The incident of 9/11 and increasing incidents of cargo theft has changed the definition of cargo security. The definition of cargo security is considering the security threats due to terrorism and cargo theft. TSA is organization that is responsible for the formulation of various security policies for all the air companies operating in air sector. The importance of these policies is not only for cargo sector; rather these have equal importance for the passenger’s air line companies. Due to uncertain circumstances and increasing terrorist activities, security agendas have become the forefront agendas for the cargo sector.
Both national and international airlines operating in this sector are focusing on their security measures and protection. Within the terrorist activities, the theft of goods has become the major threat especially for the cargo sector. That’s why the cargo sector is moving towards the adaption of new and modern technologies to minimize the theft of cargo goods. The implications of security policies formulated by TSA started from the airport and ends at the end of employees. Employees must be competent for the execution of security policies formulated by TSA and other international organizations.
With the increase in theft and terrorist activities, the cargo security has become a critical issue for the cargo sector over last two decades. The incident of 9/11 raised a question over the cargo security for all companies operating in cargo sector. This incident even changed the definition of cargo security. The new definition of cargo security was formulated considering the terrorist activities to save the aircraft from the terrorist activities as well. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) asked the airports to implement the proper security measures to stop the terrorist activities as well (Ashford, Coutu, & Beasley, 2013). Today, the cargo theft is one the burning topic all over the world.
The objective of this paper is to discuss various security acts followed by the cargo sector. These security acts follow the policies made by Transportation Security Administration (TSA). SIDA (Secure Identification Display Areas) and AOA (Air Operations Areas) are the major security acts followed by the cargo sector.
To test the security measure of any cargo airport in aspects of cargo theft and terrorist activities, four questions are very major for the management of any airport.
- The first question deals with the cargo screening, according to the new policies formulated by TSA, the cargo carrier is responsible for the screening of cargo goods. The cargo airport security acts as a support for these screening activities (Michel, Mendes, de Ruiter, Koomen, & Schwaninger, 2014). Currently, TSA analyzed the security agreements of airports with the security companies for the screening of goods.
- Airport Security Coordinator (ASC) is the focus of 2nd ASC is the person who is directly answerable to TSA and is responsible to implement all the security measures within the airport. Moreover, he or she takes the corrective action in case of any violation. It is compulsory that ASC must be available for 24 hours
- The third question deals with Federal Security Director. FSD is sub department of TSA and is responsible to check the security measures of all airports both on national and international level. Moreover, it is the department that is channel of communication between the TSA and cargo airports. In hence, it is very important for both TSA as well as cargo airports.
- The fourth questions deals with the number of security threats faced by the cargo planes and airports as well. These threats include all types of threats like theft threats, terrorism threats, emergency landing, technical threats in planes etc. TSA also formulate the policies to minimize these threats (Abeyratne, 2013). For example, according to TSA rules it is not allowed to ship the explosive materials in large amount through common cargo planes. Because there is threat of blast in case of shipment.
The Gulf War in 1991 increased the shipment of cargo goods across the borders. It opened the new ways of business for the cargo sector. Even the airports and air companies transporting the passengers established their cargo wings for movement of goods across the borders. The airports established their shipment carriers to promote the cargo business. New buildings were constructed and new road maps were made for the cargo planes.
The increasing cargo business increased the importance of facility management especially for cargo sector (Wilkinson & Jenkins, 2013). The cargo airports adopted the modern techniques to promote the business. After few decades, the increasing theft rate and terrorist incident of 9/11 moved the attention of cargo sector to cargo security.
The objective of cargo security was to reduce the terrorist as well as theft activities and promoting a good business. Moreover these security measures were good to generate the more revenue and reduction of theft cost.
THE PARTIES INVOLVED
The role of airport is like the landlord. It provides a geographical place to implement the security measures. Moreover, the basic objective of all security measures is to promote the business of airport and the protection of airport. In hence, the airport is very major party that played the crucial role to implement the security measures very effectively (Sorkin, 2014). The boundary of airport must be secured and protected against various security threats.
Aircraft Operators/ Air Carriers:
The air carriers are major target of terrorist activities. After airport, the air carriers are the major target to secure. The goods carried by the carriers are the major cause of terrorist activities. For example, the incident of 9/11 was the result of terrorism through the goods carried by a carrier, in hence, after airport the 2nd objective of these security measures is to protect the air carrier or aircraft operators.
Belly Carriers: These are the passenger airlines for which the shipment of goods across the borders is a major source of profit. These are not the actual cargo services and their security within the cargo is very weak that caused the cargo theft or any terrorist activity (Domingues et al., 2014). It is very dangerous especially for the security of passengers. Many times, the airlines reduced the size of plane to reduce the operating cost. This is also dangerous.
