more basic physical activities such as walking, climbing stairs,

reaching, lifting, or carrying?

17. Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition lasting 6 months or more, does this person have any
difficulty in doing any of the following activities:
a. Learning, remembering, or concentrating?
b. Dressing, bathing, or getting around inside the home?
c. (Answer if this person is 16 YEARS OLD or OVER) Going outside the home alone to shop or visit a

doctor’s office?
d. (Answer if this person is 16 YEARS OLD or OVER) Working at a job or business?

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 questionnaire.

The survey included a variety of question types, but some of the most challenging were
paired-comparison exercises. When developing paired-comparison scales, each item is paired
against each other item in a list, asking the participant to choose one from the pair on some
criterion. In two survey questions, to learn about accommodations made for or desired by
those with disabilities, Harris Interactive used its proprietary methodology COMPASS. For one
question a list of 17 possible disability-targeted accommodations for airlines was considered.
Among the possible airline accommodations were “attendants who do not call unnecessary
attention to my needs,” “accessible lavatory,” and “Braille safety cards.” (see Exhibit ODO-3
for all 17 accommodations.) To fully address a list of 17 items, the number of comparisons (136)
would be daunting, so COMPASS uses a computer program to reduce the number of pairs per
participant while still assessing all 136 pairs. “Each individual participant is asked to address a
portion of the full pair set. [See Exhibit ODO-4.13 ] COMPASS allows us to determine a ranking
within a very long list without taking extensive time from or wearing out the participant,” shares
Light. “Within the entire sample, we have the ability not only to rank the items on the list but
also measure the magnitude of difference between the items.” This one exercise required 150
seconds to complete online.

The study confirmed what ODO had been hearing anecdotally, and showed few differences
based on type of disability:

• The adults with disabilities travel segment is huge and likely to get much bigger.
• Hotels and airlines making accommodations for the segment could double their revenues.
• The Internet and referrals are powerful information resources for the segment.

Possibly most surprising among the findings was that the accommodations that travel industry
businesses need to make to attract those extra travel dollars aren’t necessarily the most costly
options. In the airline segment, the ranking of accommodation activities drawn from the paired-
comparison exercise revealed that adults with disabilities wanted (1) more accommodating
staff—those who understood their special needs, (2) guaranteed preferred seating for people
with disabilities—which most airlines have but don’t prominently promote, and (3) a designated
employee at check-in and arrival to handle issues related to disability-caused problems.

The Harris Interactive final report to ODO encompassed a 76-slide PowerPoint-driven oral
presentation with a significant number of charts and graphs and a 245-page written report
including 131 tables using demographic and lifestyle variables against target variables; these
were all indexed in the back of the report by page number.14

The next phase of ODO’s Adults with Disabilities: Travel and Hospitality Study began in

Business Research Methods, 14e/Schindler


2004. “We’re changing the focus, somewhat,” shares Turk, “looking much more at restaurants
and rental car companies.” ODO will also spend less time on identifying the accommodations
needed to attract travelers with disabilities. “We think we understand these issues well,”
explains Turk. What heads ODO’s agenda this time? “We want to discover how these adults
use the Internet [for travel information and reservations]. This time, we’re more interested in
judging whether those firms that enhanced training and made accommodations experienced a
boost in customer satisfaction and travel business.”

Open Doors: Extending Hospitality to Travelers with DisabilitiesDoors

*Accommodations are presented here in random order.

Exhibit ODO-3 Accommodations* Evaluated by Air Travelers with Disabilities

01 Wheelchair dro- off and pick-up at gate

02 More time to board or exit the plane

03 A “meet and assist” or escort service at the gate

04 Guaranteed preferred seating (for example, bulkhead or aisle seating)

05 One centralized phone number to call to make all of my arrangements

06 A designated airline employee at check-in and arrival who asks how he or she can help me

07 Increased sensitivity to my needs during security checks

08 Attendants who do not call unnecessary attention to my needs

09 Staff who go out of their way to accommodate my special needs

10 Use of airport wheelchair to get to the gate

11 Use of airport transfer chair (narrow chair) to get to my seat

12 Use of onboard wheelchair

13 Accessible lavatory

14 Oxygen available on board

15 Assistive hearing devices

16 Braille safety cards

17 Assistance dogs

Exhibit ODO-5 Paired Comparison Exercise with 17 Attributes

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
2 1
3 2 17
4 3 18 32
5 4 19 33 46
6 5 20 34 47 59
7 6 21 35 48 60 71
8 7 22 36 49 61 72 82
9 8 23 37 50 62 73 83 92

