Assignment 1: LASA # 2: PowerPoint Presentation

| November 23, 2015

Assignment 1: LASA # 2: PowerPoint Presentation

Utilizing the information you compiled for your literature review paper, and the feedback you received from your instructor about the literature review, prepare a 10-15 minute Power Point presentation on your topic, summarizing the key points and conclusions. Be sure to direct this presentation to an audience in the community. For example, if your paper pertained to a topic in developmental psychology, direct your presentation toward parents, or a parenting center. If your topic pertained to substance abuse, direct it toward a community service agency which may use this information for educating teens or parents about preventing drug use, or current clients about treatments and facilities available. Please state in your presentation the specific audience toward whom your presentation is aimed. Include a reference page in APA format, as well as speaker notes and an audio file with your presentation.

Your slides should provide answers to the following questions:

  • What was your topic?
  • What question did you hope to answer by completing this literature review paper? Explain the practical implications of the conclusions of the literature review and the audience to which they are directed.
  • Given the results of your literature review, what is/are the prevailing argument(s)? In other words, which of those is supported by the existing evidence? Be sure to include full coverage of the arguments, including strengths and weaknesses of each of them, supported by your findings from reviewing the relevant articles.
  • Did the researchers consider multicultural factors in their studies? If not, what factors may be involved? What multicultural factors should future studies include?
  • What ethical issues are related to your topic and/or discussed in the studies you reviewed?
  • How do the conclusions of your literature review relate to the various specialization areas in psychology? Tie them to as many as apply from the following areas: biological, cognitive, developmental, social, personality theory, psychopathology, and applied psychology.
  • How can the conclusions of your literature review inform the population towards whom your presentation is directed? How can they apply this information to their daily lives? What advice or ‘take home message’ can you provide to your audience based on the research you reviewed?
  • What research question could you ask in order to further develop this area of study?
  • Why is your research question important and relevant to the current work being done on your topic?

Your presentation should also follow these guidelines:

  • It should be approximately 10-15 minutes in length.
  • It should be clear, concise, and professional.  Writing should be free of spelling and grammatical errors; it should conform to current APA style (including any in-text citations).
  • It should include graphs, tables, figures, or images illustrating your ideas.
  • There should be a final slide listing references in current APA style.
  • The bulk of the text should be placed in the Notes pages of each slide. Keep the amount of text on the slide, itself, to a minimum.
  • You should record an audio file of your oral presentation. You should also type the text of the speech you would give while showing these slides to an audience should be typed into the Notes area.  If you are unable to use the audio feature, the Notes text will suffice.
  • You can refer to the Power Point tips document provided in the Doc Sharing section of the course.

Submit your presentation to the M5: Assignment 1 Dropbox by Monday, November 23, 2015.

Assignment 1 Grading Criteria
Maximum Points
Describes topic and explains the practical implications of the conclusions of the literature review with clarity and detail.

Describes the audience to which the presentation is directed.

Revises the literature review based on feedback from the instructor.

Presentation of information is clearly focused on the specific audience.

Explains the prevailing argument(s), including their strengths and weaknesses, supported by findings from relevant articles.

Synthesizes key points established in and through the literature review.

Elaborates on multicultural factors relevant to the topic and to the studies reviewed.

Discusses how the findings can be extended to a more diverse population or additional multicultural factors that should be included in future studies.

Discusses relevant ethical issues related to the topic and to the studies reviewed.

Describes how they were or could be addressed in the research.

Relates the conclusions of the literature review to at least two specialization areas in psychology.
Applies the conclusions from the literature review to specific populations or issues.
Provides well-reasoned conclusions, and pointed towards areas for future research.

Provides suggestions for future work that are appropriate and have an applied focus.

Introduction has an opening, provides come background information, and states the topic.

Transitions between slides are present.

Design of presentation (i.e. background, pictures, text etc.) is clear, appropriate for the assignment, balanced and compliments both the writing and speaking throughout the presentation.
Any written portion (including writing on the slides and in notes) follows conventions of spelling and grammar throughout.  Errors are infrequent and do not interfere with comprehension.
Using APA format, accurately paraphrased, quoted, and cited in many spots throughout when appropriate or called for. Errors present are somewhat minor.








