BIOL 3021: Community and Ecosystem Ecology

| January 12, 2016

Order Details;

BIOL 3021: Community and Ecosystem Ecology 1

TRU Open Learning Hatcher, M. J., J. T. Dick, and A. M. Dunn. 2012.

Diverse effects of parasites in ecosystems: Linking interdependent processes. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10:186–194.

Questions

1. What is the goal of this review paper and why do the authors consider it important?

2. Referencing the text and Figure 1, explain how the keystone effects of parasitism can cause: a. apparent competition between host species b. coexistence between competitors c. top-down tropic cascades

3. Explain how parasites can potentially affect the stability of ecological communities.

4. Examine the conceptual model in Figure

5. Explain how differences in parasite transmission can have either positive or negative effects on the population densities of vulnerable hosts.

Baldwin, L. K., and G. E. Bradfield. 2007. Bryophyte responses to fragmentation in temperate coastal rain forests: a functional group approach. Biological Conservation 136:408–422

Questions

1. What three factors did the authors investigate in this study?

2. Summarize the design used for the two Salicornia experiments. Describe the predictor variables, including their treatment levels, response variables, and number of replicates used in each experiment. Explain how randomization was incorporated into the study. Provide a visual diagram of the experimental design.

3. The authors state that as marsh elevation increases, stress from flooding decreases, while stress from salinity increases. Did their results support this assertion? Which figures (number and letter) present the results for flooding (soil water logging) and salinity (soil water potential)?

4. The authors state that one potential problem with the transplant experiment is that transplanting itself may have an adverse effect. Did transplanting affect mortality? If yes, provide documentation from the paper. Did transplanting affect growth? If yes, provide documentation from the paper.

5. What evidence (cite relevant figures—number and letter) supports the author’s contention that competition with Salicornia limits Arthrocnemum in the high Salicornia zone? What evidence (cite relevant figures—number and letter) supports their contention that competition with Arthrocnemum limits Salicornia in the Arthrocnemum zone?

6. Do the authors support their contention that multiple factors, both physical stresses and interspecific competition, influence the zonation patterns observed in the salt marsh?

Questions

1. How was area controlled for in this study? Why was it so important to do this?

2. What two kinds of fragmentation effects can lead to species richness being correlated with patch size? Be specific.

3. Draw or sketch a representation of the field methods used in this paper. Be sure to represent all aspects of the sampling (i.e., replication, randomization, etc).

4. What was the overall experimental design used in this study?

5. Look at Table

. When all patches were included, what functional groups showed a significant association with patch size?

b. When the three smallest patches were excluded from the analysis, what functional groups showed a significant association with patch size?

c. Taken together, what does this information tell you?

Questions

1. What is the goal of this review paper and why do the authors consider it important?

2. Referencing the text and Figure 1, explain how the keystone effects of parasitism can cause:

a. apparent competition between host species

b. coexistence between competitors c. top-down trophic cascades

3. Explain how parasites can potentially affect the stability of ecological communities.

4. Examine the conceptual model in Figure

5. Explain how differences in parasite transmission can have either positive or negative effects on the population densities of vulnerable hosts.

 

Kimmerer, R. W. and T. F. H. Allen. 1982. The role of disturbance in the pattern of a riparian bryophyte community. American Midland Naturalist 107:370-383.

Questions

1. What hypothesis are the authors testing in this paper?

2. Describe the sampling design. What was the sample unit and what was its size. How were samples chosen and how many replicates were there?

3. Describe the spatial patterns that the authors observed in terms of elevation and patchiness.

4. The authors use graphical representations of their field data to assert that the distributions of Conocephalum and Fissidens are controlled by flood frequency. Explain the relationships between flood frequency, elevation, and species distributions as shown in Figures 1 and 3.

5. The authors contend that the patchiness of bare substrate and bryophyte diversity is related to flood magnitude. Explain the relationships between disturbance magnitude, mean patchiness, and species diversity as shown in Figures 4 and 6.

6. The authors contend that the spatial patterns that they observed are associated with flood disturbance. List two other potential influences on these patterns that the authors evaluated

Blair, R. B. 1996. Land use and avian species diversity along an urban gradient. Ecological Applications 6:506–519.

Questions

1. The author predicts that different bird species will respond differently to urbanization. What are the three response groups the author expects to find and how is each predicted to respond to urbanization?

2. Although not explicitly stated in the text, the author compared bird densities among sites using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Describe the experimental design of the ANOVA: what were the response and predictor variables, and treatment levels? Explain how the author used replication in both space and time.

3. The author presents data on bird densities within sites in both Table 1 and Figure 3. Which presentation do you find more interpretable and why? What information is common to both, what is unique to either one or the other? Could you limit the redundancy of these two presentations by combining them into one table or figure? If so, which would you choose and how would you lay it out?

4. The golf course had the highest bird species richness, density, and biomass (when Rock Doves were excluded from the analysis), and the second highest diversity (Figure 4). Summarize the author’s explanation for this result.

5. Based on the study results, briefly argue the pros and cons of golf courses as they relate to bird diversity and abundance.

Get a 5 % discount on an order above $ 150
Use the following coupon code :
2018DISC
Asset Classes
Operations Function in the Organization Structure

Tags:

Category: Essays

Our Services:
Order a customized paper today!