Freighter Operators: These are like the benefices. The security measures are not so strong for them. They focus on the international shipment of goods and they cover a more market area. Basically these are actual cargo services and they take all necessary steps to secure their cargo as well(Jafari & Dehdari, 2013).
Shippers: Although the term shipper is not defined within the policies made by TSA, but they handle a big part of business. The shippers are the cargo companies that are made only for the shipping objective. They are shipping the trade goods across the borders of different countries. In case of security, these organizations are taking the optimized steps to make their security measures strong.
TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION
There are basic two objectives of TSA. First one it checked the screening activities at all the airports including the passengers and cargo airports. Second, it formulates the various rules and regulations to run the security measures on these airports(Papa, 2013).
TSA is playing the crucial role to make the cargo services secure all over the world. After the specific intervals of time, TSA operates the accountability test to implement the security measures in all kind of airports both on national and international level. After the terrorist’s attacks, the TSA made its security policies more restricted to secure the airports.
INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORT ASSOCIATION
IATA is international regulatory body operating all over the world. Like the TSA, the objective of IATA is also implementing the security measures all over the world. The major focus of IATA is on the cargo industry as compare to passenger airports. Moreover IATA helps the TSA to formulate various security policies and implementing them all over the world(Min, Lim, & Park, 2013).
UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE
The mentioned organization is dealing with the security measures of postal services and air mails. In this case, TSA is again collaborating with the mentioned organization to make its security policies more effective. The current organizations also follow the policies made by the TSA and implement these policies with its own policies. In hence, the implantation of both policies makes the security measures very effective.
NON REGULATORY SECURITY BEST PRACTICES FOR AIR CARGO
To implement the security measures very effectively, it is compulsory to talented and skilled employees. The security officers must be trained to polish the skills. Moreover, the employees must be educated about the security measures and various security issues (Eng Leong, 2014).
Tenants and handling companies must ask the questions from every cargo carrier before the shipment of goods. The employees must do their jobs honestly and with full responsibility. It is compulsory that they must be active and available 24 hours.
Non employee issues are related with those persons who are not the customers of company. The persons who are not the employees of cargo service must be restricted to keep away from the sensitive and prohibited areas. The parking places are very sensitive in security aspects.
It is the responsibility of employees that they checked these places regularly and critically. The vehicles on the parking must be lineup and parallel to each other. Moreover, the parking places must be made away from the offices and cargo buildings.
IMPLICATIONS OF SECURITY FOR FACILITIES AND INFRASTRUCTURE
Airport is most important element of security. It gives a geographical place to implement the security measure. In hence, the implications of these security measures started from the airport. With the increasing security threats, it is compulsory to facilitate the airport through the implementation of security measures. The boundaries of airports must be secured and protected as well. Moreover, there must be proper lighting to meet the security needs for night (Mishulovich & Giovanniello, 2014).
After the airport, the crafts and cargo planes are most important component to secure. The incident of 9/11 was the result of security failure in both ways. However, it was the result of failure in air craft’s security. In hence, it is compulsory to check the aircrafts completely. The importance of craft security for the passengers craft is increased because human capital is more important as compare to other material capital.
After the craft security, the third important thing is gate security. It is compulsory that the gates of airport must be secured to secure all the things in the airport. The security of buildings in the airport is also related with the security of gate. In hence after airport and craft, the third important thing is gate in aspect of security(Michel, et al., 2014).
RECOMMENDED SECURITY GUIDELINES
Every year, TSA issued a set of specific securities according to the security threats. These TSA policies are basically recommendations from the security organizations. It is compulsory for all air companies operating in cargo sector to follow these recommendations. The policies of TSA are formulated with help of international security organization and US mail services. In hence, these security measures are very comprehensive and comparatively perfect for all organizations operating in cargo sector.
The policies of TSA are not only for cargo sector; rather these are for all air companies operating in cargo sector or passenger sector(Domingues, et al., 2014). Both sectors are facing the security problems in case of terrorism and other security threats. In hence, it is compulsory for both sectors to follow the policies formulated by TSA and other international security corporations to secure themselves.
With the increasing threats of cargo theft and terrorist activities, the cargo security has become a critical issue for cargo sector to be managed. TSA is organization that is responsible to formulate the security policies. Through the management of airports and airline companies, these security policies are implemented all over the world. US mail services is also responsible for the formulation of these security policies. The employees are very important to implement the security measures within the organization especially in cargo sector. The implementation of these policies is initiated from air ports. After airports, it is compulsory to secure the crafts and then gate of airport. The implications of policies formulated by TSA are important for all types of organizations operating in air sector.
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