Drug Abuse in Pregnant Women

Student Name


This study is about the determinants of alcohol preference and drug abuse among the pregnant women. The research question is which factors contribute to this behavior among the pregnant women? The study will review several kinds of literature that have attempted to explore these characteristics of pregnant women and the contributing factors. The pieces of literature contribute evidence to support the research question. The study also seeks to look into the prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. These disorders in the fetus are caused by the consumption of alcohol by expectant women.

















The use of alcohol and abuse of drugs has been a social problem that researchers have strived to explain for decades of research. Unfortunately, this social issue has not been fully solved, and the new wave is culminating within pregnant women. This research will strive to articulate the fundamental factors that contribute to this behavior among women.

To establish a relevant context on which the basis of the study will be developed, it is important to review several literature that have contextualized the subject of this research. Each of the literature that will be considered in this section offers contributive evidence and support to the primary ideology that is the focus of this study.

Of particular concern to this research is the prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) that is explored in great depth by many researchers. These literature documents highlight the development of a fight against prenatal exposure to alcohol as a consequence of various impacts that consumption of alcohol during pregnancy has on the fetus.                    The literature material used covered in this review are related to the research topic and with a particular focus on the advocating against the consumption of alcohol by pregnant women. As a result of various factors that affect pregnancy and maternal health, research work explores the significance of embracing a physiological approach to both pregnancy and birth.

With its focus placed on the United States, research statistical data from hospital labor units to establish various mechanisms through which pregnancy and childbirth can be improved. This document does not provide a concrete contribution to this research, save for its emphasis on the importance of quality health during and after pregnancy.



The Review of Literature

Alcohol Intake by pregnant women

This literature helps in the characterization of alcohol consumption among pregnant women by known social constructs. This will help a larger audience to understand the difference between abuse and misuse of alcohol, especially among pregnant women. The addictive nature of alcohol has become a tremendous problem even for pregnant women. This research, besides exploring the factors that lead to alcohol consumption among pregnant women

This literature review helps in the characterization of alcohol consumption among pregnant women by known social constructs. This will help a larger audience to understand the difference between abuse and misuse of alcohol, especially among pregnant women.

The study explores the various ways through which this behavior can be improved or minimized. Women and other people with such problems can be helped. Some women, previously addicted to alcohol will find themselves taking alcohol even during pregnancy. The review offers an advanced and integrative step-wise process through which pregnant mothers can be helped to avoid alcohol consumption. The concept provides a very fundamental concept about the basic concept addressed in this research.

One of the primary objectives of this research is the development of an integrative solution that will help pregnant mothers reduce alcohol consumption as well as the usage of other drugs that affect maternal health. Nurses also play a vital role in this process of treatment. Nurses help pregnant women to control their health during pregnancy. However, it must be understood that the responsibility of health management is a multi-dimensional activity that requires efforts from the pregnant woman and the health practitioners.


Effects of the Alcohol Abuse by Pregnant Women

Spontaneous abortion is the death of the fetus before the twenty week pregnancy period. The clinically substantial losses of the fetus within this period occur among the 20 percent of all pregnancies (Kline et al. 1989). The consumption of alcohol by the pregnant women has been identified as one of the high-risk causes of this condition. Studies revealed that heavy drinking among these women had a direct relation with the increase in the cases of spontaneous abortions (Sokol 1980).

The pregnant moms who took at least one drink per day had more cases of the death of the fetus especially during the second trimester as compared to those who did not. The other group that consumed three drinks in a day had three times potential for experiencing spontaneous abortion as compared to the women who never took alcohol at all (Harlap and Shiono 1980).                    Stillbirth is the passing away of the fetus that have grown past the 20-month mark. The prevalence of this case is seen in the 6.22 of 1000 of pregnancies in the US (MacDorman et al. 2009). The women who consume alcohol are more likely to suffer from stillbirth as compared to those who have chosen to abstain from it. The risk of stillbirth is increased with the increased intake of alcohol (Marbury et al. 1983). For instance taking more than five drinks in a week increases the chances of suffering from this condition three times more. Study of a 600,000 births revealed a 40 percent increase in the potential for women who took alcohol to suffer from stillbirth as compared to those who did not (Aliyu et al. 2008).

