CHAPTER 1 STUDY PAGE

| June 10, 2016

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CHAPTER 1 STUDY PAGE

Use your text book to help answer the questions, put the page number you find any answers in (parentheses) next to the answer.

Read: Experience Psychology (2nd.). King, L.A. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2013.

ISBN 978-0-07-803534-0

 

THE HISTORY OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY—EVIDENCE HAS SHOWN THAT PEOPLE HAVE BEEN CURIOUS ABOUT—AND INTERESTED IN—HUMAN BEHAVIOR SINCE ANCIENT TIMES.

MODERN PSYCHOLOGY, HOWEVER, IS RELATIVELY YOUNG AS A SCIENCE (1879 Wilhelm Wundt’s lab at Leipzig, Germany.   THE APPROACH TO STUDYING BEHAVIOR WAS CALLED ‘STRUCTURALISM’; THE GOAL WAS TO STUDY THE ELEMENTS OF CONSCIOUSNESS.   HIS METHOD WAS ‘INTROSPECTION’.

IN THE U.S., PSYCHOLOGIST WILLIAM JAMES TOOK A MUCH DIFFERENT AND MORE PRACTIC AL APPROACH.  HE BELIEVED THAT PSYCHOLOGY SHOULD STUDY HOW BEHAVIOR FUNCTIONS FOR PEOPLE; THE APPROACH WAS CALLED FUNCTIONALISM.

IT IS IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND THE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE FRAMEWORK OF OUR STUDY.

IN ADDITION TO THE EARLY APPROACHES, IT IS IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND EACH OF THE PERSPECTIVES THAT ARE STILL WITH US TODAY.

THE MAJOR PERSPECTIVES IN PSYCHOLOGY –   NOT ALL PERSONS IN THE FIELD OF PSYCHOLOGY VIEW HUMAN BEHAVIOR IN THE SAME WAY; THERE ARE VARIOUS FRAMES OF REFERENCE

GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY – FOCUSED ON PERCEPTION AND SENSATION, IN PARTICULAR, THE PERCEPTION OF PATTERNS AND WHOLE FIGURES.

OTHERS PLACE GREAT EMPHASIS ON ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AS MAJOR INFLUENCE ON BEHAVIOR (THE BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE).  IT FOCUSES ON OBSERVABLE BEHAVIOR, CONSIDERS FACTORS IN THE ENVIRONMENT AND WHAT ONE LEARNS FROM THE ENVIRONMENT IN TERMS OF REWARDS (POSITIVE OUTCOMES) AND PUNISHMENTS (NEGATIVE OUTCOMES) AS BEING THE SIGNIFICANT.  LEADERS IN THE FIELD:  PAVLOV, WATSON, SKINNER

 

 

 

 

 

FOR EACH OF THE PERSPECTIVES BELOW, WRITE THE CORE BELIEFS AND THE NAMES ASSOCIATED WITH THE PERSPECTIVE:

PSYCHODYNAMIC –

 

 

HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE –

 

 

THE HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGISTS:

 

 

COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE –

 

 

SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE –

 

BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL MODEL –

 

EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE –

 

 

RESEARCH IN PSYCHOLOGY

SOMETIMES RESEARCHERS AND PSYCHOLOGISTS BASICALLY WANT TO DESCRIBE A BEHAVIOR;

THERE ARE VARIOUS METHODS OF GATHERING INFORMATION FOR THIS PURPOSE.

LIST AND BRIEFLY DESCRIBE THE DESCRIPTIVE METHODS OF GATHERING INFORMATION:

 

WHAT IS A CORRELATION?

 

WHAT DOES CORRELATION TELL RESEARCHERS ABOUT THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TWO FACTORS BEING STUDIED?

 

OTHER TIMES, PSYCHOLOGISTS AND RESEARCHERS WANT TO DETERMINE OR INVESTIGATE THE CAUSE OF A BEHAVIOR—THE CAUSE-EFFECT RELATIONSHIP; A DIFFERENT METHOD IS USED FOR DISCOVERING CAUSE-EFFECT.

CAUSE-EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS: WHAT METHOD OF RESEARCH IS USED TO DETERMINE THE CAUSE OF A BEHAVIOR?

 

WHAT IS AN INDEPENDENT VARIABLE?

 

WHAT IS THE DEPENDENT VARIABLE IN AN EXPERIMENT?

 

WHAT IS A CONTROL GROUP IN AN EXPERIMENT?

 

WHICH VARIABLE IS MANIPULATED BY THE RESEARCHER?

 

WHAT IS THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUP IN AN EXPERIMENT?

 

WHAT IS THE RESEARCHER REQUIRED TO TELL THE PARTICIPANT ABOUT THE RESEARCH?

CAN DECEPTION IN EXPERIMENT BE JUSTIFIED?  IF SO, UNDER WHAT CONDITIONS?

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