10 9 24 38 51 63 74 84 93 101
11 10 25 39 52 64 75 85 94 102 109
12 11 26 40 53 65 76 86 95 103 110 116
13 12 27 41 54 66 77 87 96 104 111 117 122
14 13 28 42 55 67 78 88 97 105 112 118 123 127
15 14 29 43 56 68 79 89 98 106 113 119 124 128 131
16 15 30 44 57 69 80 90 99 107 114 120 125 129 132 134
17 16 31 45 58 70 81 91 100 108 115 121 126 130 133 135 136

In a paired comparison, each participant is presented with two options and as ked to indicate a preference between
the two on some criterion. If each item is compared to every other item, one individual doing a 17 -item paired
comparison would be presented with 136 comparisons,1 an overwhelming task for any participant. Harris
Interactive’s COMPASS uses a computer program to generate all the pairings and then generate several sets , each
consisting of some of those pairings. Each participant is asked to address the pairs in only one set.2 For any
participant, the number of pairs in his or her set equals the number of attributes in the list.3 Also, within the set, the
participant will be exposed to each attribute at least twice. 4 COMPASS reduces the participant burden of the exercise
to a manageable level and significantly reduces the participant’s time doing the exercise. This increases their likely
completion of the exercise. Each individual pair ing is asked of a subset of the sample of all participants in the
study.5 COMPASS generates enough sets so that all possible pairings are completed, while allowing overlap of
pairings between participants. For this 17-item COMPASS exercise, Harris Interactive would use 9 different sets of
paired comparisons with a minimum of 270 participants.

1 P = N!/[(N-2)!× (2!)]

where P = the number of paired-comparisons
N = the number of items to be compared

Each pair is numbered in the chart, from 1 to 136.

2 An example of a set is represented by the green-shaded numbered boxes above. The set would comprise the following pairings:
2, 8, 18, 24, 33, 47, 65, 72, 82, 91, 102, 113, 117, 126, 127, 132, and 134.
3 In our example, as the number of attributes to be compared is 17, t he number of pairings any one participant would address
would be 17.
4 Each attribute must appear at least twice in each set (minimum)

Pairing# 2 8 18 24 33 47 65 72 82 91 102 113 117 126 127 132 134
Attribute 1 9 2 10 3 4 5 6 7 7 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Attribute 3 1 4 2 5 6 12 8 8 17 11 15 13 17 14 16 16

In our example, pairing 18 will expose the participant to attributes 2 and 4, while pairing 24 will expose the participant to
attributes 2 and 10. Nowhere else in the set will the participant be exposed to attribute 2. But he or she will see attribute 10 again
when presented with pairing 113 and attribute 4 aga in when presented with pairing 47.
5 In our example, pairing 102, which forces a choice between attribute 9 and attribute 11, would be asked of several participants,
keeping the minimum number of participants above 30.


Business Research Methods, 14e/Schindler


1. How did ODO operationalize the definition of an adult with a disability? What
arguments could you make that the definition was too inclusive or too narrow?

2. Analyze the research design’s various components. Identify any potential problems
and explain the ramifications of these design issues. Identify potential strengths of
the design.

3. What is a hybrid (dual-modality) methodology? What are the pros and cons of the
hybrid methodology used in this study?

4. Francie Turk had no prior experience with researching Americans with disabilities.
Assume you have similar background; what would you have done in the exploratory
phase of this project to become familiar with the frustrations and hurdles that adults
with disabilities face when traveling? Compare your research process with what
ODO did. What could ODO have gained from incorporating your methods?

5. Brainstorm lists of potential hotel, restaurant, and rental car accommodations to be
evaluated for adults with disabilities and create your own paired-comparison question.
During a phone interview, how quickly could you cover this question? What are the
advantages and disadvantages to using this measurement scale in the phone survey
in comparison to using it in the online survey?

6. What are the management, research, and investigative questions driving the next
Adults with Disabilities: Travel and Hospitality Study?