Preterm births occur before the 37 periods of pregnancy. The relationship between this situation and the consumption of alcohol has been controversial due to original research conducted based on it (Martin et al. 2003). Many studies, however, suggest that alcohol has a role to play in this scenario. Consuming ten bottles of an alcoholic beverage has the potential of increasing this risk tenfold. Those who drink alcohol gave been found to experience the condition more than those who have chosen to refrain (Kesmodel et al. 2000).

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders is the major indicator of the effects of alcohol use by a pregnant woman. The frequency of consumption has the direct relation to the cases of FADS among the pregnant women. The research on the link between the alcohol consumption and the FADS is conducted using observation of the drinking patterns, questionnaires and testing of blood alcohol content.


Consumption of alcohol during pregnancy has been established to have varied, diverse effects on the well-being of the fetus. The FAS and FASD are the visible signs of the misuse of this substance by a pregnant mother. However, some effects are invisible even though they have enormous adverse impacts on the outcomes of the births. Some of these birth problems have been associated with the exposure to alcohol during the period of pregnancy.

The existing research has linked drinking by a pregnant woman to the high risks of preterm, miscarriages, SIDS, stillbirth FAS and FASD.  Animal and controlled human studies have been used to assess the structural and chemical alterations.

The results have suggested some physiological mechanisms in the relationship between alcohol and these conditions. Prenatal health care providers have a duty to address the use of alcohol by their patients. They have access to brief and reliable tools for screening the alcohol level. The most effective way, however, is to work with the women to control their appetite for alcohol.


The primary point this literature review is to address the fact that everything we consume in the name of drugs contains nutrient configurations that have different impacts on our health. Citing the emerging trend of over-reliance on prescription drugs (Boullanta and Armenti, 2010) highlights, through significant research data, the need to lessen such interactions.

Fundamentally, pregnant women are often in a critical period that requires a stable health condition. With the vague justifications that are often used to justify alcohol consumption, it is important for women to realize that such substances have both positive and negative implications.

Further research

Further research may be needed in these areas to establish deeper connections between the alcohol consumption and the birth complications. The further study should determine whether the birth problems are related to the biological effects lifestyle factors, sociodemographic factors; use of alcohol or if they occur as a result of the interaction between all these factors. The study should seek to determine the combination or synergistic effect.


Boullata, J. I., Armenti, V. T. (2010). Handbook of Drug-Nutrient Interactions. New York, NY:     Humana Press.

Martin, J.A.; Hamilton, B.E.; Sutton, P.D., Et Al. (2003) Births: Final Data for 2002. National      Vital Statistics Reports

Kesmodel, U.; Wisborg, K.; Olsen, S.F.; Et Al (2002) Moderate Alcohol Intake in Pregnancy and the Risk of Spontaneous Abortion. Alcohol and Alcoholism

Macdorman, M.F., Kirmeyer, S. F Etal (2009) and Perinatal Mortality, United States, 2005.           National Vital Statistics Reports

Marbury, M.C.; Linn, S.; Monson, R.; Et Al (1983) the Association of Alcohol Consumption          with Outcome of Pregnancy. American Journal of Public Health

Aliyu, M.H.; Wilson, R.E.; Zoorob, R.; Et Al (2008) Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy        and the Risk of Early Stillbirth among Singletons. Alcohol 

Kline, J; Stein, Z.; Susser, M (1989) Conception to Birth: Epidemiology of Prenatal                                    Development. New York: Oxford University Press

Harlap, S., Shiono, P.H (1980) Alcohol, Smoking, and Incidence of Spontaneous Abortions in         the First and Second Trimester. Lancet

Sokol, R.J (1980) Alcohol and Spontaneous Abortion. Lancet

May. A, Gossage. P (n.d) Maternal Risk Factors for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Not As      Simple as It Might Seem. National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.   


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