1 Study was conducted between September 23, 2002, and October 9, 2002.
2 The Open Doors Organization (ODO), founded in 2000, is committed to ensuring that all persons with

disabilities have the same consumer opportunities as those without disabilities. ODO gives businesses the
information and tools it needs to succeed in the disability market. It conducts research, management and
employee training, and provides guidance to comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act. “Our
Commitment to the disability community,” Open Doors Organization, downloaded February 20, 2004

3 Published by the Census Bureau in 2001 based on 1997 data.
4 Eric Lipp, executive director of the Open Doors Organization, interviewed by phone on March 5, 2004.
5 “Risk Factors/Epidemiology,” Webcasts and Articles,, downloaded March 5, 2004 (http://
6 Francie Turk, principal, Consumer Connections, Inc., interviewed March 11, 2004.
7 Harris Interactive is a global market research and consulting firm, best known for The Harris Poll.7 It has

conducted the Survey of Americans with Disabilities, sponsored by the National Organization on Disabilities
(NOD) for many years. Headquartered in Rochester, New York., Harris Interactive combines proprietary
methodologies and technology with expertise in predictive, custom, and strategic research. “About Harris
Interactive,” downloaded March 10, 2004 (

8 Francie Turk spent eight years in research with Kraft Foods before venturing out on her own. She earned her
MBA from Northwestern University.

9 Research Among Adults with Disabilities: Travel and Hospitality, final report prepared by Harris Interactive
for the Open Doors Organization, delivered January 2002.

10 “Sample and Methodology,” Research Among Adults with Disabilities: Travel and Hospitality.
11 Laura Light, research director for public policy and public pelations, Harris Interactive, interviewed March

10, 2004.
12 Propensity weighting is a proprietary methodology developed from Harris Interactive’s extensive experience

with online polling. It is based on a series of questions that address attitudinal and behavioral issues that
demonstrate how online participants are different from those contacted by another means. Harris Interactive,
downloaded March 10, 2003 (

13 Steve Struhl, senior vice president with Harris Interactive, detailed the COMPASS methodology and helped
construct this exhibit.

14 Research Among Adults with Disabilities: Travel and Hospitality.




Open Doors: Extending Hospitality to Travelers with Disabilities

Developed for Business Research Methods, 8/e. Used with permission of Pamela S. Schindler and Donald
R. Cooper. © 2004


Pg. 1 of 15

Project Manager: Laura Light
Phone: 212-539-9710

Exhibit ODO-1 Online ODO Survey/ Harris Interactive

New York, New York 10003


July 25, 2002

J:16xxx16972 Open Doors Qnairej16972_online final.doc


Field Period:



Proprietary Questions Not To Be Released: TBD

Harris Interactive -approved Results Items: TBD

Harris Interactive -approved Soft Exit Items:

Place Time Stamps: Beginning of survey, end of survey

Number of Response Equivalents (REs):

Estimated Survey Durati on:

Template: HI


Business Research Methods, 14e/Schindler

Exhibit ODO-1 Online ODO Survey/Harris Interactive (cont.) Pg. 2 of 15


Q200 We appreciate you taking the time to complete this survey. The survey has been designed to help
us better understand people’s travel, entertainment, and hospitality-related behaviors and experiences.

However, we are going to begin with a few questions about disability issues. These answers will help us to
ensure that we interview a broad range of people and will be kept completely confidential. Do you have
any of the following long-lasting conditions? 4 items x 10 sec. = 40 sec.


1 Blindness or a serious vision impairme nt (not correctable by eyeglasses or contact lenses)
2 Deafness or a serious hearing impairment
3 A condition that substantially limits one or more basic physical activities, such as walking,

climbing stairs, reaching, lifting or carrying
4 A physical, mental, o r emotional condition

that increases the difficulty of learning, remembering, or concentrating


Q205 Would you describe your handicap, disability or health problem as slight, moderate, somewhat
severe, or very severe? 10 sec.

1 Slight
2 Moderate
3 Somewhat severe
4 Very severe

Business Research Methods, 14e/Schindler


Exhibit ODO-1 Online ODO Survey/Harris Interactive (cont.) Pg. 3 of 15


Q300 Now, we have a series of questions about your general entertainment and travel experiences. How
many trips have you taken in the past 2 years for business and for leisure? 20 sec.

[RANGE: 0-1,000]

1 Business / / / / /
2 Leisure / / / / /


BASE: HAS TAKEN A TRIP (Q300/1 GE 1 OR Q300/2 GE 1)
Q315 How did you book your last trip? 15 sec.


1 On the Internet
2 On the phone with a travel agent
3 On the phone, directly with the airlines or hotels
4 In person with a travel agent
6 Other [ANCHOR]

BASE: HAS TAKEN A TRIP (Q300/1 GE 1 OR Q300/2 GE 1)
Q320 Again, thinking about your last trip, how many people traveled with you, either children or adults?
15 sec.

[RANGE: 0-90]

/ / /

BASE: HAS TAKEN A TRIP (Q300/1 GE 1 OR Q300/2 GE 1)
Q325 On your last trip, how many nights were you away from home? 15 sec.

[RANGE: 1-30]

/ / / Nights

Business Research Methods, 14e/Schindler

Exhibit ODO-1 Online ODO Survey/Harris Interactive (cont.) Pg. 4 of 15

BASE: HAS TAKEN A TRIP (Q300/1 GE 1 OR Q300/2 GE 1)
Q330 Also, on your last trip, approximately how much did you spend on…? 20 sec. X 6 items = 120



1 Airfare / / / / / /
2 Car (for example, gas, tolls, rental) / / / / / /
3 Mass transit / / / / / /
4 Food and beverages / / / / / /
5 Accommodations (such as hotels, inns or motels) / / / / / /
6 Entertainment (for example, theater, concerts, museums, parks) / / / / / /

BASE: HAS TAKEN A TRIP (Q300/1 GE 1 OR Q300/2 GE 1)
Q340 Which of the following statements best reflects how likely you are to share your personal travel
experiences with others? 20 sec.

1 I primarily share my travel experiences with others when the services and accommodations have
been excellent.

2 I primarily share my travel experiences with others when the services and accommodations have
been poor.

3 Regardless of the situation – excellent or poor, I am likely to share my travel experience with

4 I rarely or never share my personal travel experience with others.

BASE: HAS TAKEN A TRIP (Q300/1 GE 1 OR Q300/2 GE 1)
Q345 In general, when planning a trip, what are your best sources of information about which companies,
services and products are most accessible for people with disabilities? Please check all that apply.
20 sec.


1 Friends and family
2 Travel agent
3 Travel brochures/magazines/newspapers
4 Television
5 Disability organizations or other community organizations
6 Internet
7 Previous experience
8 Other [ANCHOR]

Business Research Methods, 14e/Schindler

Exhibit ODO-1 Online ODO Survey/Harris Interactive (cont.) Pg. 5 of 15



BASE: HAS TAKEN A TRIP (Q300/1 GE 1 OR Q300/2 GE 1)
Q400 In the past 2 years, how many times have you flown on the following airlines? 5 sec x 8
items = 40 sec.

[RANGE: 0-900, 999]

01 American |__|__|__|
02 Continental |__|__|__|
03 Delta |__|__|__|
04 Northwest |__|__|__|
05 Southwest |__|__|__|
06 United |__|__|__|
07 USAir |__|__|__|
96 Another airline not mentioned |__|__|__| [ANCHOR, SPECIFY AT Q405]

Q405 You mentioned that you had flown on other airlines besides the ones mentioned in the previous
question. Please specify which other airlines you have flown on in the past two years . 30 sec.


AND Q400/96 GE 1, ASK Q425. OTHERS SKIP TO Q435.]

Q410 Please rate your experience on each of these airlines on a scale of “1” to “7” with “1” representing
“terrible” and “7” representing “excellent” in terms of how well the airline accommodated your needs as a
person with a disability. 4 items x 10 sec. = 40 sec.


Business Research Methods, 14e/Schindler

Exhibit ODO-1 Online ODO Survey/Harris Interactive (cont.) Pg. 6 of 15

Q425 Which of the following special devices do you need when you travel? Please check all that
20 sec.


1 Use of airport wheelchair to get to the gate
2 Use of airport transfer chair (narrow chair) to get to your seat
3 Use of onboard wheelchair …

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